The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) is the premier critical thinking skills test in the world today. The CCTST has been used in the USA and in authorized translations worldwide with graduate student populations, executive level adult populations, and undergraduate students in all fields. It is a discipline-neutral measure of reasoning skills.CCTST Purpose:The CCTST is designed to permit test-takers to demonstrate the critical thinking skills required to succeed in educational or workplace settings where solving problems and making decisions by forming reasoned judgments are important. Used throughout the United States and in many countries and languages around the world, the CCTST has been proven to predict strength in critical thinking in authentic problem situations and success on professional licensure examinations.In educational settings the CCTST is recommended for evaluating program applicants, advising individual students, learning outcomes assessment, program evaluation, accreditation and research.CCTST OverviewThe California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) is an objective measure of the core reasoning skills needed for reflective decision making concerning what to believe or what to do.The CCTST is designed to engage the test-taker’s reasoning skills.Multiple choice items use everyday scenarios, appropriate to the intended test-taker group. Each item requires that the test-taker make an accurate and complete interpretation of the question. Any specialized information needed to respond correctly is provided in the question itself.The test items range in difficulty and complexity. Different questions progressively invite test-takers to analyze or to interpret information presented in text, charts, or images; to draw accurate and warranted inferences; to evaluate inferences and explain why they represent strong reasoning or weak reasoning; or to explain why a given evaluation of an inference is strong or weak.The instrument is typically administered in 45-50 minutes; the length of the instrument is set to permit maximum performance within the range of possible effort for the intended test-taker group.Taking the CCTSTThe CCTST is to be accessed only once in a given course. It will be considered cheating if a student access the exam a second time to change their scores, which means they would receive a grade of zero for the exam.
BUS3310 CCTST Exam
Urbanization in Hong Kong and Effects on Citizens Essay
Table of Contents Introduction Hong Kong as a Megacity Urban overpopulation Main Factors Behind the Issue Underlying factors Implications Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction Megacities are cities that can host more than 10 million inhabitants at the same time. In the early 1950s, Tokyo and New York were the only existing megacities around the globe. However, “while the proportion of people living in small cities is expected to decline, the million-plus cities accounting for about 40% of the total urban population in 2011 is expected to increase to 47% percent by 2025”1 and by 2030, there will be 41 megacities in the world2. On the surface, this development seems like a positive achievement on human organization and development, but if analyzed critically, an unusual pattern emerges. The new dwelling areas are developing faster. However, the focus is shifting from the original American and European regions to the entire Asian continent. By 2010, Asia alone hosted 17 of the world’s 31 megacities3. Additionally, the biggest population growth rates estimated to occur are in these newly formed Asian cities. This paper looks at the urbanization process of Asian megacities for the past decade. It then looks at urban overpopulation as an issue that affects the megacity concept. The paper then analyzes how this issue affects the people and some of the underlying questions that promote the problem. Lastly, it discusses the main finding of the analysis with the focus on Hong Kong. Hong Kong as a Megacity Marcotullio notes that within “the Asia-Pacific region, over the past few decades, cities have undergone massive transformations.”4 As modern age megacity, Hong Kong is famous for its openness and dynamism. Just like the other enumerable upcoming cities in Asia, it has discovered that it functions under the western economic system based on rich social and economic diversity.5 The country has faced some setbacks in the original ongoing economic development endeavors. In Asia, Hong Kong ranks among the top advanced economic systems, so it is strategically placed at the heart of the region. As a megacity, Hong Kong stands out due to its low tax rates, economic freedom, the adaptation of western social and economic models, transparency, the rule of law, and increased use of the English language. By the year 2011, Hong Kong had over seven million inhabitants, but unlike the western nations where systematic government planning existed, the country is currently facing a housing shortage. Besides, the western development plan that the country copied has led to some serious negative results. Apparently, the main cities like London allocate huge resources and energy to mitigate and prepare for any eventualities that might arise from population increase. On the other hand, Hong Kong does not have such unlimited energy and resources to spend on its planning. As the city of Hong Kong expands, it places increased stress on the quality of environmental resources like air, forest, and water. To the city inhabitants, this issue is urgent since it has a direct impact on their well-being. This aspect shows the main difference between this Asian city and its western counterparts where adequate measures are in place to prevent the human population from exerting too much impact on the environment. In 2010, the urban population in the