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BUS 217 EGCC Social Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Decision Discussion

BUS 217 EGCC Social Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Decision Discussion.

Discussion question should be of a 2-3 paragraph response to the initial post. Then, you must respond to two of your peers with meaningful responses.  At least 1 paragraph.  (Links to an external site.)
In your opinion, what are some Social Factors influencing consumer buying decision in today’s world?
I can’t see my peers post until I post first. Please reply by Wednesday and I will send you my peers post.
Reading Material below.
Reading : Lesson 3
Building Customer Loyalty in Intercultural Service Encounters.pdf download
Reasons for the company to appear a new Product

Enterprise Development

Every entrepreneur knows that productivity is one of the key factors for successful product development, which leads to enterprise development.
A well known product that has approached the highest profits, the enterprise has to think about how can cause further new innovations. The last successful product in the market presupposes a good reputation for the new product which will bring more profits to the company until it also reaches its own sale limit.
These activities help the company increase its profits and funds.

Product replacement

This is an inexpensive part of product development, and it can consume 50% of development time, where major commitments are typically made, involving time, money and the product’s nature.
Consequently, this reason should be considered as an essential part of development rather than something happens “before development” and its cycle time should be included in the total development cycle time (a regular development).

Sub occupation of production factors

There are some cases that the enterprise management realize that there is not complete (full) occupation of production factors in the company. For example: season’s products, such as the ice cream.
In some time of the year, part of the employees are suboccupated; so a new product must come out (ex. yogurt), to exploit the rest of employees and especially the full fund.

Taking advantage of enterprise’s reputation

The high reputation of the company creates a major commitment, setting up an easy and well coming new product in the market.
Information Search and Decision Making
Problem Recognition.  One model of consumer decision making involves several steps. The first one is problem recognition—you realize that something is not as it should be.  Perhaps, for example, your car is getting more difficult to start and is not accelerating well.    The second step is information search—what are some alternative ways of solving the problem?  You might buy a new car, buy a used car, take your car in for repair, ride the bus, ride a taxi, or ride a skateboard to work.  The third step involves evaluation of alternatives.  A skateboard is inexpensive, but may be ill-suited for long distances and for rainy days.   Finally, we have the purchase stage, and sometimes a post-purchase stage (e.g., you return a product to the store because you did not find it satisfactory).  In reality, people may go back and forth between the stages.  For example, a person may resume alternative identification during while evaluating already known alternatives.
Consumer involvement–the amount of effort a consumer puts into searching depends—on a number of factors such as the market (how many competitors are there, and how great are differences between brands expected to be?), product characteristics (how important is this product? How complex is the product? How obvious are indications of quality?), consumer characteristics (how interested is a consumer, generally, in analyzing product characteristics and making the best possible deal?), and situational characteristics (as previously discussed).
Involvement can be either temporary or permanent (enduring). In the case of temporary involvement, the consumer may not be particularly interested in the product category, but may become involved long enough to be able to make an informed decision in an important product category:
In the case of enduring involvement, the consumer remains interested in the category–usually because of an inherent interest–even if he or she does not anticipate making a purchase immediately.  For example, many “geeky” individuals spend a great deal of time reading computer magazines when new issues come out:
When the purchase has been made, the consumer may stop giving much attention to that product category.
It is important to consider the consumer’s motivation for buying products.  To achieve this goal, we can use the Means-End chain, wherein we consider a logical progression of consequences of product use that eventually lead to desired end benefit.  Thus, for example, a consumer may see that a car has a large engine, leading to fast acceleration, leading to a feeling of performance, leading to a feeling of power, which ultimately improves the consumer’s self-esteem.  A handgun may aim bullets with precision, which enables the user to kill an intruder, which means that the intruder will not be able to harm the consumer’s family, which achieves the desired end-state of security.  In advertising, it is important to portray the desired end-states.  Focusing on the large motor will do less good than portraying a successful person driving the car.
Information search and decision making.  Consumers engage in both internal and external information search. 
Internal search involves the consumer identifying alternatives from his or her memory.  For certain low involvement products, it is very important that marketing programs achieve “top of mind” awareness.  For example, few people will search the Yellow Pages for fast food restaurants; thus, the consumer must be able to retrieve one’s restaurant from memory before it will be considered.  For high involvement products, consumers are more likely to use an external search.  Before buying a car, for example, the consumer may ask friends’ opinions, read reviews in Consumer Reports, consult several web sites, and visit several dealerships.  Thus, firms that make products that are selected predominantly through external search must invest in having information available to the consumer in need—e.g., through brochures, web sites, or news coverage.
A compensatory decision involves the consumer “trading off” good and bad attributes of a product.  For example, a car may have a low price and good gas mileage but slow acceleration.  If the price is sufficiently inexpensive and gas efficient, the consumer may then select it over a car with better acceleration that costs more and uses more gas.  Occasionally, a decision will involve a non-compensatory strategy.  For example, a parent may reject all soft drinks that contain artificial sweeteners.   Here, other good features such as taste and low calories cannot overcome this one “non-negotiable” attribute.
The amount of effort a consumer puts into searching depends on a number of factors such as the market (how many competitors are there, and how great are differences between brands expected to be?), product characteristics (how important is this product?  How complex is the product?  How obvious are indications of quality?), consumer characteristics (how interested is a consumer, generally, in analyzing product characteristics and making the best possible deal?), and situational characteristics (as previously discussed).
Two interesting issues in decisions are:

Variety seeking (where consumers seek to try new brands not because these brands are expected to be “better” in any way, but rather because the consumer wants a “change of pace,” and
“Impulse” purchases—unplanned buys. This represents a somewhat “fuzzy” group.  For example, a shopper may plan to buy vegetables but only decide in the store to actually buy broccoli and corn.  Alternatively, a person may buy an item which is currently on sale, or one that he or she remembers that is needed only once inside the store.

