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Camus and Nagel Views on the Human Life – Philosophy Essay

Camus and Nagel Views on the Human Life – Philosophy Essay. The human life should be described as absurd in nature because of its fundamental meaninglessness. However, persons can discuss the absurdity of the life differently, depending on the philosophical principles followed in order to interpret and analyze such an important and controversial issue. According to the ideas of Albert Camus which are presented in The Myth of Sisyphus, a person always focuses on the life’s absurdity while facing the contradictions between the desired and observed worlds. The key is in the person’s choice related to how to cope with this issue. On the contrary, Thomas Nagel in his work “The Absurd” states that there are no real arguments to support the idea that the life is absurd, thus, there is no necessity to cope with such an illusory problem. From this point, it is necessary to describe the arguments proposed by two thinkers and analyze the origin of the conflicting ideas in detail. Although Camus and Nagel agree that absurdity plays the great role in the human life, the thinkers’ views are rather contradictory, and Nagel’s argument seems to be more convincing because the author focuses on the subjectivity of the person’s perception of the absurd life while stating that the roots of the absurd are in the individual’s inner world. While focusing on the argument proposed by Camus, it is necessary to note that absurdity related to the human life is in the conflict or contradiction between the persons’ desires and vision and the real world. From this perspective, the “divorce between man and his life, the actor and his setting, is properly the feeling of absurdity” (Camus par. 7). Understanding this contradiction, the person refers to the idea that the life is absurd and meaningless because the desired order cannot be achieved in the real world. At this stage, the person understands that the life is not only absurd but also meaningless, and that one of the choices is suicide. However, Camus argues that the person is proposed to choose from a range of other variants to cope with absurdity. The focus on the suicide is also absurd or illogical because it does not provide effective results, thus, the person becomes ruled by the absurd reasoning. That is why, the person who cannot accept absurdity and meaninglessness of the life chooses the variant to escape because “the absurdity of existence must then dictate his conduct” (Camus par. 8). As a result, the person chooses to live in the world where he or she is struggling, free, or passionate. The significance of this argument is in the fact that Camus states that a man is discussed as having the right of choice to adapt to the absurd life. In his turn, Nagel supports the idea that the absurdity of life is a rather questionable point because there are no obvious arguments to support this opinion. The life is absurd, but this absurdity does not support the view that the life is meaningless. Nagel notes that while discussing absurdity, the person should remember that it is only in the inner world. Thus, the absurdity of situations “derives not from a collision between our expectations and the world, but from a collision within ourselves” (Nagel 722). The importance of this idea is in the fact that the meaning of the human life cannot be discussed in the context of such notions as space and time because the focus on these elements to discuss the importance of the concrete life is not only provocative but also absurd. Nagel pays attention to the fact that a situation “is absurd when it includes a conspicuous discrepancy between pretension or aspiration and reality” (Nagel 718). Understanding that there is a conflict between the desire and reality, the person should focus on modifying the desire or aspiration. In his work “The Absurd”, Nagel provides direct objections to the views of Camus while focusing on the idea of the life’s absurdity and the premises of the argument supported by Camus. Opposing the view of Camus on the origins of the absurd, Nagel states that the person’s demand for the meaning in the life cannot provoke the changes in the world because significant changes should be stimulated in relation to the person’s inner world, perception, and vision of the situation (Nagel 722). The reason to provide the objection to the basic idea supported by Camus is in the fact that the person mostly relies on the personal vision of the problem of absurdity instead of thinking about the role of the universe. However, Camus can provide the rebuttal while accentuating the fact that the understanding of the contradiction between the desire and reality can influence the human life significantly because of pointing at the fact that the desired order, ideas, and rules cannot be achieved. That is why, the origin of the absurd is the contradiction which also leads to losing the meaning of life. Nagel can also focus on one more objection, while discussing the appropriateness of saying that the life is absurd and meaningless. Camus notes that the absurd life makes a person choose between struggling, feeling freedom, or acting passionately. Nagel ignores this choice because it is rather “useless to mutter: “Life is meaningless; life is meaningless…” as an accompaniment to everything we do” (Nagel 724). Nagel opposes focusing on the idea, but he supports the concentration on the actions to modify the situation and add more meaning to the human life. Both Nagel and Camus reject the idea of the suicide as the escape from the situation that is why the whole situation of suffering from the absurdity of the life is meaningless when the human life is full of sense and important things. In this situation, only a person can modify not only his or her perception but also the whole situation. While imagining the philosophical dialogue involving the thinkers, it is possible to note that Camus can focus on providing the rebuttal. According to Camus, a person should choose how to adapt to the absurdity not because of his or her inclination, but because of the fact that “this world is absurd” (Camus par. 39). Furthermore, “from the moment absurdity is recognized, it becomes a passion, the most harrowing of all” (Camus par. 41). That is why, according to Camus, the life is discussed as meaningless only because it is meaningless in itself, and revolt, freedom, and passion are the reasonable people’s choices to survive in the absurd world. Having analyzed the positions proposed by Camus and Nagel, it is possible to note that Nagel’s idea is more convincing because the author refers to the role of the individual in discussing the absurdity of the life when Camus focuses on the absurd as the stated fact which is supported with the examples for the people’s considerations about the struggle, revolt, freedom, and passion. Camus does not provide the person with a chance to decide whether the life is meaningless or not. The thinker rejects the idea of the suicide, but the other proposed variants to think about the situation are also non-persuasive. On the contrary, Nagel’s objections seem to be reasonable, and the arguments provided by the thinker are more convincing in comparison with the ideas proposed by Camus (Nagel 727). According to Nagel, the life is absurd, but not because of the universe laws, but because of the person’s actions which should be discussed here and now instead of focusing on the large time and space perspective. In their works, Albert Camus and Thomas Nagel discuss the same idea of the absurd in the human life. However, in spite of the similar topic for the discussion, the authors’ approaches to revealing the arguments are rather different because in The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus presents the idea of the absurd reasoning and states the role of the contradiction to describe the human life as meaningless. Nagel chooses the opposite position because he does not agree with the fact that the life is absurd in all the situations. Nagel’s position is more convincing because he notes that the person has the right to modify his or her life in order to cope with the absurdity in a way. Thus, the universal contradiction affects the person’s vision of the life’s meaning and absurd only indirectly, while providing a lot of opportunities for an individual to choose the situation. Works Cited Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus: An Absurd Reasoning. n.d. Nagel, Thomas. “The Absurd”. The Journal of Philosophy 68.20 (1971): 716-727. Print. Camus and Nagel Views on the Human Life – Philosophy Essay
Assessment. I’m working on a Law exercise and need support.

