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Business For the Glory of God | Book Review

Business For the Glory of God | Book Review. For this assignment we are to read the book by W. Grudem, “Business for the Glory of God: The Bible’s Teaching on the Moral Goodness of Business.” Mr. Grudem explores the Christian side of business which gives an elaborative explanation of what one might encounter. He clearly shows that in all the various aspects of business, which includes profit, ownership, money, lending, borrowing, and competition. Overall, the author clearly illustrates that people who work in the business world are generally made to feel guilty, because few people think “instinctively of business as morally good in itself. (11). The main purpose of the book was to demonstrate that the various aspects of business activities are good and these good things will also bring glory to God. Book Review Business people are an imitation of God’s character by representing Him on earth through the approach of various business activities. Grudem reflects on each of the chapter’s categories, and clearly illustrates how each of the activities fall into these categories which represent a unique opportunity to bring God’s glory to the forefront: private ownership, productivity, employment, commercial transactions (selling and buying), profit, using money as means of exchange, producing inequalities in possessions, competition, borrowing and lending, and the reduction in the world’s poverty. In private ownership, this is where a person would imitate God’s sovereignty through the exercise of mankind’s sovereignty over the creation. When a person cares for worldly possessions, Mr. Grudem makes an argument about people having the chance to imitate certain characteristics of God such as “wisdom, knowledge, beauty, creativity, love for others, kindness, fairness, independence, freedom, exercise of will, blessedness (or joy), and so forth” (20). When people have the desire to have their own things is not necessarily bad, but it is a representation of our overall desire to be ruler over things. The topic of private ownership also gives people the opportunity to do great things with their resources by sharing them with those who are in need so that others can see God in different ways. The word subdue in the book of Genesis implies to the greater good of human productivity. The main point to remember is that God expect for people to work hard at developing the world for God’s glory and for the sake of mankind. In reference to manufactured products, Mr. Grudem states, “give us opportunity to praise God for anything we look at in the world around us” (26). Typically, any item that is manufactured allows people to discover the “wonders of God’s creation in the things that we have been able to make from the earth” (27). When a person does productive work, this takes on the meaning of subduing the earth and it makes “the resources of the earth useful” for everyone. In reference to the rejections of Marxism, Mr. Grudem states, “the Bible does not view it as evil for one person to hire another person and gain profit from that person’s work” (31). The Bible teaches us that employee to employer relationships are generally good and they are equally beneficial (Luke 3:14; 10:7; 1 Tim. 6:2). A relationship at the employment level can provide a context for mutual appreciation for the callings and pride of other people. The good of an employer can be easily seen by employees through hard work, and the opposite can be achieved from an employer’s perspective by issuing fair pay for a hard day’s work. Mr. Grudem made some observations about commercial transactions and he realized they has been a normal part of society since the very beginning (Lev. 25:14). The Bible teaches us that selling and buying are ethically right, because they both provided an opportunity for people to do great things for other people by providing the thing they need. People often imitate God in places where they practice “honesty, faithfulness to our commitments, fairness, and freedom of choice.” (37). The use of money and profit are great, because they both entail that one has produced something beneficial to others who desire exchange. Not only is profit a clear indication that one is making efficient and great use of resources from God, but it also is encouraged in the teachings of Jesus Christ (Matt. 25:14-30). Money ultimately sets us apart from any animal kingdom, but in such a way as a tool, which makes voluntary exchanges “more fair, less wasteful, and far more extensive” (49). Money and profit can provide opportunities to glorify God by meeting our needs and those of others, providing charity, expanding our stewardship, and promoting the mission of the church throughout the world. Even though reading this book may seem as an unfamiliar language to most, Mr. Grudem illustrates how the inequality of possessions is fundamentally good and also pleasing to God. Passages in the Bible such as Luke 19:17, 19; 2 Corinthians 5:10 establish the fact of designed inequality, and many other passages from both the Old and the New Testaments. The author explains that “inequalities are necessary in a world that requires a great variety of tasks to be done” (52). In chapter 7, the author rejects arguments from a biblical perspective in favor of Christian communitarians, redistribution policies, and health and wealth teachings. The chapters about competition, borrowing and lending are basically a summary of the wealth producing topics. These chapters give an in-depth explanation about the good of competition, because it “guides society in assigning jobs to those who are best suited for those jobs” (62). In common business practices, competition can also decrease the prices of items over time, while in turn increasing the living standard for everyone. The author also notes that the Bible has no absolute prohibition on loans, but he also assumes them as a way of life. There have been many biblical discussions around loans, which focuses on the abuse and misuses of the process, not the actual establishment of the loan. There is