A number of factors involve consumer choices.  In some cases, consumers will be more motivated.  For example, one may be more careful choosing a gift for an in-law than when buying the same thing for one self.  Some consumers are also more motivated to comparison shop for the best prices, while others are more convenience oriented.  Personality impacts decisions.  Some like variety more than others, and some are more receptive to stimulation and excitement in trying new stores.  Perception influences decisions.  Some people, for example, can taste the difference between generic and name brand foods while many cannot.  Selective perception occurs when a person is paying attention only to information of interest.  For example, when looking for a new car, the consumer may pay more attention to car ads than when this is not in the horizon.  Some consumers are put off by perceived risk.  Thus, many marketers offer a money back guarantee.  Consumers will tend to change their behavior through learning—e.g., they will avoid restaurants they have found to be crowded and will settle on brands that best meet their tastes.  Consumers differ in the values they hold (e.g., some people are more committed to recycling than others who will not want to go through the hassle).  We will consider the issue of lifestyle under segmentation.
Clarus Commerce. (2019, May 23). Why Every Moment Matters in Building Loyalty [Video]. YouTube. (Links to an external site.)
Directive. (2018, June 8). 5 Stages of the Consumer Decision-Making Process and How it’s Changed [Video]. YouTube. 
Reading : Lesson 4
Social Factors affecting Consumer Behavior
Consumer Behavior is an effort to study and understand the buying tendencies of consumers for their end use.
Social factors play an essential role in influencing the buying decisions of consumers.
Human beings are social animals. We need people around to talk to and discuss various issues to reach to better solutions and ideas. We all live in a society and it is really important for individuals to adhere to the laws and regulations of society.
Social Factors influencing consumer buying decision can be classified as under:

Reference Groups
Immediate Family Members
Role in the Society
Status in the society

Reference Groups
Every individual has some people around who influence him/her in any way. Reference groups comprise of people that individuals compare themselves with. Every individual knows some people in the society who become their idols in due course of time.Co workers, family members, relatives, neighbors, friends, seniors at workplace often form reference groups.Reference groups are generally of two types:

Primary Group – consists of individuals one interacts with on a regular basis.Primary groups include:

Family Members
Co Workers
All the above influence the buying decisions of consumers due to following reasons:They have used the product or brand earlier.They know what the product is all about. They have complete knowledge about the features and specifications of the product.Tim wanted to purchase a laptop for himself. He went to the nearby store and purchased a Dell Laptop. The reason why he purchased a Dell Laptop was because all his friends were using the same model and were quite satisfied with the product. We tend to pick up products our friends recommend.A married individual would show strong inclination towards buying products which would benefit not only him but also his family members as compared to a bachelor. Family plays an important role in influencing the buying decisions of individuals.A consumer who has a wife and child at home would buy for them rather than spending on himself. An individual entering into marriage would be more interested in buying a house, car, household items, furniture and so on. When an individual gets married and starts a family, most of his buying decisions are taken by the entire family.Every individual goes through the following stages and shows a different buying need in each stage:
Bachelorhood: Purchases Alcohol, Beer, Bike, Mobile Handsets (Spends Lavishly)
Newly Married: Tend to purchase a new house, car, household furnishings. (Spends sensibly)
Family with Children: Purchases products to secure his as well as his family’s future.
Empty nest (Children getting married)/Retirement/Old Age: Medicines, Health Products, and Necessary Items.
A Ford Car in the neighborhood would prompt three more families to buy the same model.

Role in the Society
Each individual plays a dual role in the society depending on the group he belongs to. An individual working as Chief Executive Officer with a reputed firm is also someone’s husband and father at home. The buying tendency of individuals depends on the role he plays in the society.
Social Status
An individual from an upper middle class would spend on luxurious items whereas an individual from middle to lower income group would buy items required for his/her survival. (Links to an external site.)

4 of the Biggest Factors That Affect Customer Purchase Decisions
May 17, 2018 (Links to an external site.) | Marketing (Links to an external site.) | By Shane Barker (Links to an external site.)
Management Adda. (2019, June 28). Factors influencing Consumer Behavior [Video]. YouTube. 
Buzzle. (2016, December 1). Key Factors That Influence the Buying Decisions of Consumers [Video]. YouTube. 
What makes another business more successful than yours? How is your competition affecting the purchasing decisions of customers and making so many more sales than you? As a brand, you have probably asked yourself these questions many times.
So now you’re wondering how to impact your customers (Links to an external site.)’ purchase decisions more effectively. This post will give you some easy steps to follow to boost your sales.