Asian-pacific region amounted to 754 million people, which is more than the combined population of the EU and the US. Currently, approximately half of the inhabitants live in urban areas. The Pacific and Asia urbanization rates vary widely with sub-regions – approximate 34 percent of the citizens reside in urban regions. According to the UN estimates, by 2026, the urbanization rates in Asia will be as high as 50%6 Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Urban overpopulation Globally, seven of the ten most populated cities are located in the Asia-Pacific region. Overall, megacities are home to 11 to 29 percent of Asia’s urban inhabitants. It may account for only 11 percent of Asia’s urban population, but they are “a driving force for regional and global economies [constituting] hubs of knowledge, centers of cultural diversity and poles of attraction for business and industry seeking to benefit from economic efficiency through economies of scale”7. As the surface areas and the population of Asian mega-cities keep expanding, inefficient infrastructure leads to underdevelopment of the areas outside the megacities. This assertion holds because the majority of urban dwellers prefer living in areas with the best infrastructure and other facilities, which leads to the abandonment of areas bordering the cities. This scenario leads to overcrowding as people scramble to occupy the limited space in areas with the best infrastructure. Nevertheless, the megacities’ growth pace can exceed the national average it can only happen in the case of a higher level of poverty and social discrimination. The urban primacy rate, i.e. the number of people residing in the largest and most developed city in a country, over time has undergone a decline in relative terms. Apparently, the percentage of people living in major cities is increasing by the day, and this trend is expected to persist into the future. Main Factors Behind the Issue Rural communities adopted migration as methods of enhancing their household livelihoods and capitalizing from better urban area services. This strategy is a good way for them to invest in various economic and rural housing projects. Individuals migrating to urban areas eye the employment opportunities and improved lifestyles, which cannot compare to countryside scenario where little economic endeavors take place. In Asia, megacities also gain from the constant supply of human labor that comes from rural areas. Women empowerment also benefits from internal migration as women get direct access to employment outside the traditional home confines. However, some countries choose to constrain internal population movements so that the governments can monitor population movements in the urban areas. This governmental policy can help reverse or reduce the migration flows through establishing “rural employment creation programs, anti-slum drives and restricted entry to urban areas”8. Nevertheless, despite the barriers, rural populations continue to migrate to cities. A majority of those who moved from rural to urban parts of the country become employed in the informal sector for lengthy periods, and thus they are excluded from obtaining the extensive economic growth benefits in the megacities. In some cases, acts of God displace people, which are then forced to move to urban centers. For example, when the cities are located near areas affected by natural disasters, they very often become the recipients of the displaced persons who were forced to move due to environmental changes. These predicted numbers are expected to increase in the future as the disasters become more frequent. Moreover, in many Asian countries, sudden outbursts of the population were often caused because of the conflicts. Underlying factors Eighty percent of Asia’s gross domestic product comes from just 40 percent of the population that resides in cities. Conventionally, urbanization creates avenues for improved GDP and increased productivity, as industries and services are mostly concentrated in cities.9 However, not all of those who live in urban areas can enjoy equal benefits from economic growth. Over half of the world’s slum dwellers reside in the Asian megacities. What is more, in some areas, the levels of inequality and discrimination have reached alarming rates. The urban population percentage living in slums, i.e. “households with no durable housing, insufficient living space, no access to water nor sanitation”10, has escalated since 1990, and by 2010, it reached 30.8 percent, which is approximately 500 million people. The pace at which Asian megacities are developing is unsustainable in the long-term, which may cause serious problems in all aspects of living in the areas including pollution, overcrowding, and global warming among others. Environmental unsustainability lies at the core of the expected challenges that may hinder the growth and sustenance of Asian megacities. For example, “the World Health Organization ranks outdoor air pollution as the 13th greatest contributor to disease and death worldwide, causing an estimated 519,000 premature deaths every year, especially in urban areas”11. Apparently, Asian cities are highly likely to experience acts of God based on the available data on natural disasters. We will write a custom Essay on Urbanization in Hong Kong and Effects on Citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implications Approximately more than a sixth of the global populations reside in just 700 cities, which combined generate half of the global production. However, most of these cities have little influence over their policies, budgets, and planning. Reports show that by 2025, 60 percent of Hong Kong residents will reside in megacities, but the question remains on how they can cope if they cannot obtain useful sources and autonomy over the funds. Many Asian