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California College San Diego Different Scenarios that spot legal issues Case Study

California College San Diego Different Scenarios that spot legal issues Case Study.

Your assignment is to watch the following clip from the classic 80’s film “Moving” starring Richard Pryor: In the world of this assignment, you are an attorney who represents the character played by Pryor (Arlo Pear). He, along with his family, just arrived at their newly purchased home in a different state and he is hopping mad. He calls you and wants to sue the Seller for money damages. The client requests that you identify any and all civil claims he may have against the Seller. Please also identify the specific court in which you would file the civil lawsuit. In addition, identify any and all damages the client may have and how those damages would be classified. For the purposes of this assignment, the Purchase Agreement executed between Buyer and Seller excluded all personal property from the sale of the real property. Also, San Diego County is both the location of the subject real property and the venue where the contract was executed. The assignment has (3) components:1. Spotting the potential legal issues by watching the movie2. Researching the potential legal issuesa. Researching cases / common law from textbookb. Researching statutory laws / rules from textbookc. Your research does not need to expound beyond that of the textbook3. Drafting your memo to the clienta. In drafting your memo, please remember to fully articulate each potential legal claim using the IRAC format: (1) Identify the legal issue; 2) state the applicable Rule (law); 3) Apply the law to the facts of the case; 4) state a Conclusion). b. Please also remember to use correct citation for every case or statutory law you use in your memo.c. Identify all potential legal issues that the client would expect you to address. Therefore, even if it’s a losing argument or an invalid claim, you will need to inform your client as to why its not an actionable civil claim. The assignment will be graded based on the following:1. The number of legal issues identified2. Applying the correct law to the facts of this case3. The completeness of your memo using the IRAC formatThis assignment may cover any material covered to date but clearly there is an emphasis on contracts generally; contracts concerning real property; and fixtures. Have fun!
California College San Diego Different Scenarios that spot legal issues Case Study

Psychology homework help. Living in South Florida has many advantages and also includes many disadvantages, including the persistent threat from hurricanes (link). From what you have learned from this class:,Living in South Florida has many advantages and also includes,Living in South Florida has many advantages and also includes many disadvantages, including the persistent threat from hurricanes (link). From what you have learned from this class:,What causes hurricanes? What destroys hurricanes?,What are scientists saying about the link of climate change and hurricane activity?,With regards to our growing population, especially along the cost, why are we especially prone to huge losses when a hurricane hits?,With ,regards, to hurricanes and South Florida, if you were in a position to grant or deny building permits, what would be your chief concern when assessing these permits?,Make sure to:, Write a short essay or paragraph of at least 300 words., Use concrete examples/details and avoid generalities., Address all questions., Use proper grammar and punctuation., If you researched your topic and are using information from what you learned, remember to cite your sources., Include at least 2 references in your discussion and cite your sources., Do not plagiarize., You will not be able to edit your assignment once you post, so please proofread and spell check before hitting post!, As part of the assignment, you must also reply to ONE of your classmates with at least 150 words. You will have to POST FIRST to see your classmates’ postings. Make sure your replies are thoughtful and relevant to what your classmate has posted. Try to build the discussion and keep it going.,More details;,How does hurricanes affect Florida?,Hurricanes are large, swirling tropical storms that develop over warm ocean water. Hurricanes affecting Florida usually form in the Atlantic Ocean from June to November when the trade winds are able to carry them west or northwest at a speed of 10 to 15 miles per hour (NOAA 2017a)., , ,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Psychology homework help
Netflix Abstract, Annotated Outline, Annotated Bibliography.