When a product is perceived as rare, people tend to place a higher value (Links to an external site.) on it. The more rare a product is, the more it is wanted. It doesn’t matter if the product is a costly mobile phone or simply a last cookie at a bakery.
Brands often use phrases like, “last day to grab 50% discount,” or “only 2 pieces left” to lure customers. Using the persuasion technique of scarcity, you should communicate what a consumer could lose if they don’t buy your product. If done correctly, consumers will be motivated to take action.
Many consumers believe that if a product is difficult to get, it is generally better in terms of quality. Thus, linking the availability factor to the quality factor. Brands need to communicate a feeling of urgency or a fear of missing out if a consumer is not taking action quickly.
Brands can use the following methods to trigger customers’ purchasing decisions:

Limited Number – When a product is short of supply or will no longer be available once it is out of stock.
Limited Time – When the product is available for a limited period of time.
One-of-a Kind Specials – You can use one or both of the above-mentioned methods to create a one-of-a-kind special.
Competitions – Users are often more interested in buying a product when others are also interested in buying it. This method is usually used during bids or auctions.

Good examples of scarcity can be found on Groupon (Links to an external site.). It is a deal site offering huge discounts on various products and services. The website uses limited time and quantity tags, and a small hourglass image. It develops a sense of urgency and scarcity to encourage consumers to make a purchase before they miss the opportunity.
Amazon (Links to an external site.) also uses the scarcity principle really well. In the image below, you will noticed a bold, green highlighted tag, “only 2 left in stock.” In this case, the limited number of the item is combined with the urgency of a limited-time, one-day shipping offer. This is one of the most effective ways of pushing customers to take actions.

Consistency and Convenience

Once they make a choice or decision, customers generally stick to it. It is because of convenience that customers usually stand by the decision they make regardless of so many other choices.
Brands can use this principle to convince the customer and get them to commit. Once the customer is committed, out of compulsion, they will stick to the decision and complete their purchase.
It is the nature of people to be comfortable and consistent with things they have done previously. Customers ensure that their actions are lined up with their intentions to maintain consistency. By asking for small commitments from the customer, brands can initiate and activate the consistency aspect among customers.
Filling out forms on any website is a classic example of consistency and convenience. Customers start out by filling out one quick, simple, and easy form, which later leads to a page asking for a much more detail information.
Upworthy (Links to an external site.) is a startup devoted to publishing uplifting stories that go viral on social media. When you visit their website and start to read an enticing story, a pop-up window comes up. The pop-up window shows messages like “I support equality for all,” with an agree and a disagree button below it. Now you would probably think that clicking “agree” won’t be of any harm and click it.
But the moment you click a button, the website draws you in with another pop-up email signup form. After filling in the form, you will keep getting more stories from Upworthy. All this method needs is a small commitment from the website visitor.
Brian Clark is the founder of Copyblogger (Links to an external site.), which sells content marketing software. On the website’s homepage, after scrolling a bit down, you’ll notice a huge headline. The headline invites visitors to capture the opportunity for a free online marketing courses from the company.
Obviously, this is a type of public commitment. It helps increase the chances that you will purchase one of their products like Synthesis or Scribe.

Social Proof

Knowingly or unknowingly, people always observe what other people are doing. There is a sense of satisfaction in knowing that other people are also doing the same thing as you. This means in situations when a consumer doesn’t know what to do, they simply observe other consumers. And they will often do the exact same thing that others are doing.
Brands can use this strategy effectively to increase their sales. Marketing advertisement usually uses endorsements or reviews (Links to an external site.) from other customers. These can influence the decisions of potential customers. Did you know almost 90% of customers (Links to an external site.) like to read an online review before making any decision on whether or not to buy a product?
Many companies showcase the number of products being sold or the number of satisfied customers they have. This is all about social proof. During sales, brands can use this data as social proof for pitching a new set of possible buyers. It’s a way of saying, “Look, other people love us and you will too.”
The objective of social proof is to showcase that consumers are using and also loving your product. So, take advantage of the opportunity to toot your own horn about your products and services to the people.
Amazon (Links to an external site.) uses this method. They show the ratings and reviews from real customers. You can also use videos and/or written reviews and testimonials. The positive feedback from existing customers can really push potential users to go through with a purchase.
Online clothing company, Modcloth (Links to an external site.), uses this strategy to increase their sales and conversion rates. The company has a big online community. They encourage their buyers to vote for a particular style, which the company will sell in the future. These styles are showcased with a “‘Be the Buyer Pick” badge. Displaying this badge tells shoppers that other customers love this particular item.
Just like reviews or testimonials, images of products also play an important role in people’s purchasing decisions. The way your product looks can hugely impact your sales. When a consumer is shopping, the factor that can quickly help them decide to make a purchase is a product image.
According to the BigCommerce product photography guide (Links to an external site.), people look for proof of a product’s quality and value when they’re viewing a product page. And the quality of the product image testifies for the quality of the product.


