Number the answers accordingly
Accrediting standards are not always required, but most healthcare facilities seek to meet them and have official recognition by an appropriate accrediting agency. Why might it be important for a healthcare manager to seek voluntary accreditation?
Resistance to change is common in healthcare settings. Discuss how you might address resistance to change per text and class lectures.
Which of the “Do’s and Don’ts” of delegation have you observed in the workplace, and which would you avoid and why if you were to become a healthcare manager?
Six styles of leadership are described in the text and were discussed in class. Which of the six styles is closest to your personality, and how might this hinder or support you if you were to become a healthcare manager?
How important is it for managers to plan for the unknown? How might planning for the unknown be accomplished?
Boston University Case Law Interpretation Solow V Wellner Discussion
Boston University Case Law Interpretation Solow V Wellner Discussion.
The defendants are approximately 80 tenants of a 300-unit luxury apartment building on the upper east side of Manhattan. The monthly rents in the all-glass-enclosed building, which won several architectural awards, were very high. The landlord brought a summary proceeding against the tenants to recover rent when they engaged in a rent strike in protest against what they viewed as deteriorating conditions and services. Among other things, the evidence showed that during the period in question, the elevator system made tenants and their guests wait interminable lengths of time, the elevators skipped floors and opened on the wrong floors, a stench emanated from garbage stored near the garage and mice appeared in that area, fixtures were missing in public areas, water seeped into mailboxes, the air conditioning in the lobby was inoperative, and air conditioners in individual units leaked. The defendant-tenants sought abatement of rent for breach of the implied warranty of habitability. Did the landlord breach the implied warranty of habitability? Solow v. Wellner, 150 Misc.2d 642, 569 N.Y.S.2d 882, 1991 N.Y. Misc. 169 (Civil Court of the City of New York)Please follow the instruction. There are two model answers in the attachment.
Boston University Case Law Interpretation Solow V Wellner Discussion
Organizational Behaviour Absenteeism And Efficiency Management Essay
essay help online Nowadays, absenteeism is one of the most important factor that affect the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency. The changeable nature of workplace absenteeism affects directly to employers who must take steps to replace the absent worker, adjust and adapt schedules where the level of cost for the company increase in terms of sick pay, lost of productivity, poor quality and delays. According to Lillie Guinell and Jeanne Herman in their study “Perceived Consequences of Absenteeism”, the factors that motivated worker absenteeism include: break from routine, family activities, personal illness, break from supervisor, family illness, and time with friends, family functions, personal business, break from co-workers, transportation, leisure time, house maintenance. Also, the stress and work environment are another key factors that affect the absence. For that reason, the employers must start to re-evaluate the conditions within company and determined how these conditions help to motivate absenteeism between employees. Firstly, the cost which is involved in absenteeism is an important issue that the companies must to manage and measure. According to survey “The Total financial Impact of Employee Absences” done by Mercer, the full cost of employee absences is very significant, amounting to 36% of payroll. Managers know that these absences do affect an organization’s customer service, staffing and business objectives. However, absences have three areas of financial impact: direct cost, indirect cost and Administrative expenses. Direct costs: benefit provided to an employee for time not worked. For example, vacation and a short-term disability. Indirect costs: these costs represent the real impact to the organization as a result of the absence. There are two components: Replacement labor expenses (the costs for employers to have other individuals do the work that an absent employee is unable to do, costs for overtime, temporary labor, and outside contractors) and Net lost productivity value (salary and benefits/other HR costs as a percentage of payroll for the percentage of work not fully covered by replacements or by exempt employees working longer hours). Administrative costs: additional costs an employer bears for internal staff, software, office space and equipment or for an outside organization to administer absence benefits To quote from www.bbc.co.uk “To Business the Economy £10 bn cost of sick leave”, absence from work costs British industry £10.2bn a year where the principal causes are mainly minor illnesses, stress and family responsibilities. Also, more than 530 firms for the Confederation of British Industry estimated that 200m days were lost through sickness absence last year, an average of 8.5 days per worker and the cost to business works out at £426 for every employee, while 3.7% of all working time was lost. Companies must the challenge of control and measure absenteeism which is a critical factor. For that reason, it needs to start to evaluate how is their management style because this is a factor that has strong influence on employee’s stress. For example, when the management styles are extremely authoritarian, it promotes high levels of absenteeism among employees. Because in this case, managers have poor listening skills, lack communication and they are inflexible and put a lot of pressure on employee. To quote from the case study Changing work patterns at Lloyds