For this assessment, create an abstract, annotated outline, and
annotated bibliography. Compile your assessment into a single,
well-organized file that includes the following three pieces:Abstract: Begin with a 200–300 word preliminary
abstract of your capstone project. Remember that an abstract should
summarize the main points in your paper, not just introduce it. Your
abstract may change as you finalize your project, but for this
assessment you should have a well-written draft of your abstract. Refer
to the Abstracts document, linked in the Resources, for more information
on writing an abstract.Annotated Outline: An annotated outline is a
document that outlines the main sections your paper will have. Your
outline must include an introduction and conclusion and at least four
other headings in between. In addition, each of those four headings must
have at least two sub-points and one quotation from a source that you
might use for support, in full APA format. Refer to the Developing an
Annotated Outline document, linked in the Resources, for more
information on annotated outlines.Annotated Bibliography: An annotated bibliography
is a way of collecting a list of sources that you intend to use in your
paper and summarizing them. List each source in full APA format, and
provide a summary (written in your own words, not a quotation) of 2–4
sentences. Then, for each source explain in an additional 2–4 sentences
why the source is important and how you might use it to support your
project. You must have at least 10 annotated references, including
annotations for all sources that you used in the annotated outline.
Refer to the Annotated Bibliography presentation, linked in the
Resources, for more information on creating an annotated bibliography.Additional RequirementsWritten communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.Number of resources: Minimum of 10 resources.Length of paper: 3–6 typed, double-spaced pages.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Netflix Abstract, Annotated Outline, Annotated Bibliography

COMM 103 San Diego State University Persuasive Speech Discussion.

-It is a Persuasive Speech Outline. – The topic is about what age should children be allowed to have a cell phone.-This outline has THREE main points and should follow the stock issue format of A. Problem, B. Causes/barriers, and C)Solutions. Under solutions you will need to provide your action step. -It is a 7-8-minute speech. So, the main points of the outline has to have a lot of information. -A minimum of 6 references must be cited in the outline. The sources can be websites, magazines, academic /science journals, books, and newspapers. You cannot use Wikipedia or as 1 of your sources. A list of your references will be turned in APA format with your outline.
COMM 103 San Diego State University Persuasive Speech Discussion