Expertise is a vital part of persuasion and influence. Regardless of the field, consumers often look to experts for tips and advice. And being obedient to authorities is something that is embedded in us since childhood.
When a famous influencer has given positive feedback about your products or services, display it on your website. Putting it on the pricing page or landing page will definitely increase your sales.
Any big celebrity, sports player, or thought leader that your target customers believe in can be a good choice to represent your brand. If a brand is promoting a food product, for instance, they could collaborate with professional chefs who could sway the target audience.
ShoeDazzle (Links to an external site.) is an online startup and women’s shoes and accessories retailer. And Kim Kardashian is a co-founder and chief fashion stylist. Because of her expertise in the fashion world, Kim is an influencer and authority personality among young female shoppers.
To promote yourself and your expertise, you can conduct “ask me anything” (AMA) sessions at regular intervals or times. You can participate in communities who organize them regularly if you cannot do it all by yourself. There are many online marketing expert agencies that participate in AMA sessions organized by Inbound (Links to an external site.).
Final Thoughts
All these methods, if done correctly, they can help you generate more conversions and boost sales. Let us know in the comment section below if you have any tips or strategies to add. We’d also love to hear how your brand has used these tactics to impact customer decisions.
Posted in Marketing (Links to an external site.)
About the Author: Shane Barker (Links to an external site.)
Shane Barker is a digital marketing consultant, named the #1 social media consultant in the nation by PROskore Power Rankings. He has expertise in business development, online marketing and is an SEO specialist who has consulted with Fortune 500 companies, government agencies, and a number of A-list celebrities.

Front Page

First peer below
What are the social factors that are influencing buying decisions in today’s world, social media. However, there are many factors that contribute to consumer buying decisions. Culture is one of the main factors that contribute to consumer buying decisions. Example of this is demonstrated in the poorest communities where availability, education and finances are lacking. We as humans tends to do what we see. Living in low-income areas you don’t see your neighbors driving new cars, kids riding new bikes, wearing new clothes and etc. There is no grass to cut, backyard to relax in and no access to internet. The individual is groomed to only buy products and services that his/her limited view has shown. Nothing! The books has been taking away culturally which limits one dreams and know-how.
On the other hand, when culture has been revealed to a person his/her buying habits takes on a whole different behavior. One will tend to purchase according to their financial and education level. Being influenced by neighbors, co-workers, his/her own ideas, family members and friends.

Second peer below
Consumers choose to buy things for many different reasons. Some of the reason that we buy things is because we have need for things, these are the things we need to live. Even then the buyer has many choices when to make when choosing to buy everyday items such as food, household products and food. All these decisions can be influenced by family, friends, and others in the society that they may know. One on the main roles that I see as a social factor influencing consumers is the need to fit in to these groups that are considered being in the in crowd. People spend all types of money to be excepted by other people. From buying clothes, homes in certain neighborhoods and fancy cars. Although this is fun and exciting it is could be pushing people to the limit to do what ever it takes to fit in when they truly cannot afford it. Another thing that I see happening that has been around forever with women is the need to try to earn the title as best dressed in the workplace. Most of the time the need to purchase new clothes nowadays is not based on need it is a want. Have you visited a thrift store lately? It is full of new tag items that have never been worn. We are being influenced to buy just because others are buying.
Another social factor that is contributing to help influence customers to buy in the role that people play in society. When you are in a certain position within the community you feel obligated that there are certain social clubs that you should belong to. Because people feel this way this help promote the new golf clubs’ communities and recreations that are around these high-priced clubs. Here is an example if a new surgeon moves to town with his family once he starts to work at the local hospital and immediately feel the need to fit in so from there he will become influence with gold courses, New home developments, and private school. Before long he will fit in to the social environment that fits his lifestyle.
BUS 217 EGCC Social Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Decision Discussion

Worcester State College Policy Brief Report on Crime Discussion.

Word Limits: 1,000-1,500 words Requirements: This assignment is meant to be informative. Imagine you are a staff member for a local government. Your boss, the city manager, is asking you to summarize the research on a particular topic in a professional, objective, and clear manner. The city manager wants to send the brief out to council members before a vote on the topic, but wants you to make a clear recommendation based on your summary. You must use citations from at least four academic sources. These must be studies published in peer-reviewed journals.Rubric:Summary of Evidence (25%)- you must succinctly but accurately summarize the studies you have chosen to include in your brief. I will be checking sources that appear to be mis-represented. They must be empirical studies. Empirical can be broad, meaning the studies can be based on: interviews, case studies, focus groups, surveys, quantitative models, qualitative/textual analysis, census data, or other data. It cannot be an opinion piece.Recommendation (20%)- you will offer a policy recommendation at the end of the document. This is not a personal opinion, but a professional recommendation based on the weight of the evidence. The recommendation you choose should reflect the evidence you have found. A simple paragraph starting with “Recommendation: The [council/state/Congress/town should] …”Professional Tone (15%)- no “I” statements, no exaggerated claims or moralistic language. The tone is scientific and makes advice based on evidence. Logical flow and clear writing (10%)- professional writing for public audiences includes having a structure that makes it easy for the reader to transition from one study to the next.Readability (10%)—everything should be explained clearly enough that the reader doesn’t need to have prior knowledge of the topic to understand what is being discussed. You are writing for your selectman/council members!Grammar (10%)-this should be grammatically clear. It is a short piece, so make sure every sentence counts by being free of typos and other grammatical issues.Citations (10%)- each study you reference will be properly cited.
Worcester State College Policy Brief Report on Crime Discussion

