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C After this weeks readings and your own research, describe and discuss ways, if any, we can safely share security data.Are there precautions we can take, technical solutions we can use, e.g., like us

Are there precautions we can take, technical solutions we can use, e.g., like using the CIA triad, or should we just not share these kinds of data? Feel free to argue for and against, just make sure to back up your statements with scholarly support. Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic Answer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor Provide extensive additional information on the topic Explain, define, or analyze the topic in detail Share an applicable personal experience Provide an outside source (please cite properly in APA 7) Make an argument concerning the topic. At least one scholarly source should be used in the initial discussion thread.

The growing phenomenon of Corporate Social Responsibility

The growing phenomenon of Corporate Social Responsibility. Introduction Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a growing phenomenon worldwide. The 20th century has seen many organisations increase their effort in supporting non-related activities in the society (Tsoutoura 2004) This phenomenon has grown so much that some companies decided to incorporate the aspect of CSR in their organisational policies. In developed countries, different companies give reports on CSR in their books of accounts annually, disclosing where they have spent their money and how the community benefited (Tsoutoura 2004) The major international companies all over the world have been linked with the CSR activities. British petrol, Shelly, Nokia which are some of the largest and globally known companies have been linked with CSR activities all over the world. Most of these companies have highlighted on how they ensure the survival of the environment through aspects of refining their processes of production, minimizing unnecessary and harmful waste products etc. This shows that the present CSR activities of most international companies have been oriented on the environment rather than the other aspects such as the society, the employees, customers, the government, suppliers etc In addition to the above companies, the phenomenon of CSR has been clearly seen in the telecommunication industry in most of countries. In Tanzania the private sector companies, particularly, the telecommunication companies have been major participants in the CSR activities. Over the years, the Tanzanian telecommunication sector has participated in development activities within the society. Vodacom-Tanzania for example has constructed water-wells, built schools and supported sports among others. In 2001, the company provided a five year sponsorship to the football association in the country. (Vodacom Tanzania limited 2010) Moreover, Zain-Tanzania, a global telecommunication Company, is an active player in conducting CSR activities within the country; including supporting education by providing school desks and computers to the primary and secondary schools respectively, and through the Zain Africa challenge program and various environmental campaigns. (Zain Africa limited 2010) In order to analyze the future trend of CSR on whether it will focus more on the environment than other areas, and to further discuss whether CSR is primarily about making money for international businesses, the concept and theories of CSR will be identified, along with an analysis of the existing empirical literature. The concept of CSR Corporate social responsibility is an evolving term that does not have a standard definition. Although it is not a new concept, it still remains an emerging and elusive idea for academics and a contested issue for business managers and their stakeholders. Many people have vague ideas about what corporate social responsibility is all about. They view it as “a big corporation giving some money to the environment or a community initiative” Middle East corporate social responsibility (Annon,2007) The European Commission defines corporate social responsibility (CSR) as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.” (European commission 2010) Alternatively Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined “as a concept whereby Organisations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on Customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations. This is seen to extend beyond the statutory obligation to comply with legislation and sees organisations voluntarily taking further steps to improve the quality of life for employees and their families as well as for the local community and society at large.” (Johnson et al, 2009, p 100). 3.0 Theories on Corporate Social Responsibility 3.1 Theory of shareholder profit maximization “The conventional theory of CSR believes that companies, as a business setup, should take optimal profit making for shareholders as their most fundamental objective”. (Zhang Shi Yuan, 2006) The corporate objective should not in any way be replaced by other objectives of individuals within the organization. (Zhang Shi Yuan, 2006) Theory of stakeholders Interest The theory maintains that “maximizing the interests of the shareholders of the company is the most important objective that a business organization should achieve” (Zhang Shi Yuan, 2006) but this should not be the only objective that the business organization should have. The business should therefore look at other aspects such as well being of the members of the society i.e. the employees, customers, the government, the suppliers, the public at6 large as well as the well being of the environment. (Zhang Shi Yuan 2006). Theory of good citizenship This theory maintains that “companies should take profit-making as the corporate objectives”, (Zhang Shi Yuan 2006) however, they are also liable to offering help, and i.e. companies shall have the obligation to help solve certain social problems. An example could be that organizations are obliged to make donations to education or charity organizations. Theory of minimum requirement of morality The theory states that “companies have the obligation to satisfy shareholders’ interests” (Zhang Shi Yuan 2006) without damaging other parties. Therefore provided that organizations have avoided causing or helped the society overcome social damage caused by to their behavior during the process of business activities, hence the companies will demonstrate social responsibilities. CSR ACTIVITIES There are so many aspects that are linked to CSR but the following are the major activities that define the aspect of CSR. The concern for the environment The concern for the customers The concern to the employees The concern to the local community Many companies have been engaged in CSR through the aspect of going green i.e. taking care of the environment due to their operational activities. From this the question comes to whether CSR in the future will become primarily concerned with environment or will other areas benefit equally. 