The Structure Of Protein P53 Biology Essay

The Structure Of Protein P53 Biology Essay. Protein p53, encoded by gene Tp53, is known as a tumor suppressor. Discovered in 1979 as a transformation-related protein (DeLeo et al., 1979) and protein which accumulates in the tumor cells binding with simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigens (Lane et al., 1979), p53 was regarded as an important protein in the regulation of an apoptosis and cancerization. During the last 30 years, a large amount of studies was taken in p53 and its related mechanisms in cellular process. In 1980s, researchers cloned the Tp53 gene and determined the role of p53 as a tumor suppressor. However, the structure of p53 protein was uncertain until 2006, in which William and his colleagues determined the DNA binding core domain of protein p53 (William. C. Ho. et al., 2006). Plenty of researches focus on the regulatory mechanism of p53 and hundreds types of targets and regulators of p53 were found, e.g. MDM2, Cyclin H, ATR, ATM, etc. These molecules can interact with p53 and regulate the life process collectively. P53 plays a very crucial role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis induction, the mutation of p53 would lead to the cancerization in cells and induce cancer. Bai and Zhu (2006) reported that the mutation or loss of p53 gene and protein can be found in over 50% of tumor cells in human all around the world. For these reasons, the application of cancer therapy through protein p53 and Tp53 gene is a very potential aspect in cancer treatment. This review will describe the structure and function of p53 protein, examine its role in natural and tumor cells and focus on the cancer therapy application through p53. The Structure of P53 Human protein p53 is a 53KDa phosphoprotein encoded by a 20Kb-gene; it has an intricate structure which is closely related to its function. Wild-type P53 protein contains five major domains. The N-terminus of p53 is a transcription-activation domain (TAD), with a major one at residues 1-42 and a minor one at residues 55-75 (Venot et al., 1998). The basic function of this domain is involvement in the regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription. Following the TAD is a proline-rich region which plays an important role in apoptotic activities. The central core of p53 protein is a DNA binding domain which can bind and interact with special DNA sequence that contain 2 copies of 10bp motif 5′-PuPuPuC(A/T)-(T/A)GPyPyPy-3′ (Kern et al., 1991). This region is also responsible for binding with LMO3, which is an essential co-repressor of p53 (Larsen et al., 2010). A nuclear localization signaling domain (NLS) is located beside the C-terminus of central core. The C-terminus domain of p53 protein, called negative regulatory domain is involved in the down regulation of DNA binding in central core (Chen, et al., 2005), and is also an essential part for the induction of cell death. A homo-oligomerisation domain (OD) located between the negative regulatory domain and NLS. This part is involved in tetramerization, which is a main activity for p53 in vivo. The different domains of p53 protein have their functions respectively, nevertheless, they constitute an inseparable entirety to play the role as a tumor suppressor. The function of p53 As a cancer suppressor, the main function of p53 is the anticancer function. P53 plays a vital role in apoptosis, gene stability and DNA damage through a series of complex mechanisms. First, p53 can respond to DNA damage through activating the DNA repair protein. For example, upon DNA damage, p53 gets activated and initiates the transcription of repair protein XPC and DDB2. The complex of p53-XPC-DDB2 can repair the DNA damaged by UV (Adimoolam and Ford, 2003). In addition, p53 can arrest the cell cycle at S, G1, and G2 phase (Agarwal et al., 1995), which can provide sufficient time for proteins repair to fix the damaged DNA. Induction of apoptosis, the programmed cell death, is also the essential and most important anti-cancer function of p53. If DNA damage is irreparable, p53 can activate the expression of pro-apoptosis genes like p21, Gadd45 (growth arrest and DNA-damageinducible protein 45), Bcl-2 family, etc. Moreover, p53 can bind and interact with hundreds of protein to regulate the cellular process and apoptosis. P53 can also restrain the cell cycle by repressing the expression of genes include bcl-2, bcl-X, cyclin B1, MAP4 and survivin (Bai and Zhu, 2006). The physiological functions of p53 are to maintain the genetic stability and regulate the normal cell cycle through a complex regulatory network. The mutation of Tp53 gene would lead to the loss of function of p53 protein, resulting in a cellular canceration. Consequently, the essential function of p53 is