Psychology homework help. Nancy, a 35-year-old female, presents with an asthma exacerbation. She has had asthma since she was a child and was hospitalized several times as a child but her asthma was well controlled until the past couple years.,Nancy a 35-year-old female presents with an asthma exacerbation,1.     Nancy, a 35-year-old female, presents with an asthma exacerbation. She has had asthma since she was a child and was hospitalized several times as a child but her asthma was well controlled until the past couple years. Nancy has been seen in urgent care a few times over the past year (most recently 4 months ago) and was given a prescription for an inhaled steroid (she never filled), albuterol inhaler, and oral steroids.,She had eczema as a child and also received allergy shots for many years. Her asthma symptoms flared again 2 weeks ago and she has been using her albuterol 4–5 times/day. Nancy reports that she is very short of breath when climbing stairs or when walking to the mailbox. She has had nighttime coughing spells every day during the past week and has had to prop up on pillows to breathe. She indicates that she has had similar previous flares in the past and she “just wants more albuterol and steroid pills.”,Firstly, Classify Nancy’s asthma using (and citing) the most current ,EBP, guidelines.,Which of the four categories (intermittent, persistent – mild, persistent – moderate, persistent – severe) does she fall under?,Explain your justification.,Secondly, Is Nancy’s asthma being manage d properly? Explain your answer.,Thirdly, Would you refill her albuterol inhaler and steroid pill prescriptions as she requested?,Fourthly, Incorporate the pathophysiology of the three core defects of asthma into your discussion for all of these questions.,Furthermore, What is the value in performing this spirometry on Nancy when she already has a known diagnosis of asthma?,Moreover, Interpret her spirometry by defining and analyzing each indice (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio) individually.,Lastly, Explain the significance of “atopy” and “one continuous airway” applying Nancy’s scenario., ,Harry CASE STUDY,2.     Harry, a 42-year-old Caucasian male, present ed with a BP of 172/104 three weeks ago and was place d on lisinopril/hctz 20/12.5 – 1 tablet daily. He returned today and his BP is 148/88. He complains of a persistent, dry, hacky cough that is annoying him significantly.,a.     Explain the pathophysiology of his cough and lisinopril. How would you address this?,b.    Explain the location within the RAAS and the mechanism of action for lowering blood pressure for each of the following four antihypertensive drug classes: renin inhibitor, ACE, ARB, and aldosterone inhibitor. A brief paragraph for each will suffice.,c.     Discuss how the RAAS impacts African-Americans differently than other ethnicities. According to the EBP guidelines, which two drug classes are use d specifically in the treatment of African-Americans for hypertension?,3.     Harry was also start ed on atorvastatin 40mg three weeks ago and complains of severe weakness and muscle pain in his legs and shoulders. His urine is “tea colored.” His CK (creatine kinase) is 2,000.,a.     Identify Harry’s diagnosis and explain his weakness, muscle pain in legs and shoulders, elevated CK, and tea-colored urine from a pathophysiological perspective.,b.    Explain from a pathophysiological perspective the difference in mechanism of action between a hydrophilic and lipophilic statin as they relate to myalgias. As an FNP, how does this knowledge help you? Give two examples of hydrophilic and lipophilic statins.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Psychology homework help

Housatonic Community College Reading and Writing Skills Literacy Narrative

Housatonic Community College Reading and Writing Skills Literacy Narrative.

TODAY:Upload a complete outline of your Literacy Narrative including one overarching statement about your relationship with literacy and supporting life experiences that demonstrate that statement or discuss the impact. Your outline should be fully formatted in MLA, and your Instructor will provide specific expectations. TOMORROW:You are to write 750-1000 words. Depending on the font and size, 1 page double spaced is about 250 words and should form approximately 3 paragraphs. The Literacy Narrative, then, would call for approximately 3-4 pages totalling approximately 9-11 paragraphs. An introduction and conclusion will take up 2 of those leaving 7-9 paragraphs to weave your story. Think through how you want to allocate that space to tell your story.Your thesis will make a clear statement about your relationship with literacy, and your narrative will share the experiences that explain the statement.You are the main character in your Literacy Narrative, and your readers want to see how the main character developed as a result of interaction with people and texts and contexts. Your development is the real moral of your story, and textual engagement is one of the motivating factors that contributed to your development.
Housatonic Community College Reading and Writing Skills Literacy Narrative