TSB, absenteeism often increase when these pressures become too much. Research shows that people who are free to concentrate on their job without conflict with other commitments are much more efficient workers. Style of leader and management play an important role and they have the responsibility to increase the commit within employees and the challenge of manage issues from the staff such as the pressure of a career set against a background of family responsibilities Moreover, for employees are important fell motivated in their workplace because it puts more energy into work in order to achieve the goals and objectives. If employees are confident to take pride in what they do, the level of absenteeism will be low because they fell happy to go work in a place where has met their needs. Also, when the employers provide an ideal atmosphere within organization, the employees will be more productive and competitive and they will enjoy working and give the best. In fact, there are different ways that the employers can use for motivate their employees which help to improve the performance of the company and control the absenteeism level. First of all, to give employees more responsibility and decision-making authority increases their realm of control over the tasks for which they are held responsible and better equips them to carry out those tasks. Secondly, when it is used the exchange of ideas and experiences between employees, give to the company the ability to respond proactive to markets trends and develop a competitive advantage. Also, employee’s skills are the most important intangible resource in the company. Companies have the challenge of motivate employees through programs which helps to improve their skills and attitudes. As a result, employees will be motivated to go to the workplace and give the best and growing in their careers. For example, Siemens the engineering group care about their employees and they knows when the employee are motivated because they shows that learn faster, have more ideas, they are less likely to cause accidents and make mistakes. But achieve this motivation is a challenge for all companies because it is expensive and it is not easy. On the other hand, the Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS), one of the largest financial institutions in the world. It has put in place several of motivators where employees get recognition for good work and RBS has a collective sense of achievement when the whole business does well Furthermore, giving employees incentives is one strategy that company uses for reduce the level of absenteeism. According to Gary Vikesland in his article How to Deal with Employee Absenteeism, some companies allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an employee two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others provide employees with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratch-off card concealing prizes. It is important to start with small incentives and work up to larger ones. For example, The RBS Total Reward package offers flexible pension funding, health and medical benefits, paid holidays, and a confidential advice service. Employees have a generous holiday allowance (between 25 and 30 days for full-time staff), with the option of buying or even selling days. Employees may also choose from a wide range of lifestyle benefits, including discounted shopping vouchers, childcare facilities and RBS financial products, such as mortgages, currency exchange, personal loans and banking at special staff discounted rates. Moreover, monetary and other rewards generate cost-savings or process improving ideas, to boost productivity and reduce absenteeism. Money is effective when it is directly tied to an employee’s ideas or accomplishments. This incentive must to be coupled with other motivators, if not this strategy will not work. For example, if the employees gets a good salary, and bonus but they are working in a bad atmosphere where the principal felling is stress, the motivation will be affected and they do not fell motivation to go in the workplace. For that reason, nonmonetary incentives are more effective motivators; employers who recognize the advance and goals from their employees and treat them with respect and giving sincere praise are more effective and economical than awards with just money. In the same vein, another issue that has influence on absenteeism is job satisfaction which has relation with attitudes. To quote from Management and Organizational Behaviour by LAURIE J. MULLINS, in recent years attention to job satisfaction has become more closely associated with broader approaches to improved job design and work organisation, and the quality of working life movement, and with stress and the work life balance. Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure by managers, there are different variables which influence on it such as individual factors (personality, education, abilities, intelligence), social factors (group working and norms, relationships), cultural factors (beliefs and values), organizational factors (personnel policies, employee relations, nature of work, technology and work organization, styles of leadership and working conditions) and environmental. In addition, one of the influences on job satisfaction, work performances and absenteeism is stress at work. It can affect the employee’s behaviour, where feelings such as tension and frustration are the principal elements of it. According to Health and Safety Executive (HSE) stress is a significant cause of illness and disease and is known to be linked with high levels of sickness absence, staff turnover and other indicators of organizational underperformance . However, Recent statistics confirm that About 1 in 7 people say that they find their work either very or extremely stressful (Psychosocial working