5.0 LITERATURE ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND PROFIT MAKING Many empirical evidences have linked CSR with improved financial performances in an organization. Others have linked it with better employee performances and customer demands which are all related to profit making. These literatures include the following; According to Orlitzky et al (2003), corporate social performance and corporate financial performance are positively correlated and their relationship is statistically significant. This conclusion was reached after carrying out a Meta analysis of that integrated 30 years of research from 52 previous studies and used Meta analytical techniques to support that notion. In 2004, Margarita Tsoutsoura a lecturer at the University of California published her results on the same research in the USA. She also indicated that there is a positive relationship between CSR and financial performance. (Tsoutsoura 2004) 6.0 A DISCUSSION ON THE CSR ACTIVITIES IN THE FUTURE AND CSR IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSES Many studies done on CSR have shown that the aspect of CSR influences the performance of the company directly and indirectly. There has been a link between the CSR activities and the employee retention and performances in their organisations. Therefore it can be suggested that companies will tend to embark more on other aspects of CSR and not just on the environmental part because most firms value the well being of their businesses a lot more than any other side objective. Hence if by engaging in other aspects of CSR does provide a means of fulfilling interests of the business then they will act in favor of it. Furthermore in many multinational corporations (MNCs) CSR has been incorporated in their strategic planning process. The reasons behind social responsibility towards environmental and human responsibility are still questionable to whether it is based on genuine interest or has underlining ulterior motives. There are groups that argued that the only reason to why corporations put in place social projects is for the commercial benefit they see from raising their reputation with the public or with government. They suggest a number of reasons why self-interested corporations, solely seeking to maximize profits are unable to advance the interests of society as a whole. They give examples of companies that have spent a lot of time promoting CSR policies and their commitment to Sustainable Development on one hand, whilst damaging revelations about business practices emerge on the other. For example Royal Dutch/Shell a multinational oil company has a much publicized CSR policy, although the 1995 hanging of Saro-Wiwa and his fellow men authorized by the Nigerian government brought bad image to the company’s subsidiary since human rights Watch accused its operations on provoking the environmental and human rights policies. Additionally, in 2004 the company was involved in a scandal over the misreporting of its oil reserves which seriously damaged its reputation and led to charges of hypocrisy. It is within my view that the can be seen that international businesses do stand a chance of making more profits by engaging in CSR. The aspect of humanity is not supported by most of the existing literature. The famous authors such as Modigliani, Milton Friedman in1970 in the New York times as well as from the financial management views (Jaffe et al 2000) all show that the main objective of the firm is to maximize the profit of the shareholders of the company and therefore if the activity is worth the profit it is done otherwise it is dropped. Hence international businesses are primarily making more profits through CSR. These critics generally suggest that host-governments and international regulations should enforce the environmental and human rights policies more strongly to ensure that international businesses behave in a socially responsible manner. 7.0 Conclusion and Recommendation It can be conclude, that the company’s future tend to be on the divergence from simply being responsible to the environment and to be more responsible to the other aspects of corporate social responsibility such as the well being of the employees, customers as well as the society. Furthermore, it’s in the view of this paper that the international businesses are involved in the CSR activities to maximize the profits or wealth of the shareholders. This is to say that the future of CSR is in all directions and it is on the side of the international business to decide on which aspect should be focused upon to achieve the objectives of the business. It’s within the limits of this paper to recommend that the companies should correctly focus on all the aspects of corporate social responsibility. A specific CSR policy should be placed in all businesses so that it becomes p[art and parcel of the business operations. In doing so, the businesses stand a large chance of surviving in the competitive business world that is currently in play. For the benefits of the international businesses, they should also continue with the CSR activities by looking at what are the most valuable activities for the people and the areas at which they are operating. For example if an international business is expending to Africa country areas that have people in the rural regions who have no education, then the CSR activity for the international organizations should be on how to empower these local people with education. The growing phenomenon of Corporate Social Responsibility