cities have little authority to charge their citizens or tax them for electricity or water let alone provide meaningful public transport, improved sewerage services, or roads that might enhance the residents’ life. People are stuck in thinking regarding the nation-state aspect. However, globally, many people who move to megacities often remain administratively powerless. Regardless of how people approach the issue, it will be impossible to tie down a vast bulk of humanity in agriculture in the near future. Three-quarters of the global population by 2025 will be urban. This assertion implies that more people will mean more megacities. These projected cities are an integral part of humanity’s future, and the implications should be both fascinating and scary. The examples of Seoul, Hong Kong, and Tokyo prove that megacities do not always have negative consequences. For a majority of the residents, the megacities are their livelihoods. Going forward, the focus should be on how to manage that uncertain future as opposed to shying away from its impacts. The general social behavior may also affect a city’s sustainability. Most likely, the development of megacities will reflect the citizens’ consumerism culture. This assertion holds because as wealth grows, income matches consumption. Therefore, even though consumerism may aid in uplifting the economy, it also signifies that more energy is needed to produce the necessary goods. Heightened public awareness and education, as well as policymakers on the developmental and environmental problems faced, are the first step towards the struggle to alleviate the current situation. Production processes and consumption patterns of the masses will also inevitably have to experience transformation for the long-term sustainability of the Asian megacities. Currently, sustainability seems far-fetched as current environmental challenges change regularly, but experts tend to remain powerless in influencing policy change. With the establishment of more Asian megacities in the possibly near future, the new century beginning should be an appropriate time for planners, politicians, and citizens as a unit to renew their resolve to establish a more sustainable environment for them and the future generations. Conclusion As a new century and millennium dawns, humanity is facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges arising from the acceleration of urbanization and the emergence of megacities mainly in Asia. The changes that revolve around these megacities have been monumental, but the development patterns and models are not sustainable. Different aspects of urbanization need to be addressed including elevated resource depletion, population growth, global warming, poverty, and pollution growth if hazard vulnerability and environmental degradation are to be managed sustainably. The current signs indicate extended natural and good balance problems in Asia’s large coastal cities and the rate at which people are expanding as they migrate. The view that the Asian coastal regions are in problem underscores the current trends of development widely embraced in these areas. One underlying issue is that there is less concern about possible sea-level rise and overpopulation despite the view that these aspects will be a bigger challenge in the future. Bibliography Marcotullio, Peter John. “Globalization, urban form and environmental conditions in Asia-Pacific cities.” Urban Studies 40, no. 2 (2003): 219-247. Ong, Aihwa. Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty. Durham Duke University Press, 2006. Not sure if you can write a paper on Urbanization in Hong Kong and Effects on Citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Singh, Raju. Urban Development Challenges, Risks, and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities. New York: Springer, 2015. Spence, Michel, Patricia Annez, and Robert Buckley. Urbanization and Growth. Washington D.C: World Bank Publications, 2008. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. Highlights. New York: United Nations, 2014. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Urbanization Trends in Asia and the Pacific. New York: United Nations, 2014. Footnotes Raju Singh, Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities (Tokyo: Springer, 2015), v. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. Highlights (New York: United Nations, 2014), 1. Singh, 6 Peter John Marcotullio, “Globalization, Urban Form and Environmental Conditions in Asia-Pacific Cities,” Urban Studies 40, no. 2 (2003): 219. Aihwa Ong, Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006), 101. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Urbanization Trends in Asia and the Pacific (New York: United Nations, 2014), 1. Ibid., 1. Ibid., 2. Michel Spence, Patricia Annez, and Robert Buckley, Urbanization and Growth (Washington D.C: World Bank Publications, 2008), 12. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 3. Ibid., 3.
sociology discussion help
order essay cheap sociology discussion help.
write a discussion on this: Discuss on the finances and economics of health policy.
The United States spends more on health care than any other nation, because of this they we tend to have poorer health outcomes and a lower life expectancy. discuss why you think this is and whether it makes the case for
the Affordable Care Act? and also discuss by considering
the ACA and other government health insurance programs.
Many individuals feel that the spending for these programs is out of
control and on the spending we need a reform.
sociology discussion help
LED 599 Trident University International Walt Disney Animation Studios Case Study
LED 599 Trident University International Walt Disney Animation Studios Case Study.
I’m working on a business writing question and need an explanation to help me learn.