a good rationale behind why charging interest is not only necessary for institutions jeopardizing the use of their money with others, but also how it can be reversed to help other people. Lastly, the goes on to discuss the necessity of moral goodness among the business people in an economy in order for things to operate more smoothly. This type of moral formation of a person would often lead to an overall greater respect for the dignity of mankind, and the increasing desire for their activities to bring not harm, but good to others while at the same time bringing glory to God. Mr. Grudem then goes on with an explanation at the very end of each chapter about how most business activities have “great potential for misuse and wrongdoing” because we live in a time occupied by entrepreneurs with a sinful nature. The sins of some people in business, however, should not make us assume all business activities are morally wrong. In my honest opinion, Mr. Grudem made great points about the abuses of business, and the ways in which we idolize success and money and become cordial by losing sight of the truth that everything belongs to God. The author continued to make comments throughout the course of the book on the concerns to balance the view, but the real wealth changing information comes from the fact that business practices can be glorifying to God. He also mentions in the text that we should not feel guilty about business, but we can take this as a stepping stone towards our common goals. The author explored the various topics that most business professionals have to deal with on a daily basis at work. He does an excellent explanation of the most common misconceptions about work and business, and then offers a way to look at everything from a different perspective. Mr. Grudem goes on to show how business is good and how it can be used to glorify God. Although this book was enjoyable and easy to read, this book was also very thought provoking and even life changing so to speak. I really could not find a bad point about the book and it was packed with plenty of insight about the moral nature of business. The thing I did not like was with his arguments, while most were very well written, are poorly supported with only a few bible verses and almost no logic whatsoever. In one section, he states that since Jesus gave laws on how employers should treat their employees, and God approves of hiring people and being an employer is good. On the other hand, he does not mention anything at all about the Sabbath, and this could cause someone to believe God also approves slavery. I honestly support keeping people gainfully employed, but some of the arguments in the book were lacking supporting facts. In conclusion, I truly enjoy reading this book and I would highly recommend it to any Christian who is working in the business world. I think the long term solution that the author proposes involves starting and maintaining a productive business organization. I think as these businesses are pursued to God’s glory, the positive effect of creating commerce and employment should also have a domino effect where the ability and the economic status of people should continue to prosper in ever-widening circles. Lastly, I feel this book does a great job of illustrating how everyday Christians can have a calling to business and in the midst of pursuing it; they can continue to glorify God, bless others and reflect His attributes. When it comes to money, work, finances and business, Ephesians 6:5-9 makes a great point when it states, Slaves, obey your earthly masters with deep respect and fear. Serve them sincerely as you would serve Christ. Try to please them all the time, not just when they are watching you. As slaves of Christ, do the will of God with all your heart. ; Work with enthusiasm, as though you were working for the Lord rather than for people. Remember that the Lord will reward each one of us for the good we do, whether we are slaves or free. Masters, treat your slaves in the same way. Don’t threaten them; remember, you both have the same Master in heaven, and he has no favorites. Business For the Glory of God | Book Review
Copyright and Democracy Critical Essay. Chapter four of Neil Weinstock Netanel’s essay discusses the democratic paradigm of copyright and democracy. Netanel attempts to find the link between democratic governance and civil society. The first part of the chapter discusses the role of civil society and its association with democratic governance. Shared purposes and norms identify various civil societies. Civil society plays an active role in bolstering democratic governance. Civil societies are participatory. They help in fostering a democratic culture. In addition, civil societies provide avenues for self-rule that are outside the control of the government. Civil societies facilitate debate and determination of various policies and social norms. However, civil societies are not completely autonomous. Government intervention helps in sustaining the activities of civil societies. In addition, government intervention ensures that civil societies engage in activities that provide opportunities for democratic governance. The market may be a barrier to the advancement of the democratic character of civil societies. It may facilitate the development of disparities of power. In addition, it may provide people with uneven opportunities to engage in civil life. However, the market may also play a critical role in enhancing democratic governance. It may facilitate the development of centers of power that are not under the control of the government. This helps in reducing citizen’s dependency on the state. It is a fact that democratic governance should also be a critical component of the governance of civil societies. It would be contradictory to claim that civil societies foster democratic governance when it is clear that they do not have democratic governance in their management. The author did not provide insights on civil societies and democratic governance using this perspective. The government uses copyright as a tool that enables government institutions to support