Environmental Technology Essay

essay order Environmental Technology Essay. Instructions In this unit, we summarized all of the concepts you learned throughout the course, tying everything together. For this assignment, you will write an essay in which you will apply safety and health-related theory and technology to address environmental issues. Please include the components listed below in your essay. Discuss the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Environmental Technology Verification Program as discussed in the assigned article by Ashley, Waits, Hartzell, and Harten (2005). Discuss ammonia and mercury monitoring specifically. Provide an equation used for computing water flow rate from pipe diameter. Describe the application and variables in the equation. Explain two methods for treating water. Explain two features of a solid waste landfill. Describe two hazardous waste onsite remediation technologies. Explain the purpose of an electrostatic precipitator and the air pollutants that it removes, and show an equation used to determine its efficiency. Provide the equation used to compute SPL (in dB) from sound pressure in µbars. If a bulldozer emits a sound level of 90 dBA, what is the sound level (dBA) of two bulldozers next to each other? Discuss your favorite part of the course. Your essay should flow smoothly from topic to topic with thoughtful transitions. Your essay should be at least four pages in length, not counting the references page; a title page is optional. Support your essay with at least two peer-reviewed articles from the CSU Online Library. The articles should be no more than 20 years old. Feel free to use the textbook and other sources as references in addition to your two CSU Online Library sources. Be sure to properly cite and reference all sources, and use APA format.Environmental Technology Essay

PSYC 2706 LU The Appraisal of Information and The Resulting Emotions Worksheet

PSYC 2706 LU The Appraisal of Information and The Resulting Emotions Worksheet.

Consult Figure 7.2 (in the third edition, or Figure 6.2 in the fourth edition) in your textbook, which offers the diagram of Lazarus’ appraisal theory. You will examine five situations or events and walk them through the decision tree described in Figure 7.2 (in the third edition, or Figure 6.2 in the fourth edition), explaining your choices (one sentence) in each case. You will then conclude which emotion would be predicted in reaction to the news.After you have completed the five situations or events and found the predicted emotion, you will answer two general questions about the Lazarus’ appraisal theory and your experience with it during this assignment.Use the following document to access the five situations/events and complete your answers within the document:Assignment 2Lazarus’ Appraisal TheoryThe tree is a flow chart that involves three choices. You have to decide:First Choice: Is the event goal-relevant (answer must be “yes” or “no”)? Why?Second Choice: If it is relevant, is the event goal congruent (answer must be “yes” or no”)? Why?Third Choice: Whether the event is congruent or not, what else is involved?If it is congruent, are we dealing with “no ego involvement,” “ego or self-enhancement,” or “mutual affection”? Why?OR If it is incongruent, are we dealing with “damage to ego or self-esteem,” “threat to ego or self,” or “loss to self”? Why?Final Answer: What type of emotion is predicted?ExampleHere is a sample of some information with answers included. The event is that you just won $100,000 in a lottery.First Choice: Is the event goal-relevant (answer must be “yes” or “no”)? Why?Yes, this is relevant. Money can be used to further many other goals in life such as a house or a car.Second Choice: If it is relevant, is the event goal congruent (answer must be “yes” or no”)? Why?Yes, this is congruent. You like this event – it agrees with and furthers your goals in life.Third Choice: Whether the event is congruent or not, what else is involved?If it is congruent, are we dealing with “no ego involvement,” “ego or self-enhancement,” or “mutual affection”? Why?OR If it is incongruent, are we dealing with “damage to ego or self-esteem,” “threat to ego or self,” or “loss to self”? Why?This congruent event basically has no ego involvement. It does not make you a better or worse person or help how you think of yourself.Final Answer: What type of emotion is predicted? The emotion you will most likely feel will be:Happiness. According to Lazarus’ table of choices, this event should make you HAPPY.
PSYC 2706 LU The Appraisal of Information and The Resulting Emotions Worksheet