conditions in Britain in 2007 HSE 2007), in 2005/06 just under half a million people in Great Britain reported experiencing work-related stress at a level they believed was making them ill, depression and anxiety are the most common stress-related complaints seen by GPs, affecting 20% of the working population of the UK. Moreover, results from the Labour Force Survey HSE 2007 shown that when stress leads to absence, the average length of sick leave is 30.1 days, this average is much higher than the average length of sick leave for work-related illness in general (21.2 days). Finally, a total of nearly 11 million working days were lost to stress, depression and anxiety in 2005/06. On the other hand, there are different methods which help to control the absenteeism in the company. Firstly, an attendance policy allows a manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. In this policy the company need to design absenteeism rate as a standard objective and then put it as part of the performance appraisal system and give a target with number. Besides, company must make additional regulation to reduce pay on their absence day. If company want to use this method, it needs to check the local legal regulations and policies before apply. To quote from the article “Best Ways to Introduce an Attendance Policy” by Krystle Hernandez, Companies must to allocate a specific number of sick days, vacation days, or more generally encompassing “personal days” to their employees in order to provide flexibility within policy. Ideally, attendance policies would all be flexible and custom-tailored to individual needs, but this is rarely ever the case and it is very economically unfeasible for many organizations which require employees to be actively involved in certain projects, events, or tasks from 9 am to 5 pm. However, it is important to note that each individual is unique and therefore maintains individual work habits. Some employees may produce more efficiently if they are given plenty time off to recover from the stress they put themselves under during their work. In other words, each employee has different needs, therefore any corporate attendance policies, if implemented, should be used as a basic guide which can be modified to increase individual productivity rather than serving as a set of regulations which, when broken, can result in severe penalties. In the same vein, According to F. John Reh, About.com, Employee Assistance Program (EAP) helps employers to cover all or part of the cost for employees to receive counselling, referrals, and advice in dealing with stressful issues in their lives. These may include substance abuse, bereavement, marital problems, weight issues, and anxiety that may be keeping them away from the workplace. As Peter L Mitchell said, there are some basic rules for designing an effective absentee program. First of all, the staffs needs to know what level of attendance is expected from them and what the consequences are if they meet the expectations and the consequences if they fail to meet the expectations. Secondly, measure and track absenteeism and record the performance in graph form which is posted in a public area. Then, give feedback on attendance by discussing absenteeism with the staff on a regular basis. Also, it is important help employees to maintain or improve their attendance records by discussing their reasons for not attending work and offering some solutions. However, motivate the staff it is a good way where it is recognise good attendance performance by having regular meetings with staff and making sure that attendance is a regular agenda item. Finally, manager needs to deal with ill health, HSE is a helpful guide for employeers and managers where it is explain how employers and employees can work together to hasten a return of work and minimized the effect of illness caused. To quote from www.hse.gov.uk, the strategy of HSE represents a clear statement of core principles and a sensible approach to health and safety in Great Britain.Whilst the economic climate is difficult and the temptation for some may be to cut corners, HSE, its partners and businesses must resolve to continue to strive to improve health and safety performance. Good health and safety is good business. To sum up, absenteeism has a significant financial impact to the company. To avoid these losses, the employees need to be motivated and committed in order to reduce the level of absenteeism. Research shows that people are more productive and experience less stress when they have control over the hours they work. Therefore, flexible working helps to gain the long term commitment and motivation of well qualified and experienced staff. However, Job satisfaction is more of an internal state; it could be associated with a feeling of personal achievement. The level of job satisfaction is affected by individual, social, organisational and cultural variables. Also, one of the major adverse influences on job satisfaction, performance, work sickness absence and productivity is stress at work where a certain amount of stress may possibly not be a bad thing but help to promote a higher level of performance. On the other hand, employers are facing a significant employee absenteeism problem where it means a increase of costs, future turnover problems and lost of productivity. For that reason, employers need to avoid these losses; having employee satisfaction surveys and acting on them, rewarding employees for good attendance, and making employees feel valued and respected are just a few ways employers can help start to reduce their own employee absenteeism problem in the workplace. For all companies attendance is an important issue that help it to reach their goals and it is a challenge improve the conditions in the workplace and achieve motivation between employees when they are working within company.