democratic civil societies. Copyright’s production and structural functions help in supporting a democratic civil society. Copyright laws have various incentives that encourage free communication. Electronic communication is one of the fastest developing communication mediums. It facilitates the broadcast, distribution, and transmission of millions of works of original authors. Democracy enables people who have high rhetorical skills to acquire the greatest share of political power. Therefore, free communication is an essential component of a democratic culture. In some instances, free communication may violate copyright laws. The author did not explain how free communication may pose a serious threat to copyright. Copyright enables authors to have a proprietary entitlement to their works. This facilitates the development of an autonomous sector that encourages the formation and distribution of novel expressions. Copyright enables creators and publishers of the novel expressions to earn financial support for their undertakings in the sector. This enables them to cease from depending on the government or the assistance of the elite. The paying audience is the source of funds. Copyright imposes certain restrictions on the exclusive control of cultural works. This enables the government to diversify the communicative power structures without unwarranted interference on the expressive content. However, the restrictions of copyright law do not provide a neutral endpoint. The endpoint of copyright law may signify the beginning of another proprietary right. Therefore, the restrictions may portray the ability of copyrights to enhance democracy. They enhance the democratic notion that expressions and ideas should be free for all people. The limits on the duration and scope of copyrights act as a boundary on the private control of publicly distributed expressions. Copyright and Democracy Critical Essay
The Early Mississippian Period Peoples of the Southeast Missouri Region. Question 1: Describe the purpose of your research. What will be the focus of your investigation? What is your main research question? What other questions will you need to answer to address it? [Limit: 1000 words] This project will present the existing evidence for the presence of paleolithic tribes in the southeast region of Missouri and the historical significance of a people that may have pre-dated the Cahokia Mound Builders of the Ohio River Valley. This project aims to examine why the prehistoric Indians would have settled along what is now known as the Sac-Osage River just outside the town of Stockton, MO; how long they lived in the area; and the seemingly forgotten historical presence of an established and successful Indian settlement of this region, pre-Cahokia. Driven by three primary concerns, I will first study how and where the previously discovered artifacts were discovered and excavated, if there are more discovered sites in the area, and the current research available. Second, information on the geographical formations, natural resources, and climate of the region will be gathered to determine why this area was inhabited for such an extended period. Third will be to determine the possible historical significance of the people that lived in this region as it pertains to the archaeological record. Thus, I ask: How, where, and in what context were the first documented artifacts in the area of study discovered? Who conducted the initial research, why research was determined to be necessary, and what entity funded the initial excavations? Is there more evidence of large group settlements in nearby areas and if so, what are the barriers to further research of the sites? How long was this area inhabited by pre-historic Indians? What historical significance would the settlement of this region hold on current beliefs of the continuity of prehistory in the region and time periods? Through a structured visual, contextual, and discursive investigation this research will address these questions through an investigation of the Big Eddy archaeological site, historical documentation and research available, and the geographical analysis of southeastern Missouri. Question 2: How does your research draw inspiration from existing scholarship in anthropology and other disciplines? Whose findings will you be building on? Give specific examples of the various lines of work with which you are in dialogue and which you are seeking to advance. [Limit: 1000 words] In the 1940s, Jimmy Allen of Cody, Wyoming, began investigating an area along the Sac River for the purposes of obtaining artifacts for commercial sale (Nichols et al. 1980). Professional archaeological surveys in the area began in 1961 with the investigation of the area that would be affected by the building of the Stockton Dam to create Stockton Lake. Preliminary investigations conducted by the University of Missouri, under contract to the National Park Service, located a total of 40 sites with various artifacts, nine of which contained ceramic artifacts. Test excavations at three of the mounds and three shelters, between 1962 and 1965, showed a general similarity with other burial mounds discovered in southwestern Missouri (Wood 1965, 1966; Wood and Brock 1985). However, the mounds located along the Sac River were separated from the southwestern mounds due to the increased quality of limestone tempered ceramics and the presence of charred seeds, Cupp points, siltstone pipes, and distinctive bone spatulates (Wood and Brock 1985: 166). Investigations of the Sac River area continued until 1967 (Calabrese et al. 1969; Wood 1965, 1966) that further defined the local cultural sequence and defined the burial complex, officially named the Bolivar Burial Complex (Wood and Brock 1984). Investigation of three floodplain sites – Dryocopus Village, Flycatcher (Calabrese et al. 1968, 1969; Pangborn et al. 1971) and Shady Grove (Ward 1968) – in the area produced information on the discovered sites spanning the transition from Woodland to Mississippian Culture. In June of 1979, Espey Houston and Associates, Inc., surveyed COE-controlled lands along the Sac River, downstream