Answer the following questions in a Microsoft® Word document.
Essay 1 (175 to 350 words)

How would you now define organized crime? Discuss concepts, theories, and other information that you now understand concerning organized crime. Which have been the most interesting to you?
Do you believe your knowledge of organized crime will be useful in your current career or the one you intend to pursue after college? Why or why not?

Essay 2 (175 to 350 words)
The Bill of Rights, which is the first 10 Amendments of the Constitution, and the Constitution as a whole do two very important things: They set out the rights of the citizens and also limit the authority of government. The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments to the Constitution in particular limit the authority of government in the lives of U.S. citizens. The authority of government/law enforcement is additionally limited in court decisions interpreting Constitutional protections, such as Miranda v. Arizona. Jurisdiction and the statute of limitations further limit the reach of law enforcement.
Choose two of the above legal limitations. Discuss how these legal limitations affect law enforcement efforts to combat organized crime. Provide realistic examples. What would happen if these limitations were more or less stringent? Explain your answers.
Essay 3 (175 to 350 words)
A variety of statutes have been enacted to fight organized crime at the federal level, such as RICO, which is a part of the Crime Control Act of 1970. Other statutes are designed to “follow the money,” such as the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 and the Money Laundering Control Act of 1986, in order to obtain needed evidence against organized crime groups. There are many and various other federal laws that have been enacted to fight organized crime or enacted for another purpose but are being used to combat organized crime, such as the Patriot Act.
Answer the following questions:

What is an example of a federal law that combats organized crime?
How does this law apply to domestic or international organized crime groups?
Has this law been codified into the state laws in your state? In what way?
How may we improve major federal laws and strategies to combat organized crime? Explain your answer.

Essay 4 (175 to 350 words)
There is no national police force in the United States. However, there are multiple federal agencies that act to combat various types of criminal activity, including organized crime. These agencies fall under the larger umbrella of government departments. For example, the FBI operates under the Department of Justice and Customs and Border Protection operates under the Department of Homeland Security.
Choose one federal agency that interests you and discuss the history of this organization. Answer the following questions:

What are the major functions and goals of this agency?
How does this agency operate in the fight against organized crime?
What training, experience, or education must one have to become a part of this agency?
Would you ever consider joining this agency? Why or why not?

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Submit your assignment.
Assessment

Management in Agency Volunteer Services Case Study

Analysis of AVS shift from providing social service to fostering civil society development and factors that contributed to the shift Change of Leadership Styles Agency for Volunteer Service (AVS) experienced a temporary management catastrophe in 1997, when the executive director passed on. It was not clear who would be the immediate successor. Managerial styles were a major blow to AVS. A good example was the tenure of office by Mr Frederick Lee Jr. His style of leadership was centralized and remained unchanged throughout the seven years he was in office (Wong and Chan, 2007, p.2). A panel of management committee members was required to make most of the major decisions, but the CEO made all resolutions independently. The committee was thus just a formal body, whose roles were honorary as opposed to administrative. The executive director was thus the epicentre for the years he was in office. His demise was a sudden call for change on the management’s structure as well as managerial style at AVS. Nobody was ready to take over because the previous regime had no procedures of delegating duties. The board of directors had to take over management, assign directorship and find ways of organizing administration. Change of Donors’ Support As a non-governmental organization, AVS was dependent on the government’s social welfare department as their main sponsor. The department was a major benefactor with over 80% of AVS funds. The department however shifted goals in year 2000 to become a home affairs bureau. Considering that, the department was the main donor, AVS’s Commitment thus changed from social services to align with the bureau’s role of nurturing development of the civil society. This translated to change of management strategies to cater for bureau responsibilities. According to Wong and Chan (2007, p.9), the organization had to change its operation strategies. The government was considering community development, achieved through empowering the society as opposed to the reactive model of delivering social services to the needy. The government was ready to work side-by-side with the organization; therefore, AVS had to change its operation strategies to fit the new needs of the bureau. “International Year of Volunteers” The NGO also faced new challenges due the strategic review of 2001, which saw the organization engage new vision of establishing competence and partnership to promote sustainable development through volunteerism campaigns (Wong and Chan, 2007, p.9). Change of organization strategies was eminent during the campaigns in order to improve service quality for volunteers internationally. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization required a plan to come up with a public study over perception and reception of the volunteering services. The organization also needed to ensure that new services were in line with the overall objectives, mission and vision of the government (sponsors). This meant that AVS had to change the overall values at the managerial level to measure up with the new requirements and objectives of the government bureau. Although the operational level would remain practically the same, the management would need clear directives for long-term survival in the civil society. Role of Management There was also need to have a clear difference and categorization between role of the management and board of directors. This would assist the organization avoid a situation like what had happened earlier, when the CEO passed on. The two units were the core service bodies of the organization and a clear administrative procedure would translate to improved efficiency and effectiveness. Financial resources were becoming more limited therefore the organization needed officials who were competent enough to manage through implementation of cost-effective measures. They would also keenly work in line with government policies to avoid uncertainties that would negatively affect funding. The staffs were concern over job insecurity and this meant the management had to strategically redefine and address all apprehensions afresh. Reasons Why AVS engaged transformation in the aim of implementing a Strategic Vision There were needs for the management to review its work strategies and plan by implementing a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis (Wong and Chan, 2007, p.8). In line with Wong and Chan (2007, p.8), a three-year strategic plan, vision and mission of the organization were re-established. Some of the highlighted aspects included procedures of enforcing a people-oriented volunteering initiative by proactively encouraging potential volunteers. Secondly, the managerial paradigm shift would address citizen’s involvement in volunteering as a key future strategy of empowering the society. Thirdly, the organization would need to enforce a global participation initiative to facilitate transfer of skills, technology and mutual coordination among potential volunteers. We will write a custom Case Study on Management in Agency Volunteer Services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More AVS had to strategize on ways of fighting individualism by enriching volunteering through participation in practical activities such as culture, health and environment. Lastly, the organization had to enforce productivity through implementation of new information