Module 3 – CaseTHE POLITICAL FRAMEAssignment OverviewIn the Module 3 Case, you will write Chapter 3 of your thesis-style paper – relating to the Political Frame. Using specific examples of “politics” (i.e., the “jungle”) as defined by Bolman and Deal, you will use the Political Frame as a lens through which you will analyze the downfall of Walt Disney Company CEO Michael Eisner.Begin the Module 3 Case by visiting the Walt Disney Company website:The Walt Disney Company. (2014). Retrieved on May 8, 2014 from http://thewaltdisneycompany.com/The following articles provide a good starting point concerning former CEO Eisner’s tenure with the Walt Disney Company: White, D. (2005, Oct 01). When Mickey finally turned on his master. Michael Eisner’s reign at Disney is over. Dominic White reports. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved from Proquest. Consider Michael Karpeles’ article relating to politics in the Disney boardroom: Karpeles, M. D. (2005). Boardroom lessons from the Disney/Ovitz case. Corporate Board, 26(155), 6-10. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from EBSCO – Business Source Complete. Finally, read the following case study: Forbes, W., & Watson, R. (n.d.). Destructive corporate leadership and board loyalty bias: A case study of Michael Eisner’s long tenure at Disney Corporation. City University London. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from http://www.cass.city.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/56372/2A_Forbes.pdfCase AssignmentAfter you have reviewed the contents of the Walt Disney Company website, completed the above readings and those provided at the Background page of Module 3, and performed additional research from the library and the internet, write a 6- to 7-page paper in which you do the following:Using the following five assumptions of the Political Frame, complete an in-depth assessment of the Walt Disney Company:Organizations are coalitions of diverse individuals and interest groups.There are enduring differences among coalition members in values, beliefs, information, interests, and perceptions of reality.Most important decisions involve allocating scarce resources—who gets what.Scarce resources and enduring differences make conflict central to organizational dynamics and underline power as the most important asset.Goals and decisions emerge from bargaining, negotiation, and jockeying for position among competing stakeholders.Keys to the AssignmentThe key aspects of this assignment that are to be covered in your 6- to 7-page paper include the following:Using Bolman and Deal’s Political Frame, analyze the political behaviors surrounding the departure of Disney CEO Michael Eisner. Specifically, address the following:Briefly identify and discuss the key political forces that led to Eisner’s downfall.How does the “Jungle” metaphor apply to the Eisner case?Describe the coalitions that formed at Disney. Then, identify those salient interests that caused the division between coalitions, and how these differences were ultimately resolved.Discuss the Eisner case study in the context of two or three of Bolman and Deal’s Political Frame assumptions included above. How do the assumptions you’ve chosen inform what happened in the Michael Eisner case? Briefly comment on the significance of the “Toxic Triangle” (see Figure 1 of Forbes & Watson’s case study about Eisner’s departure), and discuss how this model informs the Eisner case study.The background readings will not give you all the answers to the Case. Therefore, you are required to perform some research in the library, and use a minimum of 3-4 scholarly sources from the library to support and justify your understanding of the case.Your paper must demonstrate evidence of critical thinking (if you need tips on critical thinking, http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/college-and-university-students/799 is an excellent resource). Don’t simply restate facts – instead, be sure to interpret the facts you have accumulated from your research.Remember that the Module 4 Case will also serve as Chapter 4 of your session-long thesis-style paper.Assignment Expectations Your paper will be evaluated using the following five (5) criteria:Assignment-Driven Criteria: Does the paper fully address all Keys to the Assignment? Are the concepts behind the Keys to the Assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements?Critical thinking: Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis?Business Writing: Is the paper well-written (clear, developed logically, and well-organized)? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are section headings included in all papers? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding to the Keys to the Assignment, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations?Effective Use of Information (Information Literacy): Does the paper demonstrate effective research, as evidenced by student’s use of relevant and quality sources? Do additional sources used in paper provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper?Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing, by inclusion of proper end references and in-text citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all end references been included within the body of the paper as in-text citations?Module 3Required resources: Bolman, L. G. & Deal, T. E. (2003). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership (3rd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley. Hogan, R. L. (n.d). Chapter 9: Power, conflict, and coalitions. Eastern Illinois University. Retrieved on May 12, 2014 from http://www.eiu.edu/~lhogan/Bolman%20&%20Deal%20ch09.ppt Jacobs, R. M. (n.d.). Theories of practice: The political frame. Villanova University. Retrieved on May 1, 2014 from http://www83.homepage.villanova.edu/richard.jacobs/MPA%208002/Powerpoint/8002%20MPA/political.pptKarpeles, M. D. (2005). Boardroom lessons from the Disney/Ovitz case. Corporate Board, 26(155), 6-10. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from EBSCO – Business Source Complete. White, D. (2005, Oct 01). When Mickey finally turned on his master. Michael Eisner’s reign at Disney is over. Dominic White reports. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from Proquest. Optional resources: Forbes, W., & Watson, R. (n.d.). Destructive corporate leadership and board loyalty bias: A case study of Michael Eisner’s long tenure at Disney Corporation. City University London. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from http://www.cass.city.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/56372/2A_Forbes.pdfHolson, L. M. (2005, September 26). A quiet departure for Eisner at Disney. The New York Times. Retrieved on June 10, 2014 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/26/business/media/26eisner.html