from the dam (Roper 1977). This survey covered about 45% of the Sac River Valley. A total of 280 acres were surveyed for prehistoric and historic resources. Fourteen sites were located that included eight historic sites, five prehistoric sites, and one site with both historic and prehistoric artifacts. However, only one site produced a diagnostic artifact that was assigned to the Woodland period. It was determined that as the elevation of the setting lowered within the lake area, the higher the probability of locating a site. Cultural components identified included Dalton, Middle Archaic, Late Archaic, Early Woodland, and Middle/Late Woodland periods. However, since none of these new sites produced pottery, only arrow points, they could be either Woodland or Mississippian in affiliation. Testing was recommended at two of the prehistoric sites that were endangered by heavy public use. One of which, the Fox House site, represented the oldest known homesite in the area. Six other potential house sites and a cemetery were also recommended as being potentially significant historic sites in the Stockton Lake area (Nichols et al. 1980). Roper (1977:97-99) concluded that the Sac River Valley had been mostly continuously occupied since the Dalton period but had been used by different cultures resulting in different uses of the sites. The most recent excavations in the Sac River Valley were conducted in 1990-91 by the Historic Preservation Associates (Klinger et al. 1992). Text excavations were performed at seven sites all located along the Sac River, downstream from the dam, and were subject to river bank erosion. Excavations produced artifacts from periods as mentioned earlier, but most notably was a Dalton point and a Dalton Serrated point, recovered from the river bed, which was suggestive of early occupation, but no evidence of a Dalton component was recovered to support this theory further. All sited failed to produce enough evidence to assign specific cultural affiliations. Many sites along the edge of the river produced evidence of severely mixed and probably redeposited prehistoric and historic materials. Of the seven most recent sites investigated, three were determined to contain enough data to potentially make them eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (Wood and Brock 1985; Pangborn et al. 1971). Question 3: What evidence will you need to collect to answer your research question? How will you go about collecting and analyzing this evidence? [Limits: 1000 words] The fundamental component of this project will be to survey the project area and test nearby sites known to have produced significant artifacts. The field survey will consist of an intensive ground survey of the project area, which is located on the Mutton Creek branch of Stockton Lake and will include the previously discovered sites located on the southeastern shoreline. A land survey will take advantage of exposed soils such as plowed fields, cut banks, animal burrows, and other disturbances which provide the best situations for site discovery. In areas where there are no obvious or visible soil disturbances or where the ground surface is not adequate to determine the presence/absence of cultural resources, shovel testing will be utilized. Underwater survey of the Mutton Creek branch will be a necessary component of this research as this is the area where the burial mounds, previously mentioned, were discovered. Underwater surveys will be initially conducted using a John Boat and a fish finder radar device in an area that reaches depths of between 50-90 feet deep. Once the presence of possible sites is located, a side-scan sonar device will be used to analyze the surface area of the lake bottom further and narrow the search for sites. Upon the discovery of adequate evidence for a site, a sub-bottom profiler will be utilized to gather under surface data of the site. All data will then be analyzed, and a determination will be made as to whether there is enough evidence to assemble a scuba team to perform test excavations at the underwater sites. Investigation of the Mutton Creek area will take two seasons. The first season will consist of a geophysical survey of the Mutton Creek shoreline and underwater scanning. Investigations will be limited to COE property. Interviews with local artifact collectors familiar with the Stockton Project and Mutton Creek areas and familiar with the sites previously tested or located within the project boundaries will be conducted, and a literature and records review will be conducted to determine if cultural properties were known to exist in any of the areas to be surveyed. The second season will consist of extensive land site excavations and diving for survey and excavation of underwater sites. Budget Justification: ($20,000) $1,872.00: Travel and Lodging: Because the Mutton Creek, Stockton Lake area of interest is rural, my research will require travel to location and lodging near the site. Mutton Creek will allow camp reservation for five weeks, and has campsites located within a 10-minute walk/ 5-minute drive to shoreline. $5,344.00: Food and drink for undergraduate/graduate students during the two five-week seasons of field investigation. ~ Underwater survey of the area will require specialized equipment: $826.00: Rental of Tritech StarFish 990F side scan sonar system for one week each season $840.00: Rental of Trimble Kenai rugged Windows 10 tablet computer for one week each season $1,500.00: EdgeTech 216s Chirp Sub-Bottom Profiling System for one week each season $2,520.00: 2 Alum 80 Nitrox Tanks, BCD, Regulator/ Compass/ Gauge, Mask, Fins, Snorkel, Wetsuit, Inflatable Safety Marker for one week each season for two divers. $7,098.00: Rental of Stratos 258 Bass Boat This survey equipment cannot be obtained from my institution because neither the department nor the college has equipment to loan out for graduate work. Further, the equipment that is available on site is not of the quality that this project requires. The local community has a Historical Society that is willing to donate all tools needed for excavation purposes. There are also local