technology for instance the web-based volunteering initiative. AVS needed to focus mostly on the importance of collaborating with diverse sectors, mobilize and facilitate superiority services. There was also need to proactively educate the society and encourage participation in promotion of sustainable development. Secondly, the limited budget of AVS meant that the organization had to scale down and focus on ensuring perfection, to promote quality-volunteering services. The organization also focused on fulfilment of its mission and through the 30-years’ experience, decided to pursue the vision of finding more global strategic partners. In line with Wong and Chan, the internationally designated year of volunteers (2001) instigated networking, promotion, facilitation and recognition as the key elements for better service delivery (Spector, p.68). Notably, AVS needed to recruit qualified professionals for international assignments especially at transnational levels, especially in developing countries. Competencies Demonstrated by AVS Management in Facilitation of Organization Transformation AVS engaged partnership with various agencies including the private sectors for instance the Crystal Group, which funded the volunteering program in China (Wong and Chan, p.10). The new management comprising of Board of managers provided a recruitment procedure for the managerial level employees. Competent managers were required to cater for international duties especially in developing countries. It was professional for them to search beyond the traditional societies, and develop contacts in cultural, health and educational sector. Beside the environmental and initial managerial challenges, the ability to budget for limited resources and effectively deliver services demonstrated the organization’s competence. The self-sufficiency of the organization particularly after the government funds decreased from 80% in 1970s-1980s to 30% in 2000 indicated improved managerial competence especially on financial management (Wong and Chan p.8). Analysis of government budgetary allocations between 1999 and 2004 indicated that the organization was departing from being full dependent on government provisions (Wong and Chan p.8). AVS management decided executive committee members could not play an honorary role like the previous board, but be more active, visible in performance and accountable. The board would thus oversee the managerial duties. The competence of the management was visible when they were keen on acquisition of resources through lobbying for funds to establish potential partnerships. Not sure if you can write a paper on Management in Agency Volunteer Services by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More arious special initiatives were also eminent, for instance the “study on volunteering service in 2001” (Wong and Chan, p.9). The management had established a volunteering service plan, which was a 3-year strategic review plan among other future development plans. The program was in place by 2001(Wong and Chan, p.17). Influences of the NGO Environment on Managerial Procedures of Handling Change The environmental or structural setup of non-governmental organizations varies considerably. The current advancement of information and communication technology influences formation of community/locally-based NGOs that are active at national and international levels. The organizations are social forums formed within a civil society. The society on the other hand works in partnership with the government and private sectors. The government therefore has influence over organizations through civil societies. Organizations play an amicable role of strengthening and establishing civil societies especially in remote areas. Although formed as collaborating entities, the credibility of NGOs depends on independence. There is great influence on NGOs by the government due to funding, especially when the organization is highly dependent on such funds for instance the AVS case analysis in the 1980s and 1990s (Wong and Chan, p.11). The governments tend to influence organisations towards their political favours such as promoting regime policies. The emergence of ‘government owned NGOs’ abbreviated ‘GONGO’ thus emanates from such environments, where there are high government influences. An authoritarian social environment also has great influence over the way the organization handles changes. The organizations have financial difficulties when they act independently and the society may fails to recognize or acknowledge such an NGO, unless when based on a very strong social environment. NGOs dealing with humanitarian and development relief also face the challenge of establishing and sourcing more resources to run their operations. Considering the challenges, most of such organizations readily accept official government funding and weaken their influential powers, due to the controls established by the governments through the funds. The case study of AVS is a clear indication of how the government was influential at the initial stages. During the shift of focus from social service to civil society bureau, AVS had to transform and be in line with the funders. However, the organization improved and becomes more independent over the years of experience. Managerial competence and actions are the main influences of transformation in an NGO. There is great and constant transformation of organization environments especially the role and activities undertaken to lobby for funds. The role of the management is ever changing and thus technical expertise is increasingly becoming vital. The change of the work environment thus increases workloads and responsibilities. Change requires managers, board of directors or supervisors to understand the complexity of a workforce. The working environment directly determines the area of coverage, particularly the attitude and behaviour of volunteers and performance of the management. Conclusion The working environment also assists in defining human behaviour in relation to volunteering. Transparency of operations and managerial commitment to work in accordance with the set rules, vision, mission and goals helps to establish the work environment. Stakeholders especially the benefactors therefore cannot easily influence a work environment that is free from chances of venality. References Spector, B 2009, Implementing Organizational Change: Theory into Practice, 2nd ed, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Wong, G., and Chan, J 2007, Organizational Transformation: Agency for Volunteer Service, Asia Case Research Centre. Hong Kong, China.