LED 599 Trident University International Walt Disney Animation Studios Case Study
The Wembley National Stadium Construction Essay
It was built to be the new ‘home of football’; to be one of the largest and magnificent stadiums in the world and designed to be state-of-the-art with a seating capacity of 90,000. Designed by the World Stadium Team led by Mott MacDonald, the Wembley Stadium now stands as the most expensive stadium ever built, the longest single-span roof structure in the world (315m), second largest stadium in Europe and the tallest in the world (133m) with every seat under roof cover. The concept was to build a state-of-the-art stadium, with none that can compare anywhere else in the world. The new stadium has a partly retractable roof which can be adjusted to allow sunlight to reach all parts of the pitch. During bad weather, the roof can be retracted in about 15 minutes to cover every seat (http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/wembley/). £120 million from the Lottery Fund was invested into the stadium with an additional loan of £426 million through West Deutsche Landesbank. A fixed price contract was reached between the client and contractors. This made provision for a building cost of £352 million and total project costs of £757 million (Public Accounts Committee, 2004). However, like most iconic construction projects of national interest, the Wembley project was not spared its own share of controversies, accusations, rumours, anxieties and fascination. The Football Association (FA) must have imagined a spectacular 2006 FA Cup grand finale, the biggest UK soccer championship at Wembley National Stadium. Unfortunately, this important event had to be moved all the way to Wales! What was wrong? Wembley Stadium’s extraordinarily ambitious re-development was utterly behind schedule. The project later opened in March 2007, almost a year behind schedule and £70million over budget and has since then kept some of the finest construction lawyers in constant employment. The Wembley Stadium concept was definitely ambitious and the product stands now impressively. Even more breathe taking is the 133m arch which when lit up at night shinning gloriously, and can even be seen across London. Wembley has indeed become England’s new icon of football. The client for the project was the Football Association (FA) working through its subsidiary the Wembley National Stadium Ltd (WNSL). The main contractor was Multiplex Constructions with Mott MacDonald being the Lead Designers. The project used two project advisors; Tropus at the initial stages (1997-2001) and Capita Symonds (2001-2006). The initial steel contractor was Cleveland Bridge 2.0 Problems during the project A litany of problems can be identified that bedevilled the construction of the Wembley Stadium mainly adversarial contracts, unreasonable risk allocation, cash-flow problems, design changes, poor performance, poor site management and litigations. These are presented in details below: Delays and indecisiveness even before the project begun: Plans for a new stadium were beset with delays, management problems and increasing costs since December 1996. The designs were revealed in 1999 and the stadium should have been completed in 2003 but the work itself started only in September 2002 due to many political and financial problems. The project was finally rescheduled to complete in May 2006 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2119413.stm). Design Problems: Multiplex argued that ‘Mott MacDonald`s design for the Wembley steel work was not fit for purpose and that the initial designs were not correct, constructible, co-ordinated and consistent.’ It further stated that ‘Mott MacDonald’s deficient design, failure to warn and/or take action is shown in many thousands of individual acts or omissions’ (Technology and Construction Court (TCC), 2006). Scope Creep: The initial scope was to accommodate athletics, rugby and football in the same stadium. This later became very controversial and resulted in the removal of athletics from the scheme in 1999, because of the technical and commercial challenges of accommodating the three sports within the same stadium. In December 2001, the scope was further changed with the removal of a hotel from the project, the expansion of hospitality suites and considerable changes to the north side of the stadium bowl. This took the Mott Consortium 7-8 months to redesign. These changes increased the cost of the project especially in steel works (TCC, 2006). Procurement Issues: In the conclusions of Public Accounts Committee (Eighth Report of Session 2003-04), it stated that “Best procurement practice has not been followed on what is a high profile project… Organisations responsible for managing projects should be expected to set out a formal procurement process, which treats all bidders equally to avoid giving any one a potential advantage over the others.” It further criticised Wembley National Stadium Limited for failing to follow a detailed and overt formal procurement process and having dialogue with Multiplex prior to starting the procurement process. A report by former Wembley project manager Tropus, said ‘the appointment was made with undue speed.’ The James Report also concluded that there had ‘been serious flaws in the procurement policies.'