Analysis Of The Help Desk System Computer Science Essay
3.1 Introduction In this chapter we present the require processes of analysis via use “Problem Solving” to determine the necessary system requirements needed to achieve the objectives of the study, including a description of the hardware and software required, also an overview of the system design including requisite systems elements and their description and the algorithm used to develop the system is followed by Data Flow. Systems Development Life Cycle, important phases to description and analysis the system. Any system must processes into Base five stages: Planning Analysis Design Testing Implementation Output of each stage of above stage becomes the input for the next stage. These stages generally follow the same basic steps, but many different waterfall methodologies give the steps different names and the number of steps seems to vary between four and seven. In our system we will give names to Systems Development Life Cycle stage. We do not use all these stages, as we said earlier can be shortened to only four stages and can be up to seven or more stages depending on the system, but not less than four stages. Planning here do not need him, but can be incorporated into the analysis phase, the design here, the third stage and then comes the build or coding and finally stage testing phase. 3.2 Systems Development Life Cycle 1- Analysis: In this stage we will: Identify the old system’s problem. Identify the exact goals of the system. Problem Redefinition and the information domain for the software as well as required functions, behavior, performance and interfacing. Determine the statement of requirements for Help Desk Application “Data, Functional, Software and Hardware”. 2- Design: In this stage we will: Make overview of Help Desk system Architecture. Define the tables, relationships, forms and report. Identify the data items to be stored and by using the normalization it help us to minimize the size of the database. We make data flow diagram to determine the functions that we need. We make UML Diagrams ” Activity, Use Case, Class , Sequence and state chart” Also in this phase we will verify the design matches the business rules. Improve quality of data and choose a suitable primary and foreign key. 3- Build or coding: In this stage we will: Design the tables, relationships, forms, report and Graphical User Interface. Modify the prototype system and add all the functions and constraints to have the final version of the system. 4- Testing: Once the code is generated, Help Desk system testing begins “Database and user interface”. Different testing methodologies are available to unravel the bugs and fix any errors occur that were committed during the previous phases. The following types of testing: Unit testing System testing Integration testing Automation testing User acceptance testing Performance testing 5- Maintenance The deployment of the system in this stage is important to include change and enhancement requests after the software releases. Design Build or coding Testing Maintenance Analyses Design Build or coding Testing Maintenance (Fig.3.1 Systems Development Life Cycle) We mentioned previously we used the System Development Life Cycle approach see Fig. (3.1), and its define as the overall phases of developing information systems through multi-step phases that we Summarizes from Requirements Analysis and Specification, design, Implementation, Testing and Integration, Operation and Maintenance to generate Help desk system to provide all the features that’s we need to run the entire Help desk Procedures. 3.3 The Application Requirements Analysis and Specification In this Phase we used Problem Solving approach and is define as Describes the process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. An individual seeking to solve a problem will have to identify the most important elements that influence the answer and then work through a series of operations to determine a logical solution. Problem solving may include mathematical or systematic operations” [business dictionary, 09], to generate Help Desk that provide all the features that’s we need to run the entire help desk Procedures. Problem Definition when we check work in help desk department we find more than a problem like old way to communicate or connection lost because users need help doesn’t know how , where and connect to help desk team, After finished investigating we found that most of these systems are using manual mechanisms “Paper Transactions” such as hand-writing reports, spread sheet documents for recording Employees data and there reports has produced in a daily basis from normal word processing applications which are already separated from their data source. 