Strategy management for Glaxo Smith Kline

essay order INTRODUCTION: GlaxoSmithKline, a very well known global corporation in the United States [its base] and in the UK [its headquarters] is targeting towards a successful expansion goal .GlaxoSmithKline started the mission — to the improvement of human life by making people feel better, live a longer life and do much more than they did. And this is executed through their different planning and programs related to further development and research. It laid its foundation late back in 1715, under the name of Plough Court Pharmacy in London, which gradually got transformed itself into a global presence with the help of powerful strategic actions over years, presenting us —- GlaxoSmithKline. ABOUT: The Burroughs Wellcome and Company laid its foundation in London in 1880 with the help of American pharmacists Henry Wellcome and Silas Burroughs. The Welcome Tropical Research Laboratories was first founded in the 1904.Wellcome company bought McDougall, Robertson and cooper Inc in 1959, which opened doors towards animal health. In 1970, the company production centre was shifted from New York to North Carolina and a new research centre was built the very next year. In the year 1904, Glaxo was settled in Bunnythorpe in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand’s North Island. Originally it dealt with the processing and manufacturing of milk into food for infants under its name. Glaxo turned into Glaxo Laboratories with a further new centre in London [1935]. During 1947 and 1958, it bought two more companies, namely Joseph Nathan and Allex