(James Report, 2002) Poor Communication: Apart from the major changes in the scope of the works, Multiplex lamented not given access to vital design information which made them underprice the steelwork. Mott on the other hand thought “Multiplex was aware of the state of design, having managed the design process and having been intimately involved in the design work.” (Wembley Stadium into Injury Time, 2002) Poor Planning and organisation: A lot of decisions seem to have been made hastily. No wonder several changes had to be made at later stages. When it became a prime objective to finish the project in time for the FA Cup finale in May 2006, efficiency and cost effectiveness became secondary issues. In my opinion, a lot of problems could have been avoided if Multiplex did not have to rush the job to meet unrealistic deadlines. Multiplex claims that it has sustained significant losses as a result of a ‘multitude of breaches of contract and/or acts of negligence’ by the consultant, which had ‘far-reaching effects’ for Wembley (TCC, 2006; Baloch, 2008). Disputes and disagreements: Cleveland Bridge (CB), the steel contractor terminated their contract in 2004 because they did not believe they would be paid for materials and that there were seemingly insurmountable difficulties between them and Multiplex. A sustained input from a steelwork subcontractor could have greatly influenced the timely completion of the project but eventually CB had to be replaced with all attending problems of a new project team member. Health and Safety problems: In March 2006, a temporary roof support fell by over half resulting in the evacuation of all construction workers and delay of work. Another accident occurred January 2004 resulting in the death of one construction worker and the injury of another when a platform collapsed without warning, trapping the men underneath (http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/wembley/) Poor Performance by Cleveland Bridge: Delays were caused by CB as not all the steel sent to China could be fabricated in time to comply with the programme. So the steel sent to China was often shipped back to England with most not fabricated. Furthermore the steel sent to site was often missing crucial pieces (meaning it could not be erected) or else was untagged with the consequence that site staff could not identify the relevant pieces of steel (TCC, 2006). Poor Supervision by Sports England: The Government was less than happy with the level of supervision offered by Sport England. It stated that “Sport England’s performance in monitoring the progress of the project has been lack, slovenly and supine.” This ultimately resulted in supply team missing the focal point of the project right from the beginning and before long, a lot was out of hand (Wembley Stadium into Injury Time, 2002). Poor Stakeholder management: In a statement by The House of Commons Culture, Media and Sports Committee, it blamed some of the problems encountered on the project on poor stakeholder management. It said, “the project had been undermined by the ‘fundamental failure’ to include all representatives at the outset in planning the redevelopment” (www.publications.parliament.uk). The resignation of Ken Bates in 2001 as chairman of WNSL gives a further hint. He cited a lack of support from the board and that he had been undermined by senior figures within both the government and the FA. He remarkably said, “Even Jesus Christ only had one Pontius Pilate – I had a whole team of them.” (www.forbes.com). 3.0 The Problems Encountered: The Role of Project Management Project Management (PM) is the “. . . application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to achieve project requirements.” (PMBoK, 2004). This same theme runs through other standards for PM including BS6079 and ISO 10006. Suffice it for now to say that PM is the managerial responsibility and actions involved in completing a project on time, in budget and to the specified quality standards, in accordance with the traditional performance criteria. The role of PM in the Wembley project will now be appraised under some of the key knowledge areas identified in the PMBoK. 3.1 Project Scope Management This involves developing a scope statement that will define the boundaries of the project and verify the amount of work to be done. PM uses such tools as brainstorming, fast diagrams, Value Management workshops to define the project. This is because if you have the wrong definition, you may come up with the right solution-to the wrong problem!(Lewis, 2007). If scope definition is not holistically carried out, major changes such as those experienced on Wembley may occur later and cause delays, cost variations leading to claims and litigations. This, I believe, was the ‘akiles heel’ of this iconic project. Where change becomes inevitable, PM should manage them to protect the project from the effects of scope creep. Wembley failed in this area resulting in the considerable cost and time overruns. Lewis (2007) rightly said, “I have become convinced that projects seldom fail at the end. Rather, they fail at the definition stage.” 3.2 Project Time Management PM adorns itself with yet another accolade of being able to effectively estimate time frame for projects realistically and defining work packages and milestone to achieve this target. It employs one of its popular tools of Critical Path Method and scheduling in this respect. Many softwares including Primavera and MS Project have also been developed to helped in the management of time. Kaming (1997), Elinwa (2001) and Aibini (2006) however reveal that the occurrence of time overruns is high and that overruns can occur of projects irrespective of its size. Wembley was no exception. Some of the disputes, changes, cash flow problems, design problems etc. that caused resulted in the project being delivered in 10 months late and the subsequent changing of the FA Cup finals to Wales could have been avoided through effective project time management. PM should have helped to come out with a realistic duration for the project. 3.3 Project Cost Management This involves estimating the cost of all resources and such things as travel and other support details. After this is done, costs are budgeted and tracked to keep the project within that budget (Rad, 2002). This is very important in PM as the first question most clients ask is ‘how much will it cost?’ It is the duty of the PM to realistically determine what it will cost to achieve a particular scope. The tough question then arises. Was Wembley’s initial cost of £445million realistic? Why did cost rise astronomically to £757million at completion? The project even had to be stalled ‘into injury time’ just to seek additional funding. Why couldn’t PM prevent this? Much of the blame lies squarely on PM’s failure to realistically estimate cost at conception. 