3.3.1 Help Desk system Based Application Objectives Building database for Help Desk system: Establishing and building database for Help Desk in an organized way to store and retrieve data at any time. Working systematically: Shift all manual procedures and paper work to computer system by using Intelligent Documents and Other Feature in Help Desk System. Powerful constriction database: Allows you to keep track to all your daily records, keep a history of your login information, and generate the detailed reports. Flexible and customize: With Microsoft Visual Basic 2008, SQL Server 2005, and ASP.net, Photoshop and Dream weaver. We can easily customize the system depending on the business needs, so we can create a powerful database with its relationships then control it by using programming code to manage the interface features and build a web page for Help Desk system including full query forms to connect it to the database. Having security privileges: Each type of user will have a permission to access the system with specific privilege, such as school Account, engineer Account and Administrator Account. Saving time and efforts: By using the mentioned queries tools which will speed up the process and there is no need to spend time in process for a record and type information, moreover the administration will add the unique information one time. Also by using GUI accelerates our time so we can decrease using paperwork. Learnable graphical interface: It is very simple to learn and use it and does not require any business background. The entire application can learned in a few minutes. Also Help Desk System is perfect for any business requiring employee’s data such as Help Desk; also the interface created very easy by user-friendly and simple to operate. 3.3.2 Help Desk processes The help desk system project problem that focuses how to automate help desk processes, these processes contain the following: all user have permeations to access system administrator only can add groups, users and engineers user can editing profile or owner data only administrator can view reports in all process engineer view working order by steps administrator can track work and engineer engineer when finish work manger know that easy to evaluation work and engineer use fixed report to print or view or save to your computer workflow in steps and organizing work 3.3.3 Statement of Requirements Data Requirements The system analyst request to have a reliable database for help desk System that contains the following:- Schools data. Engineer data. Full reports for different criteria’s. Printable Reports. Data access control. Full Inquiry forms manipulation. One sheet form for updating staff information. Access authority for certain users according to permissions. Software Requirements Adobe acrobat reader (for view report). Microsoft SQL Server 2005(for building a database). Microsoft Visual Basic 2008 and Photoshop (for GUI interface issue). Dot net frame work 3.5. Crystal report (for view and printing report) Operating System “Windows XP/Vista/7/windows 2003/2008 server. Hardware Requirements Work Stations or Laptops “minimum specification”. Processor: Intel P4 based system Processor Speed: 1.5GHz RAM : 512MB Free space 20 MB in OS drive Server “minimum specification”. Processor: Intel (R) Processor Speed: 2.8GHZ RAM : 2 GB Hard Disk: 120 GB Laser Printers. Active local area network and wide area network. Others Requirements Books and E-Books. Websites and search engines. Meeting with Help Desk managers. Interviews with peoples who works in IT in the same field. 3.3.4 Feasibility Study The objective form Feasibility Study is determined whether or not the proposed system is feasible. The three tests of feasibility have been carried out in this Study:- Technical Feasibility: it’s related to the test whether the proposed system can be developed using existing technology and requirements or not. It is planned to implement the proposed system using Visual Basic and SQL server technology. It is evident that the necessary hardware and software are available for development and implementation of the proposed system. Hence, the solution is technically feasible. Economical Feasibility: it’s related to the costs and benefits associated with the proposed system compared and the project is economically feasible only if tangible or intangible benefits outweigh costs. The system development costs will be significant. So the proposed system is economically feasible for any organization however big or small it is. Operational Feasibility: it’s related to the standard that ensures interoperability without stifling competition and innovation among users, to the benefit of the public both in terms of cost and service quality. The proposed system is acceptable to users. So the proposed system is operationally feasible. 