A Brief History Of E Commerce Information Technology Essay

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the term used for any type of business or commercial transaction that involves the transfer of products, services and information over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer networks. The trader and customer are not face to face at any point during these transactions, the business being conducted remotely, regardless of location. E-commerce covers a range of different types of businesses, from consumer based retail sites, through auction or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and services between corporations. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web. Although most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in one way or another, a large percentage of e-commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items, such as access to certain information on a website, purchasing software or other on-line services. E-business is a superset of e-commerce [1] . Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions. E-commerce can be mainly divided into Business-to-Business electronic commerce (B2B) and Business-to-Consumer electronic commerce (B2C). B2B implies that both sellers (suppliers) and buyers are business corporations, while B2C implies that buyers are individual consumers. Business-to-business e-commerce is significantly different from business-to-consumer e-commerce. While B2C merchants sell on a first-come, first-served basis, most B2B commerce is done through negotiated contracts that allow the seller to anticipate and plan for how much the buyer will purchase. In some cases B2B is not so much a matter of generating revenue as it is a matter of making connections with business partners. 1.1.1. B2B e-commerce B2B e-commerce requires the technological sharing of information among supplies, retailers, distributors, and other interested parties to create electronic relationships. B2B e-commerce does not just comprise the transaction via the Internet, but also the exchange of information before and the service after a transaction. From the purchasing company’s point of view, B2B e-commerce is a medium for facilitating procurement management by reducing the purchase price and the cycle time. [2] The key players usually include selling and buying companies, deliverers, and often some type of electronic intermediaries, or third-party service providers. These associations can take many forms, yet most fall into three models. These models are classified depending on who controls the marketplace: the supplier, the buyer or the intermediary: (a) In a Supplier-Oriented Marketplace: many buyers face few suppliers. (b) In a Buyer-Orientated Marketplace: few buyers face many suppliers. (c) In an Intermediary-Oriented Marketplace: many buyers face many suppliers. A) Supplier-Oriented Marketplace Supplier-Oriented Marketplaces offer a group of customers a wide spectrum of products and services and also support them in their own business. The markets can involve proprietary auctions, bid systems, and exchanges. By using Supplier-Oriented Marketplaces, suppliers are offered new types of market channels in marketing and distribution. Products can be sold directly to the customer without using intermediaries. Most manufacture-driven electronic stores use this form of market place. Successful examples of this business model are e.g. Dell and Cisco. [3] Both Dell and Cisco sold and sell their products via the Internet. However, not only Dell and Cisco use the Supplier-Oriented Marketplace, there are thousands of other companies using this model. Cisco’s main business is providing electronic support using the Internet. The main applications are software downloads, defect tracking and technical advice. Cisco’s business model also includes customer service and finding order status, as well as selling routers, switches and other network interconnect devices. B) Buyer-Oriented Marketplace By using Supplier-Oriented Marketplaces, buyers would have to search electronic stores and electronic malls to find and compare suppliers and products. This would be very costly and time consuming for big buyers, who purchase thousands of items on the Internet. As a result, such big buyers prefer to open their own marketplace, which is called a Buyer-Oriented Marketplace. [4] By supporting transactions and procurement processes, these marketplaces offer great potentials in cost savings. Buyer-Oriented Marketplaces are found in industrial sectors with few and dominant buyers. The buyer’s bidding site is the most popular type of Buyer-Oriented Marketplace. An example is GE’s electronic bidding site which enhances the company’s procurement process. [5] On such bidding sites suppliers can download the project information from the internet and submit bids for the project. Buyers then evaluate the supplier’s bids and may negotiate electronically. Buyers accept the bids that best meet their requirements. By doing so, buyers can identify and build partnerships with new suppliers worldwide. The information and specifications can be rapidly distributed to business partners (suppliers). As a result, bids can rapidly be received and compared from a large number of suppliers to negotiate better prices. C) Intermediary-Oriented Marketplace This business model is established by an intermediary company which runs a marketplace where business buyers and sellers can meet. There are two types of Intermediary-Oriented Marketplaces: horizontal and vertical marketplaces. Vertical marketplaces concentrate on one industrial sector whereas horizontal marketplaces offer services to all industrial sectors. The Intermediary-Oriented Marketplace is a neutral business platform and offers the classical economic functions of a usual market. The difference is that the participants do not