3.4 Project Communications Management “This is the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage, and disposition of project information.” (PMBoK, 2004). Multiplex claims it was not given access to vital design information and that this led to increased steelwork costs. Mott MacDonald on the other hand dismisses this saying, “Multiplex was aware of the state of design, having managed the design process and having been intimately involved in the design work” (TCC, 2006). PM is supposed to create a smooth communication interface between all parties to forestall these misunderstandings. 3.5 Project Procurement Management This helps in selecting the most appropriate contractors and suppliers, administers the contract as well as form the best working relationships between all parties to achieve project goals. The Public Accounts Committee (2003-04), stated that “Best procurement practice has not been followed on what is a high profile project…” PM should have also salvaged the problem between Mott, Cleveland and Multiplex before it got out of hand, resulting in Cleveland walking away from the project with its attending problems. More also, it is known that competitive tendering and cost as a selection criteria has produced poor results in construction over the years and PM should have helped in designing the best procurement approach to prevent the problems (Egan, 1998). The contract used for the project was fixed cost method in which the client cleverly shirks risk to the contractor. This form of contract invariably results in creating an adversarial environment with where each party involved focuses their attentions on the needs and risks of their businesses as opposed to those of the project (Morriss, P. and Hollis, A., 2005).This may well be another area that grossly affected the results on Wembley and effective PM should have prevented this. 3.6 Stakeholder Management: Freeman and McVea (2001) describe this function as “looking out from the firm or project and identifying, and investing in all the relationships that will ensure long-term success.” At concept stage, this is used to collect views of all interested parties, especially those of end users who usually hold vital information that may be critical to the design, function and success of a project. If this was effectively done, it would have prevented the acrimony that grew between some of the contractors and would have saved the project from unnecessary delays and increased cost of replacing Cleveland Bridge. It would have helped to produce the best fitting design as well as sort out the fact that athletics, football and rugby in the same venue would present a lot of technical and functional difficulties at the design stage saving the project from about 8 months of redesign. 3.7 Site Management: Chan (1997) showed that out of 8 group factors that caused delays in construction projects, poor site management and supervision was amongst the top five. The accusations and counter-accusations during the hearing at the Technology and Construction Court between Multiplex and Cleveland Bridge gives us yet another glimpse into an area of failure of PM on Wembley. The site was poorly managed as it was littered with random pieces of steel that had been delivered in the wrong order and a significant quantity of steel was sitting on trailers adjacent to the site or around the perimeter. This had the potential of disrupting flow of activities and even causing accidents (TCC, 2006). 4.0 The Actions and MeasureS that should have been taken The influential Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) reports called for new approaches to construction- one in which client leadership is key and where there is greater collaborative working between firms within the construction supply chain. Egan summarised five key drivers of change namely ‘committed leadership; a focus on the customer; integrated processes and teams; a quality driven agenda; and a commitment to people.’ Some of the necessary actions and measures that should have been taken is now presented below: 4.1 Key Client Leadership: The new Terminal Five at Heathrow is a widely acclaimed example of current construction best practice. The approach was unique and tailored to the very needs of the project i.e. the client took a level of ownership of project thus creating a clear vision for how it wanted the project delivered and also staying close enough to the project from inception to completion (Brady, 2008). Latham (1994) recommended that “the client should be at the core of the construction process” because “clients [essentially] drive best practice.” Egan (1998). The Client in the Wembley Stadium project was the Football Association and thus should have: stayed close enough to the project, monitoring it and to make sure things don’t go out of hand; ensured that major changes to the scope of works was frozen at a particular point on the project or avoided altogether. These changes often result in dispute, delays and extra expense; made sure that adequate funding was secured for the project before it even begun and that the estimation of both time and cost were realistically carried out; come out with clear, concise, realistic and unambiguous objectives at the conception of the project involving all necessary stakeholders so that major changes, such as those that were experienced, could be avoided; shared in risk of development/construction rather than cleverly shoving it to contractors. 4.2 The “Heathrow Method”: Terminal 5 was an audacious development project that involved more than 60 contractors and 16 major projects. British Airways Authority (BAA) adopted a unique approach to the project to make sure it is completed both on time and within budget. It used “an innovative form of cost-reimbursable contract – the ‘T5 Agreement’ under which BAA holds all the risks associated with the project rather than transferring the risks to external suppliers and guarantees a level of pro¬t for suppliers.” (Brady, 2008). The Agreement included an incentive payment for contractors that achieved a certain level of performance. It decided to reimburse the costs of delivery and to reward exceptional performance and punish mediocre and poor performance only in terms of pro¬tability. This created some sort of ‘win-win’ environment for all parties and motivated the contractors to focus their attention on the needs of the project and collectively solve problems rather than concentrate on their own business risks and interests. These are the fundamental reasons why T5 achieved the laudable success of staying within budget and cost at completion. Cleveland would not have walked out of the job if it was given firm assurance of re-imbursement of cost incurred. The contracts should have been designed with an approach that offered incentives to all, for improvement in cost, time or quality and not in an adversarial environment associated with fixed cost contracts. 