archaeological enthusiasts that have offered their volunteer assistance if needed. Question 4: How have you prepared yourself to do this research? Describe your language competence, technical skills, previous research, and any other relevant experience. Describe any work you have already done on this project and how this research relates to other research you have done. You may be working with academic collaborators, if so, please describe their role in this project and how it will relate to yours. [Limit: 1000 words] My primary training for this research stems from my two years of coursework within anthropology at one of the leading anthropology graduate programs in the United States. During this time took classes on a broad range of anthropological topics including Biological Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, Archaeological Field School, Anthropological Method and Theory, Anthropology of Hunters and Gatherers, Rise of Early Civilization, and Osteology. My background in visual communication, both academic and technical, has prepared me to use video and photographic equipment as my primary recording method for this project. In addition to my ten years of technical and academic training in art photography and photojournalism, I have taught community and youth classes in manual camera, black and white darkroom techniques, and documentary video. In May-August 2004, and again for several weeks in December 2004 and February 2005, I assisted Stockton area law enforcement with underwater searches for ongoing investigations. This required me to obtain my SCUBA certification and has provided me with a significant amount of experience diving in the Stockton Lake. I am familiar with the lake water conditions and seasonal tourist activity of the Stockton Lake area. My familiarity of the research area will be of vital importance when conducting underwater research during the summer seasons as this is a tourist hotspot and there is a significant about of boating and fishing activity to the north of the Mutton Creek branch. Question 5: What contribution will your project make to anthropological theory? Please note that the Foundation’s mission is to support innovative research in anthropology. We are interested in supporting work that does more than simply add to an existing body of knowledge. Describe how your project will bring new insights to the field as a whole. [Limit: 500 words] My contribution to anthropological theory will be to use approaches from archaeology, science, geography, and technology to identify the indigenous identity, prehistoric significance better, and attempt to further current limited knowledge on the ways of life of Paleoindian people. The approach that I will use is of archaeology as a science. That is, archaeology has traditionally have been seen as a branch of history, focused on the explanation of the past and the gathering of data to collect site-specific assemblages. Archaeology in Missouri has typically been interpreted through the archaeological discoveries in western Kansas City (Johnson 1974), northeastern Missouri (Logan 1952; Klippel 1971; Shippe 1957, 1966; O’Brien and Warren 1979), and in the Ozark Highlands (McMillan 1976b; Kay 1982a, 1982b; Roper 1981). By conducting thorough research in the Stockton Lake area, vital information on the prehistoric cultures of the southwestern Missouri region will be gained. Works Cited Burns, Louis F 2004 A History of The Osage People. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama. Press. Callon, Michel 1999 Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of Saint Brieuc Bay. In the Science Studies Reader. Mario Biagioli, eds. Pp. 67-83. New York: Routledge. Cairns, Alan 2003 Afterword: international dimensions of the citizenship issue for indigenous peoples/nations. Citizenship studies 7(4):497-513. Christie, Gordon 2003 Aboriginal Citizenship: Sections 35,25, and 15 of Canada’s Constitution Act, 1982. Citizenship studies 7(4): 481-496. Clifford, James 1988 Identity in Mashpee. In the Predicament of Culture. Pp. 277-346. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Corrigan and Sayer 1985 The Great Arch: English State Formation as Cultural Revolution. Basil: Blackwell. Dumit, Joseph 1997 A Digital Image of the Category of the Person: PET scanning and Objective Self Fashioning. In Cyborg and Citadels: Anthropological Interventions in Emerging Sciences and Technologies. Gary Lee Downey and Joseph Dumit, eds. Pp. 83-102. Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press. Franklin, Sarah 2003 Re-thinking nature-culture. Anthropological Theory 3(1): 65-85. Garroutte, Evan Marie 2003 Real Indians: Identity and the Survival of Native America. Berkeley: Unversity of California Press. Isin, Engin F. and Bryan S. Turner 2002 Handbook of Citizenship Studies. London: Sage Publications. Latour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar 1979 An Anthropologist Visits the Laboratory. In Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. Pp. 43-90. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Paley, Julia 2002 Toward and Anthropology of Democracy. Annual Review of Anthropology 31:469-96. Ramos, Alcida Rita 2003 The special (or specious?) status of Brazilian Indians. Citizenship studies 7(4):401-421 Roseberry, William 1994 Hegemony and the Language of Contention. In Everyday Forms of State Formation. Gilbert M Joseph and Daniel Nugent, eds. Pp: 355-356 Durham, Duke University Press. The Early Mississippian Period Peoples of the Southeast Missouri Region