Cultural Changes To Organisations Apple Case Study Business Essay

python assignment help This essay was primary design to examine the important of the cultural changes to organisations using Apple as a Case Study, gathering different systematic approach with variable models, then having examined the core aspect of culture, the leadership quality, organisation structure, performance management and the human resource strategy, to analyse possible outcome of any chosen approach for the predicted changes. It was discovered that there is no one way approach to the end result, in recommendation to this complexity nature however, conclusion where made, that sacrifice have to be made to get rid of the bad aspect of the organisation to retain this goods, that it is rather totally impossible to have a holistic and unique organisation without some form of setback if organisations objectives are to be achieved. More so the recommendations made where in great consideration of Apples corporate culture. What is culture of Apple? Apple incorporation is today’s one of the biggest if not the biggest organisation culture change trend master, in the past few years apple as being in the light of it totally perceive genius ways of getting thing done with a different, however Apples corporate culture is constantly changing as a result of changes to its leadership/CEO from time to time. Apples corporate culture is characterise by its intense work ethic and casual work culture (case study p.3) observers also noted that Apple culture is centred on secrecy and very hard discipline for employees that void the rule by sharing information. To gain an in-depth understanding of this we must dwell into Apple historical background, it pros and cons, and the possibility of future management. Therefore the empirical question would be what is the culture of Apple? What is culture? Culture has been describe by many authors, school of thoughts, theories to mention a few in relation to its conceptual usage, it has been described for example as the dominant values espoused by an organisation’,’ the commonly held and relatively stable set of beliefs, attitudes, values and norms that exit throughout an organisation’ the basic assumption and beliefs that are share by member of an organisation’. In recent time culture has been refer to as ‘the way things are done around here. Lynch (2006, p.37) culture refers to the shared understandings and meanings of that members have concerning an organisation. Rather as individuals have distinctive personalities organisation have their own particular culture. Some will be friendly, relaxed and informal while others will be highly formal aloof and hostile. Also Drenna(1992).in senior.B (1997).p101)says culture is what typical of the organisation, the habits the prevailing attitudes, the grown up pattern of accepted and expected behaviour “. The main feature of culture is that even though there are many organisational differences there seem to be share understandings within them. Culture tends to build gradually in rational thinking of groups with the system which later forms a sub/dominant culture. Using Handy (1993) cultural model, handy opine that ‘A culture cannot be precisely define, for it is something that is perceived, something felt handy (p. 191).however he pointed out the four type of culture in organisation which are explain in fig1.1. Type Metaphor Characteristics Power Culture A web Control from centre; political and entrepreneurial ,personal power serves the figure-head and the leader Role Culture The Greek Temple Classical structure; bureaucratic; role identity position power predominate, serves the structure Task culture A net Valued individual expertise and contribution focus on completing the job, both personal and position powers are important; high level of collaboration base on group unity. Person culture A cluster or galaxy Combine of a lose collection of individuals-pursuing own goal but share common facility, power not necessary a focus because members are experts in their own field. This culture serves the individual. Fig1.1 The four culture type highlights how power and control are utilized by organisation and of whose interest are they serving? certainly there’s an element of power culture at Apple inc, as noted in the case study, Steve entrepreneurship style had giving way for personal ideology and more-or-less gain control over the system, he is characterise as Apple a mirror image of Apple, of course we can say this is of Advantage, but the bad aspect is the span of control and politic associated with Steve upon returning back in late 1990s, when he changed the culture back to the way it’s use to be when he was at the apex Apple. Also the Role culture could be link with eras of Sculley, and other leaders who try to formalize the structure by imposing their own rule, neglecting the important of project groups, which is central to the Task culture even though individual expertise at Apple is crucial to its innovation the only existing collaboration is based on secrecy. A typical reflection of Apple is the individual culture we may say is the Person culture as different geeks work tiredly to bring about a unique invention based on their expertise. Is the culture good or bad for Apple? According to, Van backer(case study p.10), ( Backer)an analyst at Gartner inc, noted” when Apple goes out to hire somebody, the no 1 criteria isn’t how much experience you have or who you know .it’s whether they think you will fit into the culture. Secrecy seems very good for Apples corporate culture as it brought good market value for the product, innovation, and keeps customer loyalty going, the downside of this though is the culture of Secrecy had eaten deep into both the internal and external environment of Apple, they became so paranoid that employee were not allow to share internal information, they call it the “surprise factor” (case study P.11 1). Clearly this will affect employees’ engagement and leads to de-motivation of individuals, another is legal ethics surrounding secrecy that leads to big bail out in legal battle, which of course is bad for the corporate image and share profit. Reasonably any changes to the secrecy culture without due care may affect performance and alter the structure. Nevertheless the culture seems unique but can it function without structure, the leadership, performance and strategy? Ideally, we can communicate this by a thorough analysis of the model below; take note that the model is a non linear model as all the elements are inter-related and interdependent. Fig1.2 A model of relationship between culture, leadership, performance, strategy and structure. The model explained that culture is interdependent with the other four linked organisational behaviour, that any alteration at the centre point (culture) will have a major effect on the these linked elements in any direction, in a simple form an alteration of culture as a result of leadership change will also result in structural change, impacted the strategy, and affect the performance, the rebounds effect may occur in vice-visa order, which in turns brings complexity rather than flexibility. As organisation faces difficult obstacles in providing systemic changes to culture, the most successful organisations are belief to be those with a clear understanding of the important changes from the four elements; this view is supported by various scholars, Cameron and Quinn (2006) emphasis