preventing the cancerization of cells by repairing genes or inducing apoptosis, in order to achieve these function, p53 can interact with a number of downstream targets. The Regulation in P53 Level A large amount of cellular response and process is induced by p53 through a series of complex biochemical mechanisms. P53 achieves its function through activating, binding, interacting with myriad kinds of downstream target molecules including kinase, enzymes, etc. Generally, p53 interacts with its target by phosphorylation of transcription-activation domain in N-terminus. The most well-known target of p53 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) p21. P53 would initiate the transcription and transduction of p21 in response to cellular stress, p21 is necessary in G1 control, the increase of p21 arrest the cell growth and induce cell death (Yin, et al., 1999). P53 and p21 contribute to a cell-cycle check point in G1 phase. The damaged genes would not be allowed to express until they are repair. If most damaged genes cannot be repaired, the accumulation of p21 regulated by p53 would induce apoptosis. Another important target of p53 is MDM2 (also called HDM2 in human body). MDM2 is a p53 inducible gene and its product can bind and interact with p53. The product of MDM2 gene, called p90 or p95, can bind with p53 and combine with ubiquitinate which can induce the degradation of p53 (Buschmann, et al., 2000). MDM2 is the killer of p53 which can keep the amount of p53 proteins into an appropriate level. However, a series of cellular stress would cause the overexpress of MDM2 and result in the over degradation of p53, the cell would lose ground and transform to tumor cell. P53 has plenty of other regulation pathways that cannot be listed in detail. The hundreds of pathways regulated by p53 have two mutual purposes: repair genes and induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the core of the p53 regulation levels is to maintain the stability of genes and accelerate the death of damaged or diseased cells. The Role of p53 in Normal and Tumor cells In natural human cells, the wt-p53 protein can be regarded as a guardian of the cell and genome. It can monitor the vital process, repair the gene indirectly through interaction with repair protein and induce apoptosis when necessary (Hofseth, et al., 2004). P53 plays a crucial role in numerous cellular processes which are related to cell cycle and cell death. If Tp53 gene mutated, the tumor suppression function in the cell would partly reduce. As a result, people whose Tp53 gene was mutated are more susceptible to suffer from cancer. Tp53 gene is mutated in over half of tumor cells; the mutation would alter the structure of p53 protein, thus p53 would lose its function partly or completely. The p53-mutated cells can not die programmatically, and become tumor cells. The mutated p53 protein tends to accumulate in tumor cells because the mutated p53 lose its function to induce the express of MDM2, which can degrade p53 proteins in the cell. The accumulation of p53 protein is a significant feature for the tumor cells. In cancer treatments, tumor cells can be detected through the accumulation of p53. However, mutated p53 can also be an obstacle of the therapy because mutant p53 can inhibit the function of wide-type p53 (Blagosklonny, M. V., 2002). If the treatment strategy is transferring the wide-type p53 into tumor cells, how to eliminate the effect of mutant p53 is the problem which has to be solved first. Consequently, p53 plays crucial roles both in normal cells and tumor cells; it is a gatekeeper in normal cells and a marker for tumor cells; it is an effective target for cancer treatments, nevertheless it can also become a barrier in cancer therapy. Conclusion P53 is the best-known transcription factor and cancer suppressor plays multiple roles in the cell. In healthy cells and, it is a gatekeeper to monitor the cell cycle and prevent the mutation of gene. If some mutations happen in the genome, p53 serve as a “doctor” to activate the repair process of damaged genes. When cells suffer from an irreversible damage or oncogenic stress, p53 can become a killer of cancerous cells. P53 participates in a number of biochemical pathways which can respond to the stress, arrest cell-cycle, repair gene and induce apoptosis. In the 30 years after the discovery of p53, plenty investigation was devoted into this essential protein and received a number of great achievements. A large amount of downstream targets has been identified and the regulatory network of p53 levels became clearer. Although plenty of details about p53, such as the relationship between each pathway, are still unknown. There is still a potential application through p53 in cancer treatments. The Structure Of Protein P53 Biology Essay