ABSTRACT THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF CAST IRON: In the experiment, the microstructures of five samples of different cast iron forms were observed and investigated under the optical microscope and an iron-carbide phase was studied. The suitable drawings were made under different magnification of 100 and 200. Each constituent of the microstructure was identified and also other structural features of the sample provided were identified. The samples areBlackheart malleable cast iron, Ferritic spheroidal graphite iron, Pearlitic spheroidal graphite iron, White cast iron and Phosphoric grey cast iron. The differences in the microstructure were due to the difference in heat treatment, process of cooling and additives present. COPPER SILVER EUTECTIC ALLOY: The eutectic alloy formed between silver and copper was observed. The microstructure of all the four samples was drawn using the optical microscope with 200 magnifications. 90%Ag 10% Cu, 72%Ag 28% Cu, 50% Ag 50% Cu, 30% Ag 70% Cu are the samples provided. An equilibrium diagram was constructed for the copper-silver alloy system, the features of interest as well as the constituent of the structure was identified for all the samples. INTRODUCTION THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF CAST IRON Cast irons are a class of ferrous alloys with a carbon content of between 2.0 – 4.5%; they contain sufficient carbon so that the eutectic reaction occurs during solidification. They are the most economical in terms of foundry cost which makes the useful even though they are quite brittle; they are fine for low stressed components like cylinder block. Their versatility makes them a high demand in the market. Cast iron contain contrasting amount of manganese, sulphur and phosphorus. They have varying strength and can resist wear and abrasion and corrosion and they can be easily machined. They are easily melted and cast making the good casting impression. The carbon in a cast iron exists in two forms, as a free form of graphite or in a combination as a cementite which is unstable iron carbide. Iron is hard and difficult to machine due to how brittle the cementite is while graphite is soft making the iron softer and easy to machine. Graphite weakens metal due to its occurrence in flakes by breaking up its continuity. Because of the characteristics of these two carbon form, the relative amount, the shape and distribution in the cast iron produces different cast irons variety of properties. Grey cast iron contains tiny interconnected flakes of graphite that allow low strength and ductility. It’s the mostly used cast iron and named after its grey colour on fracture surfaces. White cast iron produces more cementite than graphite during solidification, it is a hard brittle alloy containing massive amount of fe3c. Alloyed white cast iron is used due to their hardness and wear resistance for abrasive wear. The name was given due to white fractured surface. Malleable cast iron is formed by the heat treatment of white cast iron, it has better ductility and they produce rounded clumps of graphite. It is very machinable and is made by heat treating unalloyed 3% carbon. A spherodite are micro constituent of coarse spheroidal graphite particles in a matrix of pearlite or ferrite, permitting excellent machining characteristics in high carbon steel. The structure of cast iron is affected by a number of factors. The type of iron form is determined by the rate of solidification as slow cooling will produce grey iron and the rapid one will produce white iron structure. Whether graphite or cementite is formed and by what quantity is determined by the carbon content of the melt and presence of other element. For example nickel and silicon promote the formation of graphite in the iron structure. The structure is affected by the type of heat treatment, cementite will decompose to ferrite and graphite will produce a completely different structure. COPPER-SILVER EUTECTIC ALLOYS: There are three single phase regions on the phase diagram of binary alloys of silver and copper. The phase is a solid solution rich in copper which has silver as the solute and an FCC structure it also include pure copper and is considered to include pure copper. An eutectic region can be defined as a three phase invariant reaction in which one liquid phase solidifies to form two solid phases. Copper and silver form an eutectic at 72%Ag and 28%Cu at a temperature of 780oC.The temperature at which an alloy become totally liquid decreases as silver is added to copper which is also the same as the addition of copper to silver. A microstructure may be defined as the structural feature of an alloy, its grain and phase structure that are subject to observation under microscope. Copper is a face centred cubic structured metal possessing good ductility, good thermal and electrical conductivity. It is often used as a constituent of various metal alloys. The melting point of pure copper is 1083oC while that of pure silver is 961oC. Silver possesses one of the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal. It has FCC structure and is sometimes produced as a by-product of copper. When the full liquid solubility is possible with complete solid insolubility or very limited solid solubility then an eutectic relationship exist. This exists in copper and silver but they are fully soluble in liquid state. EXPERIMENTAL THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF CAST IRON Five prepared micro specimens were provided and the microstructure of each studied and drawn using a microscope. The specimens provided were Blackheart malleable cast iron at magnification 100 Ferritic spheroidal graphite iron at magnification 100 Pearlitic spheroidal graphite iron at magnification 200 White cast iron at magnification 100 Phosphoric grey cast iron at magnification 200 Each constituent and other structural feature of importance in the microstructure of white cast iron was labelled on the drawing. The procedure was performed to all specimens. COPPER-SILVER EUTECTIC ALLOYS Four polished and etched micro sections of copper silver alloys were provided. 