Analysing Of One Art By Elizabeth Bishop English Literature Essay

“One Art” by Elizabeth Bishop is a villanelle. Bishop writes about the pain of losing a beloved and how to deal with this loss. Bishop uses her life experience maybe to persuade herself or the reader but she has difficulties to convince herself that separation is a disaster. This is why in this poem Bishop creates a new art by claiming that writing and losing are one art. Because of this intent, losing the things is “no disaster”. But the repetitive structure of the villanelle gives the effect of the difficulty of losing important things. This poem is a villanelle but Bishop does not follow the traditional villanelle. The use of same repetitive words as “lost”(10), “last” (10), influences the tone of the poem. Bishop only changes the beginning of the villanelle but holds the end using the word “disaster” or “master”. She uses these words but does not take them to start the line. When she changes the beginning of the villanelle, the situation she talks about before seems to make a good effect to the poem as for instance: “Loss something every day. Accept the fluster” (4) or “Then practice losing farther, losing faster” (7). Indeed, when she compares the loss of her beloved with banal objects such as the loss of “door keys” (5), her “mother watch” (10), it is to reassure herself and to convince herself it is possible to master the loss of things. When she repeats “The art of losing isn’t hard to master” (6,12), she is making an effort to gain this control. She is persuaded to have the control over the loss of material things but not only over material stuff but also maybe over human being such as someone she loved. At the end of the poem the speaker has been addressing a lost lover. She has lost someone and this person is gone. When she repeats the words “master” and “disaster”, they finally don’t have the same meaning as in the other stanza: “The art of losing’s not too hard to master/though it may look like (Write it) like disaster” (18-19), Bishop admits it is not possible to control some losses. She faces the fact that losing a beloved is disastrous. Effectively, the repetition of the word “like” in form of the poem gives the idea that the there is an impossible control of the disaster, when looking at rhymes. It is through this impossible control it is possible to show the difficulty of losing important things. When looking at rhymes, in the first stanza and the other stanza the words “master” (1) and “disaster” (3) rhyme. The rhyme could show the difficulty of control over disaster because at the end there is a disaster. In the second stanza, “fluster” (4) and master (6) also rhyme. Moreover, the strength of the word “master” is weakened by the words it rhymes with. That shows the idea of a difficult control on disaster. Furthermore, in the third stanza, the two rhymes “faster” (7) and “vaster” (13), give an uncontrollable and immeasurable dimension to the word disaster in the last line. Bishop is trying hard to convince herself that losing a beloved is no disaster by remembering past losses that she mastered. Moreover, the reality catches her up, it is a disaster. Before repeating the word disaster in the fourth stanza, Bishop talks about the loss two cities. She is speaking figuratively because the loss of a city is a minor thing. A city is not really easy to lose. She does not have a relation with these places but with the art of losing she thinks that the pain of losing can be diminished. The repetitive structure of the villanelle repetition allows to show that Bishop tries to believe that the art of losing is not painful, especially because the things she says she lost are material or superficial like: “houses” (11), “names” (8), “places” (8) but those things do not seem affect her because she says: “None of these will bring disaster” (9). Bishop’s intention is optimistic, she uses futile things to explain that the loss of a beloved is not so horrible but finally she realizes that it is a disaster. She is somehow a guide for the reader. She tries to teach him to adopt a certain behavior to more easily accept the loss. With the closer repetition in the poem it is possible to see the difficulty of losing things, especially a beloved. She lists at the end what she has personally in lost: “Even losing you (the joking voice, a gesture /I love) I shan’t have lied. It’s evident” (16-17). In fact, loss shows to be a total disaster for her. The repetitive structure of the villanelle shows the difficulty of losing important things when she repeats the same words again and again. The words reflect on the meaning of the whole poem especially the words “master” and “disaster”. The repetitions throughout the poem of “the art of losing isn’t hard to master” and “loss is no disaster” show that Bishop has the conviction that losses are not insurmountable. The regularity of these two verses: “the art of losing isn’t hard to master” and “loss is no disaster” demonstrates that the more she repeats them, the more losses become insignificant and forgotten. Then the tone becomes increasingly intimate over the poem and the losses more and more important; the difficulty of losing important things is stronger. In this poem the repetition of words is essential to understand the state of mind of Bishop. The way she uses the same rhymes can see how she is devastated by the loss of her beloved. By using the non-traditional villanelle, she tries to use different ways to explain what a loss is in order to reassure herself. She realizes only at the end of the poem that everything she lost before is insignificant compared to the loss of a beloved. By modifying the villanelle she shows that she is not enough sure about her statement to assume its strict and formal form. The fact that the beginning of the villanelle is never the same shows her mind’s confused state. Moreover, when she expresses her feelings about a more intimate and sensible subject, she realizes that among the cited losses, there are different degrees of importance that do not allow her to keep the strictness of the usual form and this has an effect on the difficulty of losing things.