this life cycle shift in culture that had developed in Apple over time. Noticeable in the case study is the commentators’ reference to Apple as a unique culture, analysts argued that Steve the CEO of Apple is the best marketer in the world, this is good but his leadership style suggests a different view. For instance secrecy is the pinnacle of Apples strategic marketing culture. The initial exit of Steve saw a change in leadership that resulted in different performance and strategy, when Sculley was brought on by Steve to help, as a manager, this itself would obviously alter the Structure, because the strategy was not yielding good results. Which cause a drastic change of performance as the new leader struggle to change the previous culture. Apple was known to appreciate and value its employee, it worth noting that whereas motivational theories such as B.F Skinner (1974), Mintberg (1979), have highlighted the importance of reward and value as the ideological stimuli that motivate individual to work, in contrast, at Apple any universal concept of motivation might not work, because of how Apple justifies its reward system with a do or die culture. More so the structure at Apple Inc is becoming complex as it evolves into a different pattern over the years. FIG2 Hierarchy and Flat structure THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURE The above is an illustration of a standardize structure of organisation formulated by many scholars over the year to explain organizational functionality; the flat is more prominent to entrepreneurship, with suitable element of informal, charismatic, and informal leadership quality but grapevine in nature while the other is ideal for a larger organisation, this was centred by the work of Mayo (1934) in Hawthorn study and was later confirmed by Huczynski and Buchanan,(2007 p.460). It is said the right structure must support strategy, be appropriate-reflecting the goals of individual or the organisation. It must remain flexible and be permissive to communication. However, of all the supportive research is the work of Canadian academic, Henry Mintzberg. According to Mintzberg (1979) an organisational structure is the sum total of the way in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks and then achieve coordination between them’. also structure is define as “the established pattern of relationship between the components parts of an organisation, out lining both communication control and authority patterns .supportive to this also is Wilson and Rosenfeld(1990) explained that structure distinguishes the parts of an organisation and delineates the relationship between them”. This is supported by Apple’s trend in organisation structure which is more complex than initially perceived, for instance Apple is seen as the pioneer of “work hard play hard” ethic. Equally important is the frequent changes in culture as different leaders tried to adopt a different approach to reorganise the structure, it is interesting that analyst said Apple adopted a style that was not too far too formal or hierarchical and that the approach was more result-driven.the other bad effect of Apple structure is it tend to yield to favouritism, unfairness and biases, this bad thing of having a formal structure, as employees complain of organisational politics within the system, this will no doubt de-motivate staff morale. In ugly circumstances as a reference to the case study, any poor performance at Apple will not be consistent with its culture; it is important to say that any change in culture will resort in change in structure, however if the structure cannot survive without the culture then where do we inject the leadership style to bring about ultimate performance? Apple structure is neither hierarchy nor flat we could say it’s more of a hybrid or matrix, the flat is more organic which is prone to bureaucracy according to Max webber in analyst of organisation he had identified the principle of bureaucracy as a continuous organisation that is bound by rules. Webber outline the importance of ideal bureaucracy to an organisation as positive and rational unlike the other which he described as domination as charismatic authority and traditional authority .thus we are likely to adjust the culture to fit the structure as the case of Apple might be, ideally the Adhocracy culture may be implemented. Apples ideal culture Vs Structure Cameron and Quinn (2006) gave an insight into what an ideal adhocracy culture is, they went on to say that there are four types of culture develops within different dimension, the four culture namely the Clan culture, the Hierarchy Culture, the Market Culture and the Adhocracy Culture. The assumption were that organisation were in business to develop new ideas, new product and thus be able to respond to the hyper turbulent world, therefore the major task of management would be to forester creativity, entrepreneurship and innovation. The good picture is Apple structure is informal which promotes cratetivity, and recognises the important of leadership charisma, it’s a bitter end as this can only work effectively in smaller organisation. Adhocracy have been characterised as “tents rather than palaces “in sense that they are temporary and response to situational changes rapidly, taking advantage of flexibility and ambiguity. As Apple is a technological industry which must learn to adjust and respond to change in product and market value, Apples culture is dynamic because of the visionary and risk of it leadership effectiveness, as their focus is leading edge of new products and producing unique and original product. However is important to state that the transformation of Apple largely rely on leadership quality and employee commitment to it structural and cultural changes whenever the needs arise. Fig 2.1 A representation of Apples organisation formation structure. AGENT OF TRANSFORMATION AND THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP Leadership as a concept has been an interesting centre piece to different fields of thought, to the ordinary man; a leader is just a symbolic head, but as a supportive element by theorists and analysts a definite category of classification; it is said the most important type of leaderships are of the following: the charismatic, the traditional, the situational, the appointed, the functional and the principle centred leader for the purpose of this essay we will look at leadership from management perspective, according Cole(2004), leadership is define as the following: “leadership at work is a dynamic process whereby one individual in a group is not only responsible for the group results but actively seeks the collaboration and commitment of all the group members in a achieving group goals in a particular context and against the background of a particular national culture” INNOVATORS The leadership style of Apple is highly represented by their iconic CEO Steve that is highly regarded for his innovative, creative and marketing strategies. Using classification of leadership, his style could be linked as the transformational leader according to Burns (1978), which is characterised by the transformation of organisation, creativity and innovation with the purpose to engender commitment. This is genuinely good for Apple, However the simplicity of his approach could resort in the downfall of his perceived personality and organisational performance, for instance if this was ideal for the