30% Ag 70% Cu 72%Ag 28% Cu 50% Ag 50% Cu 90%Ag 10% Cu These alloys have already been melted in a gas fired furnace, deoxidised by polling with graphite rod and then cast in refractory moulds preheated to 500oC. I placed the samples under the microscope at a magnification of 200; my observation was drawn with the help of the microscope. The constituent and structural features are drawn and labelled, I repeated the steps for the entire specimen and the equilibrium diagram was drawn from the data. RESULTS The results are compiled in the couple of pages attached to the next pages. DISCUSSION THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF CAST IRON The way a metal is cooled produces the different structures of cast iron. Two of these structures are white and grey cast iron. As the metal is cooled, the amount of austenite in the matrix increases. At the eutectic temperature of 1130°C the remaining liquid solidifies producing austenite in a eutectic matrix. A structure consisting of cementite, Fe3C and eutectoid iron starts to form as structure starts to decompose. The eutectoid contains area of pearlite and cementite and it’s also a mixture of cementite and ferrite. The pearlite is formed as a result of the decomposition of the austenite on cooling. This structure is that of white cast iron which is formed due to the rapid rate of cooling. The cooling rate of white and grey cast iron affects the structure; fast cooling rate promotes white cast iron while slower cooling rate promotes grey cast iron. The carbide composition can have effect on the structure of the iron produced; high amount of chromium promotes white cast iron while low amount promotes grey cast iron. Section size can also determine iron structure obtained. Cool section cool faster and produce white cast iron while thick sections will cool slower promoting formation of grey cats iron. A number of variables must be controlled in order to produce grey cast iron instead of white cast iron. For a grey cast iron to form, the rate of cooling must be made as slow as possible. High silicon content will also promote the formation of grey cast iron as silicon has strong graphitising tendencies. Phosphoric grey iron is stronger, has a lower melting point and better fluidity than normal grey cast iron. The Blackheart malleablising process is the packing of white iron castings into pots with a neutral packing, such as sand or crushed slag, and heating them to 900°C for three days. After the three days they are cooled very slowly. The cementite in the white iron is being decomposed into ferrite and graphite is being precipitated in a smoothly dispersed form. The structure is composed entirely of ferrite and graphite. The graphite present in the structure is shown as ‘rosettes’ of carbon in the ferrite. After the process, the small amount of pearlite left has no effect on the properties of the casting. The steel produced in this process has good wear resistance and strength and reasonable toughness. Additives are used to produce spheroidal graphite iron rather than flake graphite iron. Magnesium amounting to 1-2% of the weight of the iron is added in the form of a nickel magnesium alloy of 10-20% magnesium. The alloy is used to prevent an extremely violent reaction from occurring. The presence of silicon also assists the formation of the nodules therefore Ferro-silicon is added. The sulphur level needs to be kept low in order to avoid removing the Mg as sulphide. In the production of a ferritic graphite iron, spheroids of graphite in pearlite matrix are heat treated to form spheroids of graphite in ferrite matrix. This is time dependent process and doesn’t go into completion therefore causing pearlite area to still be seen. COPPER-SILVER EUTECTIC ALLOYS On drawing of the 30%Ag70%Cu, alpha particles can be seen and dark patches show primary dendrites outside eutectic. The 50%Ag50%Cu alloy sample also shows primary alpha dendrites outside eutectics. In the 90%Ag10%Cu sample there is small amount of eutectic and light areas show beta particles while the dark areas show alpha particle. On the equilibrium diagram ADB is the liquidus and ACDEB is the solidus. The area ACF represents the alpha phase of the silver in copper while BEG represent the condition of limited solid solution of copper in silver which is the beta phase. Below FCDEG the two phase’s alpha and beta exist side by side. The 72%Ag28%Cu micro section has an all eutectic composition with dark areas also representing alpha particles and light areas showing beta particles the centre of the microstructure is the first to solidify then the outside area. Composition of solid and liquid phases will vary with the temperature along the solidus and liquidus lines. The final liquid between composition C and E will always end at eutectic regardless of what the initial composition may be. As a result the solid will be composed of masses of A and B. At eutectic CW parts liquidus composition Y while WY parts composition C. During casting it’s virtually impossible to achieve equilibrium conditions. Coring is the non equilibrium cooling on microstructures. Coring explains how the varying primary dendrites allow lighter areas in the centre than in the outside. The properties of a cored structure are less than optimal, as a casting having a cored structure is reheated causing grain boundaries regions will meet first as long as they are richer in low melting components. The liquid film that separate the grain gives an outcome of sudden loss of mechanical integrity. The melting may begin at a temperature below the equilibrium solidus temperature of the alloys. Homogeneous heat treatment can be used to remove coring at a temperature below the solidus point of the alloy composition. During the process, atomic diffusion occur producing compositionally homogeneous grain. CONCLUSION Cast irons have many different structures each one caused by a different cooling rate, additives and different heat treatments. Formation of grey cast iron over white cast iron is promote by slow cooling rate and enormous silicon content Coring can be eliminated by a homogenising heat treatment. Magnesium and silicon help to produce spheroidal graphite iron rather than flake graphite iron To produce a ferritic spheroidal graphite iron from pearlitic spheroidal graphite iron the steel must be heated to just below the lower critical temperature. Phosphoric iron will enable to cast very fine details and in blackheart malleablising process, rosettes from graphite in ferrite matrix are produced from white cast iron. The composition of the copper silver eutectic alloys has a very large effect on the microstructure of the alloy, with different amounts of the phases being produced on cooling.