have to be physically present. An Intermediary-Oriented Marketplace contains catalogues where information on products and prices can be presented. By offering search functions, the marketplace makes the comparison and transparency of products possible. Marketplaces can also offer auctions. These auctions can be organized by sellers (products are sold) or by buyers (orders are sold). Furthermore is it possible to offer electronic functions where participants can negotiate in real time. [6] An example of an intermediary-oriented marketplace is Buzzsaw. [7] Buzzsaw is a vertical electronic marketplace which concentrates on the building industry. Many different parties are involved in a construction project: e.g. building contractors, builders, manual workers, architects, merchants and the building owner. Many of these parties are regional sellers. Buzzsaw offers software to improve planning and communication between the parties. Detailed information about the building industry is also offered (e.g. news affecting the sector, a classified directory and a local weather forecast). The marketplace also provides the option to do business. All products relevant for the building industry can be traded. The Web site offers search engines to find the wanted products, and additionally, buyers and sellers can insert requests and offers on the marketplace. 1.1.2. B2C e-commerce B2B e-commerce is basically a concept of online marketing and distributing of products and services over the internet. Business prefer this method because they can reach more customers, service them better, make more sales while spending less to do it. For the consumer, it is relatively easy to appreciate the importance of e-commerce. Many prefer not to waste time fighting the very crowds in supermarkets, and shop on-line at any time in virtual Internet shopping malls, and have the goods delivered home directly, all from the comfort of their own homes. B2C e-commerce is conducted essentially via three business models: Pure-play online retailers, such as, sell only over the Internet. They do not sell offline and do not have traditional stores that consumers can visit. A second type of online retailer includes companies that have traditional stores or sell offline through catalogs or mail-order, but that also have a presence on the Web. These are known as “bricks-and-clicks” because they sell to consumers both through an offline channel and an online storefront. A third category consists of portals, such as America Online, where goods and services from several online retailers are offered to consumers. 1.2. A Brief History of E-commerce E-commerce and its meaning have changed a lot over the past 40 years. At first, the term e-commerce meant the execution of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT), which gave an opportunity for users to exchange business information and do electronic transactions. The ability to use these technologies appeared in the late 1970s and allowed business companies and organizations to send commercial documentation electronically, such as purchase orders or invoices. E-commerce became possible in 1991 when the Internet was opened to commercial use. Since then, thousands of businesses have taken up residence at web sites. The internet began to gain popularity among the general public in 1994 and by 2000 a great number of business companies in the United States and Western Europe represented their services on the World Wide Web. By this time, the meaning of electronic commerce had changed. People began to define the term as the process of purchasing goods and services over the internet using electronic payment services. The history of e-commerce is unthinkable without Amazon and E-bay which were among the first Internet companies to allow electronic transactions. Currently there are 5 largest and most famous worldwide Internet retailers: Amazon, Dell, Staples, Office Depot and Hewlett Packard. According to statistics, the most popular categories of products sold in the World Wide Web are music, books, computers, office supplies and other consumer electronics. 1.3. E-commerce in Romania In Romania, e-commerce is still in an early stage. While in the US the first on-line payments using bank cards took place in 1994, in Romania, the first transaction of this type was recorded in 2004. [8] The first e-shop in Romania was opened in 1997. Since then many more e-shops have started business in Romania, and the e-commerce market has grown. According to, the most used system for monitoring web sites in Romania, the top five most accessed e-commerce web sites, in 2010 are:,,, and In 2008 the National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications (ANCOM) of Romania ordered a study to be conducted by the team Link 2 ecommerce. The study would serve as an instrument by means of which both the Authority and the interested entities in the market would have access to an accurate and objective assessment of the Romanian electronic commerce market, as well as to an analysis of the evolution prospective for the years 2009-2011. The study revealed the fact that there were approximately 900 active online shops at the time, most of which offered for sale products from the field of technology and communications. Computer games, toys, flowers, watches and tickets to various performances were sold in 30% of the active online shops. Books and information were sold in 10% of all the shops and the same percentage of all the shops dealt with clothes and fashion. The study also established that 5% of all the websites active in Romania offered e-commerce services and found evidence showing that the number of shops in Romania will keep growing by 50% per year between 2009 and 2011, up to 3,000 active shops that will operate online. The study showed that, among the online buyers, most of the respondents purchase IT