CSCI 1103 CSCC Exercise Calculator with BMI & Karvonen Formulas Python Exercise

professional essay writers CSCI 1103 CSCC Exercise Calculator with BMI & Karvonen Formulas Python Exercise.

Assignment: Lab Exercise 8Python: Exercise calculator with BMI & Karvonen formulasPython AssignmentThe objectives of this lab assignment are as follows:Input data from userPerform several different calculationsProcess data within a loopMake output choices based on conditional logicOutput information to userSkills RequiredTo properly complete this assignment you will need to apply the following skills:Read string input from the console and convert input to required numeric data-typesConvert math formulas to Python codeResearch and apply correct conversion formulasUnderstand the if / elif / else constructOutput numeric data to specific decimal placesAssignment User StoryAs a user I want an application that will allow me to calculate a person’s Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as to apply the Karvonen formula in calculating the user’s heart rate at varying levels of exercise intensity. Assignment RequirementsIn this application we are calculating two different values: the first is the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the second is a series of maximum heart rate values at specific exercise intensity percentages calculated using the Karvonen formula.Building on the work that you have already done or begun thinking about this application must be protected against invalid numeric data entry. Therefore, you must use while loops to prompt the user for each requested value until the value entered is valid—until the user enters acceptable numeric data.Furthermore, as this assignment is coming after your reading about functions, it is expected that you will define at least two functions in your program. The first function will calculate and return the BMI value based on the height (inches) and weight (pounds) passed into the function. And the second function will calculate and return the Karvonen maximum heart rate given the intensity, resting heart rate, and age passed into the function.When complete, your output should be as pictured below:Note : The example output provided above is simply an example. You do not need to format your output to look exactly like mine. You simply need to ensure that you have met the technical requirements for this application and ensure your output is neat and professional looking.BMIBMI is a calculation of body fat based on an individual’s height and weight.To calculate BMI you need two different values: height in inches and weight in pounds. Once you have obtained these values you will then need to convert the height from inches to height in meters squared, and the weight in pounds to the weight in kilograms. I am not going to provide these conversion formulas to you; you have to do a little online research to find them. In the case of converting inches to meters squared you need to convert inches to meters and then square that value.The formula for calculating BMI is as follows:where:weight is value in kilogramsheight is value in meters squared — note, one way to obtain the square of a number is to multiply that number by itselfThe value for bmi will be a decimal from zero (dead) to a high number indicating high body fatness. Based on the BMI value a person is categorized according to their body fat as follows:Underweight = <18.5Normal weight = 18.5–24.9Overweight = 25–29.9Obese = BMI of 30 or greaterIn addition to calculating the user’s BMI you will determine which of the above categories the user falls into based on their BMI.There are many online calculators that you can use to check your BMI results, one such can be found at the National Institute of Health. (Link to website here.)Karvonen FormulaThe Karvonen formula is used to calculate a target heart rate at specific workout intensities. It can be used to calculate ideal heart rate ranges for specific kinds of workout intensities. What I wish to do is to calculate what the maximum heart rate will be based on exercise intensity that begins at 50% and increases by 5% to a maximum intensity of 95%. This, of course, implies using a loop. We want to construct a loop that will iterate this calculation for the maximum heart rate for each of our exercise intensity percentages.To calculate maximum heart rate according to the Karvonen formula you need two different values: age and resting heart rate.The formula for calculating the maximum heart rate is as follows:This is an exercise in mathematic order of operations.Another way to think about the fomula above is to break it down like . . .where:mhr is maximum heart rate calculated as 220 minus your agehrr is heart rate reserve calculated by taking maximum heart rate (from step 1) minus resting heart ratemtz is maximum target zone calculating by taking heart rate reserve (from step 2) multiplied by intensity percentttz is target training zone calculated by taking mtz (from step 3) and adding resting heart rateexample:Suppose you have a resting heart rate of 70 beats per minute and your age is 35, and let’s suppose we want to know what the maximum heart rate should be at 60% intensity workout:220 – 35 = 185 (this results in the maximum heart rate — mhr)185 (mhr) – 70 = 115 (this results in the heart rate reserve — hrr)115 (hrr) * .60 = 69 (this results in the maximum target zone — mtz)69 (mtz) + 70 = 139 (this is the result that will be output for 60% exercise intensity)Therefore, 139 is the maximum heart rate for someone who is 35 years of age, has a resting heart rate of 70, and is exercising at a 60% intensity level.We want to perform this calculation for each exercise intensity level from 50% to 95%, with each level incremented by 5%There are many online calculators that you can use to check your Karvonen results, one such is from this website (Link to website here.)Technical/Grading RequirementsYou must ensure that the application you submit meets all technical/grading requirements. Your grade will be based on how well your application follows the application requirements plus the following:The name of the application with be HealthCalculator.pyYou must have a set of comments at the top of the program that identifies the programmer, date, and name of the program file. Each of these must be on individual lines. In addition, you must also provide a short description of what this program is doingThe following four pieces of data will be entered by the user: height in inches, weight in pounds, age, and resting heart rateUsing the entered data the BMI value along with the BMI Category will be determinedDisplaying exercise intensities from 50% (.55) to 95% (.95) the maximum heart rate at each exercise intensity will be calculated and displayedThe BMI value will be displayed to two decimalsThe intensity value will be displayed as a percentage with no decimal valueThe max heart rates will be displayed as a numeric value with no decimalsAll numeric values will be formatted as indicated aboveAll numeric values will be validated to ensure the user has keyed appropriate entry into the application.You must demonstrate your knowledge of functions by creating at least two functions: one to calculate the BMI and the second to calculate the maximum heart rate given a specific workout intensity.How the application looks and how it presents its information to the user is up to you. But it must meet the minimum requirements noted above.Important: Your output must include all of the following: BMI value, BMI category, one row for each exercise intensity from 50% to 95% in 5% increments (performed in a loop) and each row must include the intensity value as a percent and the maximum heart rate at that intensity.
CSCI 1103 CSCC Exercise Calculator with BMI & Karvonen Formulas Python Exercise

Deception in WWI

Deception in WWI.