Creating Home, School, and Community Connections

Creating Home, School, and Community Connections. Paper details This lesson contains two questions. Responses for the first question should be at least four complete sentences. For the second question, please ensure that you have written at least seven sentences for your response. 1. What are two ways that parental support benefits ELs? 2. What is an idea that you have to involve the surrounding community into the school? How would you seek approval for this idea? How would you solicit the community to be involved in this idea?Creating Home, School, and Community Connections

IBUS 592 SFSU Sun Life Financial in China Case Study

term paper help IBUS 592 SFSU Sun Life Financial in China Case Study.

Read the article below and Answer these questions. Should be more than 600 words.1.Was it a good time for Sun Life Financial to pursue China market? Why? (Note you could analyze the question using PEST and Porter’s Industry Analysis Framework as guidelines. A good analysis should answer the following three sub-questions: (1) Is China a strategically important market and why? What are the potential opportunities and threats/costs? (2) Does Sun Life Financial has internal capability to exploit the opportunities and overcome the threats/entry barriers? Why? (3) Overall, what are the pros and cons of entering China?)2.Why did Sun Life Financial choose Everbright Group to be their partner?3.If you were Ohannessian, which city would you choose? Why? Specify your criteria to evaluate which city to choose?
IBUS 592 SFSU Sun Life Financial in China Case Study

Explain the method of my capstone project

Explain the method of my capstone project. I’m studying and need help with a Health & Medical question to help me learn.

My capstone project title is: The nurses gap between knowledge and practice in pain management, the barriers to pain management and best ways to provide pain assessment and treatment in patient in physical rehabilitation.
Begin by describing the method you chose and why this method was the most appropriate.
Next, detail every step of the data gathering and analysis process.
Although this section varies depending on method and analysis technique chosen, many of the following areas typically are addressed:

Description of population (reviewers or participants):
Description of design type
Justification for inclusion/exclusion of content
Development of instrument, tool or method for obtaining feedback (surveys, interviews, observation, content analysis)
Identification of themes/categories

This section should be about 4-6 pages and content should be separated with APA first and second level headings.
These information may help:
– My population: 14 nurses working in a physical rehabilitation center. – Collection of information through a written tool
– Tool or instrument: A Survey will be distributed to nurses whith questions that they have to answer. After they answered the questions, the survey will be collected back. And results will be analysed.
Explain the method of my capstone project

Organizational Behavior management

Organizational Behavior management. I’m trying to learn for my Management class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

S.T.A.R. Instructions

Apply key Organizational Behavior concepts to your career and professional life using real-life examples.
Produce a concise report of 200-300 words.
Follow S.T.A.R. steps as a guideline for telling your story and naming, defining, and applying OB concepts, models, and theories.

Situation: In one sentence, identify the situation in your career or professional life.
Task: In one sentence, identify the task.
Action: In one paragraph explain what action you took. Apply a theory, model, or concepts from your readings.
Results: In one paragraph, explain the results/outcomes of your action. Apply the theory, model, or concepts from your reading.

Include specific details to show how a selected theory or model relates to and provides insights into your experience. Does the experience support or refute the theory or model? How does the theory or model help you understand the experience?

S.T.A.R. Reflection Question:

After reading this week’s Chapters 1 and 2 (see “Organizational Behavior and Management”) explain how one of the discussed concepts (e.g., organizational effectiveness, speed of change, psychological contract, technology, five cultural dimensions, organizational culture, socialization, mentoring, spirituality) impact your behavior in the workplace.
What are its positive, as well as the negative, implications on your workplace behavior?
In the context of the selected concept, do you believe that you might have difficulty working with others who behave differently? Why?

S.T.A.R. Reflection Paper Formatting

Title Page
Situation (1 sentence)
Task (1 sentence)
Action (1 paragraph)
Results (1 paragraph)
Conclusion (2-3 sentences)

Organizational Behavior management