PHIL 121 Binghamton University Tetralogue Short Paper Arguments Analytical Review

PHIL 121 Binghamton University Tetralogue Short Paper Arguments Analytical Review.

Task: Write a short (2-3 pages) paper analyzing an argument from Tetralogue, using
the tools we have mastered in this course. Select one of the passages below, or one of
your choosing, and write a paper in which you explain the context of the argument
within the work, distill, diagram, and analyze the argument, and evaluate the argument
for validity, soundness, logical strength, and the like. Here are the elements of the paper: 1. An introductory paragraph introducing the topic discussed in your passage (e.g.
moral relativism, fallibilism, dogmatism, human knowledge, relativism, the
reliability of moral judgments) a concise statement of the argument’s conclusion,
and a statement of your evaluation of the argument (basically, the respect in
which you think it is a good or bad argument). 2. A paragraph which motivates the topic and defines the key terms and views for
the argument under discussion. (For example, you may explain what relativism is
and some reasons to accept or reject it.) This does not need to be long, but you do
want your reader to understand the argument and its significance. 3. Distill and diagram the argument, in the manner that we studied in AOR. (You
may want to consult the handouts on diagramming arguments in chapter 4,
fallacies in chapter 5, as well as the handouts on chs. 12 and 13) (Remember,
distill means: identify the premises and conclusions, identify hidden premises,
screen out for noise, make linguistic adjustments, etc. then write out the
argument for the diagram.) 4. Analyze the argument. Be sure to identify what kind of argument it is (deductive
or inductive, analogical, categorical syllogism, propositional, etc.) and how the
premises are related and support the conclusion. (This can be done in a few
sentences. Classify the argument and explain how it is supposed to work.) 5. Evaluate the argument. Is it convincing? Does it commit a fallacy? Are the
premises true? This does not need to be long either, but should concisely offer an
evaluation of the argument in terms of its logical strengths and weaknesses. The Fine Print. Your paper should be 12 pt. font, one inch margins, double spaced. It
should be approximately three pages (~800words). The exact length will depend on
how you incorporate the diagram into your paper. You are free to do this whatever way
you find easiest. (e.g. you can draw it and scan it and append it to your paper or you can
include it in the word or pdf document). There is no narrow word maximum or
minimum, you just want to be sure to include all of the required elements. Grading: You will be graded on your inclusion of the required elements of the paper (1-5
above), the clarity of the writing, and the accuracy of your diagram and analysis.Arguments to distill, diagram, analyze, and evaluate: 1. “Every single thing we think, we are physically and psychologically capable of
thinking when it is false. Although I think this is my train, I am physically and
psychologically capable of thinking it’s my train when in fact it isn’t.” (p. 82) 2. “Anyway, my analogy between decision-making and science still holds. We aren’t
completely incompetent at deciding what is to be done, which depends on our
moral beliefs, so it’s very improbable that they’re hopelessly false.” (p. 148) 3. “If a human claims to know something, I can demand proof. If they can’t produce
one, I reject the knowledge claim. Humans can be expected to meet the demand
for proof, since they understand the challenge. Dogs don’t, so they can’t be
expected to meet it.” (91) 4. “Since the number is either odd or even, it is either true that the number is odd or
true that it is even. Therefore, something is true but not certain. Either ‘The
number of coins now on the train is odd’ is an example of truth without certainty,
or ‘The number of coins now on the train is even’ is. We know that one of those
two sentences is an example, although we are not in a position to know which of
them it is. Zac was incorrect in claiming that truth implies certainty.” (52)
PHIL 121 Binghamton University Tetralogue Short Paper Arguments Analytical Review