3.4 Help Desk system Based Application Proposed Design Our proposed system serve any level in the ministry of education, any where and any time, whether by using Local Area Network “LAN” inside the organization , Wide Area Network “WAN” in outside the organization or entrant network .Where we adopted on three basic objects “Employee, engineer. School and Administrator of help desk department to run the reliable and secure Help Desk system application with the newest techniques, we used Microsoft SQL Server 2005 for building a database, Microsoft Visual Basic 2008, Crystal Report and Photoshop for Graphical user Interface “GUI” and development features. 3.4.1 Help Desk System Based Application Architecture Help Desk Engineer Administrator Admin Engineer Secretary We adopted on three basic objects that make up the Help Desk System Based Application “Administrator, engineer and user” and their interactions and relationships each other. Fig. (3.2) Help Desk System Based Application 22.214.171.124 Administrator Reading and see all and recently important. Add all users requested. Add new or change a name of schools in system. Add problems types in the system. Add Evaluation Terms by view reports. View Engineer data According to his/her department as a report. View all Engineer ad user data as a report. Approve a problem to engineer to do it. Only the Administrator can see all the information about the status Accounts and Passwords in profiles admin engineer, school user or Engineers Accounts. Only the Administrator can edit all profiles in the system admin engineer or Engineers Accounts. Follow up the all transaction approval in the system such as “now Engineer joining in, engineer work finish or notâ€¦etc 126.96.36.199 Admin Engineer Reading and see all important and recently reports about the work. Reading and see all receiving messages. organize work by different user View Employee data According to his/he school as a report. Make a periodical Evaluation for Engineers. Print report and can save it. Modify workflow and see work problems. 188.8.131.52 Engineer View the works to be carried out by. Possibility of verification of the tasks that have. The engineer can know the functions carried out by. View the status of author, who will do or tool. Edit and modify him Profile. 184.108.40.206 Secretary View the new problems and distributed to engineers. View the pending problems. View all problems that have been resolved 3.5 Help Desk System Based Application Database Design A database is a set of data, organized for easy access. The database is an actual data; it is the database that you will be accessing when you need to retrieve data. [en.wikipedia, 09] Help Desk System Based Application Database contains nine tables linkage each other and created it by Database Manager Administrator SQL Server 2005 for more Details see Physical model Fig (3.3) 3.5.1 Database Tables Name Pass Complaint ComplaintCondition Deff_ComplaintPriorty Deff_ComplaintType Deff_EducationArea Engineer School Secretary Fig. (3.3) Help desk system Based Application Physical model Diagram 3.5.2 Help desk Based Application Data Flow Data Flow is a graphical tool used to describe and analyze the moment of data through a system manual or automated including the process, stores of data, and delays in the system. Data Flow Diagrams are the central tool and the basis from which other components are developed. The transformation of data from input to output, through processes, may be described logically and independently of the physical components associated with the system. [en.wikipedia, 09] In Fig (3.4) below, shows “Data Flow” transformation of data, interactions and relationships between the four objects that make up the Help Desk System Based Application “Administrator, Engineer, School and secretary”, and their features they have it in the application, also shows the mutual features between these objects such Secretary Close Send Complaint Modify Data Complaint Status Logout Complaint Hanging Logout Close Fig (3.4) Help Desk System Based Application Data Flow Diagram Close Logout Complaint Status Send Complaint Modify Data Admin Admin Engineer School Engineer Close Logout Close Complaint Hanging Logout Report Secretary Complaint Type Schools Engineer Change Password Education area Login Fig (3.5) Help Desk System Based Application Data Flow Chart See flow char of Help Desk System fig (3.5) how is the user enter Complaint to soling throw in three user of our project first normal school user to enter the Complaint data in form and save second step go to secretary to select engineer then sent Complaint to third step engineer. When solving go to admin engineer to approval or selected done and deleted from the secretary form now all users know the problem is solving.