4.3 Integrating the Supply chain: Both Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) underscored the importance of using integrated teams to realise project goals. The T5 approach used by BAA combined two main principles: the client always bears the risk; and partners are worth more than suppliers. ‘It provides an appropriate environment for integrated team working [â€¦] to enable suppliers to work effectively and focus on meeting the project’s objectives not only in relation to the traditional time, budget, and quality measures but also in relation to safety and environmental targets’ (Brady, 2008). ‘By doing that you take away negativity, allow space for innovation and create any opportunity for people to perform at levels they haven’t been allowed to before’ (Mylius, 2005). 4.4 Involvement of end users: End users often hold vital information as they are usually in a better position to comment on the detailed requirements for a building than senior management who may not even be the occupants of the building when it is completed. After all, the users have first hand experience of what makes a building successful or otherwise (Menches, 2008). By the use of such methods as focus groups, value management workshops and major surveys, the issue of athletics, rugby and football in the same venue could have been resolved even before any detailed design and thus eliminating the extensive delays and cost implications it had on the project (Barrett, P., and Stanley, C., 1999). 4.5 Use of a Project bank: In an attempt to integrate project teams in an atmosphere of trust, collaboration and openness, the National Audit Office (NAO) of the UK suggested the use of a project bank account. To ensure better construction, it said, ‘…suppliers [require] greater certainty that they will be paid on time to re-enforce the trust that should exist between all parties for collaborative working to operate effectively.’ This was endorsed by the Specialist Contractors who indicated that ‘payments for the project delivery team should be protected and secure, which would, in turn, significantly reduce disputes and, more importantly, will encourage closer working relationships between all parties.’ (Parliamentary Newsletter, Issue 3, Spring/Summer 2006). 4.6 Best Project Management Practice: At the execution level, much of the problems that occurred on the project could have been avoided or its impact attenuated if best project management practice was adopted by all especially Multiplex and Cleveland Bridge. Problems of poor site management practice, poor or incorrect fabrication of steel, design change management and communication could have been arrested with proper planning, organisation and control. 4.7 Careful Monitoring: Projects rarely stay on track in terms of time and cost. the more likely occurrence is that projects will be behind schedule yet over budget at any point in time. Good project management carefully and critically appraises all factors that a likely to push a project off schedule (Office of Government Commerce, 2005). Monitoring progress carefully and instigating timely corrective actions by both WNSL, Multiplex as well as the FA, would have helped identify the likely impact of any problems so that action can be taken to get the project back on track. 5.0 Conclusion Experience is a great asset to professionals practicing in any discipline, whether that experience comes from success or failure and whoever fails to learn from his mistakes is doomed to repeat them. Some of the key lessons on Wembley Stadium is thus now summarised below: Adequate time and effort needs to be invested in the strategic planning phase of every project to come out with clear, realistic, and unambiguous project objectives; Project team must engage effectively with users and other external stakeholders especially at the concept stage of any scheme to save the project from major changes with its attending problems; Construction procurement must move away from competitive tendering and cost as the selection criteria and develop procedures that use performance and team partnering and capability; Contracts must be designed to provide incentive to all for cost and time improvement and also forge a ‘win-win’ environment between clients and supply chain members; Enough resources have to be made available for the project based on realistic estimates; Clients must assume central roles in projects for they essentially drive best practice; Continual change in project requirements and scope can be very detrimental for the project; Dysfunctional relationships and fragmentation can turn a perfect project scheme into a complete chaos and thus project teams must operate as a cohesive unit, with clear allocation of roles and responsibilities. Finally, it is evident, at least from the Wembley Stadium project that a poor knowledge and a lack awareness of the fundamental project management skills by the client can lead to failure as clients essentially drive best practice. An effective and successful outcome of project management on any project in most cases will only be achieved if both the client and the contractor or project management organisations are effective in the skills of project management. A poor client organisation, in terms of project management, may well drive a good project manager and his team into poor performance. Agreeably, it may not be a panacea due to many circumstances and occurrences that may well be out of its control. However, Project Management stands the chance of producing laudable results if the construction industry stopped treating it casually and unprofessionally but rigorously apply the great worth of knowledge and experience its gathered over the past years, through both its success and failure stories.