Identify three notable examples of WWI deception from different chapters of the Rankin book. Identify the type of information operation type (from Week 3) represented by each example. Next, identify a psychological error or bias (from Weeks 1 or 2) that might explain why each example worked. Support your arguments using specific course material and any other material you feel is suitable.Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 500 words. At least 3 references. It MUST use course material to successfully complete the assignment. Make sure you provide parenthetical citations and a reference list
Deception in WWI

Modern Methods of Pest and Disease Conytol in the US

FROM TRADITIONAL METHODS OF PEST/ DISEASE MANAGEMENT TO MODERN PEST/ DISEASE CONTROL IN THE US Pest and disease management have gradually been innovated over years due to the increase of the technology innovation and transfer of knowledge. The traditional pest management methods had to constantly change with the introduction of new insects or disease. Since the 1940s, pesticides became prevalent are still being used in the modern time. However, the pesticides have affected the environment and human health. Thus, an increasing number of farmers are turning into an effective pest control which helps reduce or eliminate the need of pesticide and the method is “Integrated Pest Management” (IPM). IPM incorporates all the methods available for pest control and uses techniques that consider both short term and long term effects. In this paper, I will analyze the history of pest management, how it kept changing throughout the history and how IPM integrates all the traditional pest control techniques to suppress pests and diseases. History of pest and disease management Inorganic mineral-based pesticides Pesticides has been around almost for the all of human history. The pesticides used before WWII were inorganic mineral-based materials such as sulfur, lead, copper, arsenic, and mercury. The first recorded use of insecticide was about 4,500 years ago by Sumerian who used sulfur compounds with an unpleasant smell to control insects and mites. They would also rub it to the skin as a protection against insects. During that time, the chinese were using using mercury and arsenic compounds to control body lice (1). When the first settlers arrived in America, they relied on the natives to grow food because the settlers only wanted to grow tobacco to generate money. Therefore, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide. It’s a natural insecticide that protects plants against insects. (2) In 1800s in Massachusetts, Silk was valuable and a great number of entrepreneurial individuals had a keen interest in developings the industry in the North America. One of the skilled entomologist, from France, Etienne L. Trouvelot decided to import Gypsy moth candidates from his colleague in France so they could produce more silk faster. Unluckily, a few larvae escaped in 1869 and no immediate action was taken. Thus, making gypsy moth the first invader to North America. The lack of early intervention, increased the pest’s aggressiveness. Lead arsenate was then introduced in 1890s to control the invasive pest. This was the first time the United States had to manage an invasive and landscape pest (3). The first are-wide eradication of insect pest called “mediterranean fruit fly” in Florida in 1929. Around 1930, a guy named Muller who was Suiss discovered DTT although it was synthesized in 1874 by a master’s student in Germany in 1874. Muller, when he discovered it was during the WWII, since he was an anti-Nazi, he gave the chemical to the US instead of the Germans. DDT was persistent so it didn’t have to be reapplied often, it was insoluble in water so it didn’t get washed off by rains. In addition, it was inexpensive and easy to re-apply. During WWII, it was used to control typhus- nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe. They were able to keep all the people in the fight because they controlled malaria by spraying all the water body. They started applying much more and some were given to civilians. Muller won a Nobel prize for the discovery in 1948. Insecticides The first hormone-based herbicide ( 2, 4-D) was made in 1944. In 1950-70s, widespread development of resistance to DDT and other pesticides were discovered. In late 1950s, DDT residues were found in milk, insect developed resistance and beneficials were being killed due to the pesticide appliance. The biggest problems was indirect toxicity through bioconcentration where DDT accumulates in an organism’s tissue (especially, fatty tissues) and biomagnification where DDT increases in concentration up the food chain. DDT was also found in human’s breast milk and its concentration was high to the point where the milk would be banned if it was cow’s milk. In 1962, the author Rachel Carson’s