The Major Medical Causes of Maternal Deaths and Ways to Reduce It Essay
The world health organization estimates that half a million women die each year due to complications arising during pregnancy or birth. In Indonesia alone the Center for Health Research at the University of Indonesia estimates that 400 maternal deaths occur in every 100,000 live births in the country (Meiwita, Hull and utomo). Maternal death is defined by the World Health Organization as “the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration or site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental causes”(Hunt and Mesquita). Emergency Obstetric Care, which includes treating symptoms of “shock,” giving antibiotics and sedatives through injections, executing manual extraction of the placenta and basic curettage is vital to the reduction of maternal deaths accompanied by other lifesaving skills. There are two major causes of maternal deaths according to DFID: complications arising directly from pregnancy, delivery or postpartum duration and is also known as direct obstetric death, or due to an existing medical condition aggravated by pregnancy or delivery such as rheumatic heart disease, hepatitis, HIV-AIDS, anemia or malaria. These are known as indirect obstetric deaths. According to the above report by Center for Health Research at the University of Indonesia, direct obstetric deaths account for 75% of maternal deaths and include five major medical causes which are hemorrhage, complications of unsafe labor, eclampsia, obstructed labor and infection. All these can be treated before they become emergencies. Even as emergencies, Emergency Obstetric Care can save all these conditions since they require no complex technology and are inexpensive. These include blood transfusions, antibiotics and other drugs, safe abortion procedures and caesarian sections. Prediction and prevention of obstetric complications is a good way of preventing maternal deaths. Pregnant women should regularly visit a doctor or a clinic throughout their pregnancy where an obstetric complication can be identified early and treated or managed before it becomes a problem. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example minor bleeding can be detected and dealt with during these visits or cases of hypertension and could also be indicators that major bleeding both during and after birth could still occur and therefore emergency obstetric care is needed such as emergency surgery. However, some conditions appear without warning as research by center for Health Research at the University of Indonesia has indicated. Eclampsia cases can occur without prior indication of happening both during and after delivery but enough time is available to administer emergency obstetric care. The question is whether the facilities and skills to do so are available (Meiwita, Hull and utomo). In developing nations, the distribution and availability of health facilities and the necessary skills are major challenges especially in rural areas according to World Health Organization (Hunt and Mesquita). This means that pregnant women can not be able to make more frequent visits to a doctor or a clinic as they travel long distances to access them and some of the facilities required are not available. In some cases as researchers found out in Indonesia that women can not access medical professionals or adequate care during emergencies because they cannot afford the costs (Meiwita, Hull and utomo). These women are left in the hands of community health workers, midwives and other poorly trained practitioners. Emergency obstetric care is not a complex matter, midwifes, community health workers and paramedics likely to attend in births in such areas can be trained on these skills and lives would be saved (DFID). Witnesses to birth experiences such as village officials, community health workers, traditional birth attendants, neighbors and health care personnel and women themselves have their own interpretation of emergencies according to (DFID). They view these emergencies differently which may have a bearing on how they are handled. They may for example dismiss a case of postpartum hemorrhaging as normal which delays its management and subsequently lead to death. They can also handle a delivery unhygiencally leading to infection. Furthermore, a woman or her family or those attending her may fail to recognize the symptoms of eclampsia until it gets out of control. This is why community based initiatives such as training make Emergency obstetric care very necessary in reducing maternal death. We will write a custom Essay on The Major Medical Causes of Maternal Deaths and Ways to Reduce It specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited DFID. Reducing Maternal Deaths: Evidence and Action: Astrategy for DFID. London: Department for International Development, 2004. Hunt, Paul and Judith Mesquita. Reducing Maternal mortality: the contribution of the highest attainable standard of health. United Kingdom: university of essex, 2007. Meiwita, iskandar, et al. Unraveling the mysteries of maternal death in West Java : reexamining the witnesses. Jarkata: Centre for health Research,Research Health, University of Indonesia, 1996.