published a book called silent spring. This book changed people’s minds on how chemical were affecting them. Unfortunately, there was not enough science to confirm what she was indicating in the book. Nevertheless, DDT was later banned in the US in the 1972. Fumigation Fumigation is a defined as a pest control method in which a pesticide gas or vapor is released into the air or injected into the soil to kill or eliminate pests. The soil fumigation is a commonly used to treat fields to reduce weed, nematodes and other soil insects and small rodents such as moles. Carbon bisulfide which discovered in 1869, is the first fumigant pesticide used for agriculture use, however it wasn’t used due to its high flammability, costs and it’s pest control inconsistency. By the 1930s, 17 chemicals were available for the farmers to use to control nematodes, tiny soil-borne roundworms that harm crops. Some of the chemicals included; chloropicrin, D-D, Ethylene dibromide, DBCB (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropentane) etc,. Unfortunately, most of these chemicals were found to be toxic to humans and the environment and were later banned. These chemicals were effective at decreasing and controlling the nematodes which were starting to become economic problems in recropped fields. After 1965, preplant soil fumigation with methyl bromide and chloropicrin was adopted here in the US and all around the world. Methyl bromide is one of the best chemicals because not only it takes care of the nematode but it also kills diseases and weeds. However, methyl bromide can be volatile and can easily escape in the atmosphere when released in the soil. The graph below shows how pest resistance drastically increased throughout the years. This in return, increased the number of pesticides that were being applied in the fields. Plant breeding for disease resistance The first successful breeding program for insect pest resistance in crop plants which happened in 1942. In 1960, the first Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt) product was registered . BT was introduced to fight off pests that were becoming resistant especially to glyphosate. When glyphosate was being sprayed in the field, there was always this one weed that wasn’t being affected which then required excessive appliance of the chemicals to kill off all the plants. Unfortunately, when the same methods keep being used, it enables the weed seeds to thrive. Thus, It’s never good to use the same control method year by year. Biocontrol Biology control is the use of living organisms to reduce populations of noxious plant pests. It’s whole discipline in a plant protection aimed at the reduction of chemicals. Naturally occurring enemy attacking insects bacteria fungi and viruses which potentially cause damage in plants this results in a natural balance. These natural enemies exist in all kinds of forms the natural enemies of pest insects can be predators parasitoids, or pathogens. The natural enemies of pathogens are antagonistic bacteria, fungi and viruses which suppress the growth and activity of the plant pathogen. Cropping systems often lack sufficient enemies leading to crop damage, fortunately we’re able to develop biological control products from the naturally occuring enemy after collecting, selecting and multiplying the best-performing enemies present in their natural environment we’re able to develop them into biological control for us. Farmers and foresters can buy and apply these products to protect their crops in an environmentally sustainable way. The range of biological control products remains limited today are just three point five percent of the total global crop protection market, yet the market to these products is growing by 15% every year. The EU project biochem is currently developing a brand new biological product to control pests and diseases in agriculture horticulture and forestry alongside new technologies for the production of beneficial viruses and nematodes against pests. The world’s earliest example of insect control of insect is when chinese farmers used Huang gan (huang which means yellow and gan; Citrus) ants to prevent citrus fruit tree damage against caterpillars and wood pests. Pests are found in every crop and one way to eliminate them is understanding how they evolve and what their natural enemies are. The first example is the control of aphids. Aphids live for three weeks at the most within that period , they can give birth to a couple of hundred young aphids as these young aphids also immediately set to work they can quickly become a pest that can cause much damage so when there are too many harmful creatures, it means they are a pest. Damage can be caused because they feed on plants and leave wat or eat into the leaves. The plant will become weak and ill and will produce less or lower quality fruit flowers or ornamental plants will become unfit for sale. What can be done against pests? Koppert (a company) produces natural enemies of pests enemies. Enemies as they are also found in nature. If these natural enemies are distributed in the crop, they will render the pest harmless. In this case, the parasitic wasp. A phidias column, is used the so-called mummies of this parasite wasp are mixed with dosage material and then distributed like the aphid, the parasitic wasp measure only two millimeters. After the parasitic wasp has emerged from the mummy it will search for the pest in this case the aphid in order to reproduce. Within half a second she deposits an egg inside the aphid and that’s called parasitism. IN the course of a few days the aphid will swell because of the growing parasitic wasp larvae inside its body and will then change into a mummy. After about two weeks, the fully grown parasitic wasp will make a hole from inside through which it leaves the mummy. If the wasp is a female, she will look for a male to mate with. Immediately after this, she will start searching aphids to deposit her eggs in. In this way, the number of aphids will decrease and the biological balance will be reached. The second example, is the examples of spider mite. This harmful mite feeds on the plants SAP and in doing so, it damages the plant tissue causing the plants to lose leaf green and sometimes to even die. The spider mite eis a tiny insect that can lay over a hundred eggs from which new spider mites develop after a little over a week but “koppert” has found a natural enemy for this pest– a predatory mite to control spider mite. A predatory mite is a real predator because it kills its prey by eating it or by pricking it and sucking it empty. The development of the predatory mite is similar to that of the two spotted spider mite like many beneficials, the predatory mite can only live when its prey is present. Integrated pest managementIntegrated Pest Management is defined as a process where the selection, integration, and implementation of pest control (biological, chemical or cultural) is based on predicted economic, ecological, and sociological consequences. The demand of produce grown without pesticides is on the rise. Along with this new demand, farmers are finding out that total reliance on pesticides may cause problems such as pesticide resistance, pest fare black, and groundwater contamination. Over the years, we discovered serious drawbacks to chemical pest control. Many kinds of insects developed resistance to pesticides and croplands weeds learned to tolerate herbicides. Newer more expensive products were required to cope with the resistance. Many pest control products contaminated the environment and caused unintended damage to wildlife. The agricultural community was compelled to develop broad–based ecologically sound pest-fighting strategies. From their efforts emerged a series of practices we now call integrated pest management. Integrated pest management is an approach to controlling that takes advantage the broad variety of management practices that are available to farmers. The strategies used in IPM can save you money because they offer alternatives to expensive pesticides and herbicides. Integrated pest management is built on four main principles, often known as the PAMS approach; prevention, avoidance, monitoring, and suppression. Prevention It’s usually easier to prevent pests and diseases from developing than to control them after they appear. Make it a goal to interrupt any pathways that enable pest to reach your fields. Prevention is your first line of defense. Pest move from field to field through equipments. Thus, cleaning equipments before moving it from one field to another because weed seeds travel around at a fast rate. Avoidance If a pest population already exists in your fields, use the avoidance approach to prevent the pest from impacting your crop and reaching economically damaging levels. The avoidance approach typically involves a number of cultural practices. For example, crop rotation can help break insect and plant disease cycle by depriving organisms of a suitable host. Monitoring Monitoring which involves scouting help with early detection of pests. The main goal of monitoring is to locate, identify the type of pests in the fields and the severity of the pest infestations. If done regularly, it can help reduce or prevent a pest outbreak. Suppression If avoidance techniques fail in the field, suppression then comes into play in order to avoid economic loss. Suppressive techniques involve mowing, cultivation, narrow row spacing, cover crops or mulches. Noling J.W. (2008) Soil Fumigation. In: Capinera J.L. (eds) Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht es, and other animals or plants that damge stored foods or seeds, human d

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