organisational culture then the question would be the sited instances of global workforce revolting against the culture of secrecy used by Apple as an accepted way to move the company forward. The side effect of Steve’s charismatic role at Apple is what happens when he leaves the organisation! Will this mean there’s no other possible replacement for his strategy and the portrait of Apple is damages for good? If apple is to maintain its status quo as the number one most valued company in the world then it needs to engage itself in some form of leadership reorientation as over the past decade different management/leaders have tied to change the culture of apple and its structure only to head back to the starting point which is where they are today, Steve job certainly must be doing some right, concrete evidence suggest that Steve job must have outperformed his expectation to the board of management as emphasized in the case study. CONSTRAINTS the ripple effect of change of leaders/managers at Apple inc emphasis the need for change in culture, however this changes also brought about change in structure as each leader tries to implement his/her own ideology, arguable is the internal problem that apple faces from its reorganisation, for instance the appointment of Sculley who was credit for making Apple one of the biggest and fastest-growing corporation in the US.(case study p.5 ).A series of failure in the early 90s again brought another power shift when the board decided it time for leadership change and Micheal pindler was appointed in 1993 to replace Sculley, Spinder also fail to perform as expected ,Amelio could have being the one man that brought the last drastic change into apple because of his focus on Apple product line and workforce reduction but fail follow Apples corporate culture, once more Steve was back in business to turn things Around. A key point to his transformational leadership style, nevertheless it would appear that the board were more interested in performance rather than leadership quality or style; however performance cannot be divorced from leadership. THE ACHIEVER Performance, there’s no generalised definition of performance; it has being said that performance cannot be easily defined as you cannot measure or manage it. However few management researchers have noted the core different of performance from other fields in comparison to management sectors. Performance is more adapted to performance management day in day out, therefore performance could be agreed to be of relevance to situational changes. Armstrong and Baron (1998) define performance management as “a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organization by improving the performance of the people who work in them by developing the capability of team and individual who work in them”.. Therefore, it provides avenue for knowledge on organizational objectives and goals and a spectrum to manage and train individual in order to achieve to such objectives’ Armstrong stress that performance is strategic because it is concern with broader issues facing organizational effectiveness. As evidence in the case study the market value of Apple against the backdrop of its financial performance over the years in Exhibit VIII, it is clear that in the past decade there being a major profit share in the company, more so recently Apple posted all time record revenue with increase earnings of 78 percent, as of July 2010. Apple posted record revenue of $15.7 billion and also quarterly profit of $3.25 billion, (APPLE press release 2006). Surely the share holders would be very pleased with the result. These results compare to workforce engagement and the strategy used to achieve result cannot be overlooked, Apple was known to appreciate its employees. It was consider a great place to work for people who are personate about what they did. (Case study p.3) also experts felt one of the key success to Apples performance is its ability to attract and retain key personnel in technical, marketing and staff positions. Nevertheless financial performance in one comfort zone for the company identity externally, but does this speak the same for the internal general audit of employee of Apple who work tirelessly for over 60hours to get this results out. The secrecy involved creating the competitive edge and the sighted instance of the Chinese employees that commit suicide then how engaged are the staff of Apple incorporation. In reality if we alter the strategic approach of performance which rely on secrecy and long hour working ethic, surely this would revert the profit standing of Apple ,therefore this can’t be achieved although the element of secrecy may be bad, this however may not be change as the entire strategy and organisation culture rely on it to survive. The unique culture of Apple which is base on the leadership style of one man approach: Steve jobs, can it survive after the exit of jobs. its plausible to say yes as jobs himself claim he had trained others to manage whenever he is no longer available, however the determination of each individual could result in systemic failure of the culture as every leader approach with a different goal setting. If the goal serve as the basis for motivation, and the goals are set by managers, industrial standard or base on negotiation, how then do you motivate individual, researchers Add a few more??? noted that one can be motivated by target set against the others while you could be de-motivated by over pressured standard. “levison (1972)”highlights this in Asinine attitude towards motivation, in relation to reward or punishment to motivate workers, more so borrowing the work of Hygiene theory of motivation by Herzberg (1968),which he claim that the most important motivator or satisfier are Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement. While the following called hygiene factors or dissatisfies Company policy and administration. Supervision-the technical aspects. Salary. Interpersonal relations-supervision Working conditions. Herzberg pointed out that these factors were intrinsically related to the content of work, i.e. with intrinsic challenge, interest and the individual responses generated by them. If applied to Apple, how do we justify the working condition of staff who work for long hours to get the job done, or does the secrecy atmosphere bring about individual motivation or fear of punishment has whoever fail to comply to the culture is noticeably punished, the reward scheme in apple for those that come up with innovative technology like iphone, mac ipad could result in esteem of individual while the punishment approach on the other hand is detrimental to the public image of Apple as any failure leads to sacking individual or leakage of secret will automatically result in dismissal. Therefore we could say any universal concept of motivation might not work in Apple cooperate culture base on perceived punishment and reward of staff performance, thus Apple cooperate culture is zero experience and no stability of staff until now though it has worked for the company. Even though the strategy may be consider risky. Apple target young staff recruits with less commitment and more glory seeking rather than experience. However is worth saying the older generation are not mush expandable. This could be explain using Maslow (1956) Hierarchy of needs, which he associated the important of needs to motivate individual, starting from basic needs called physiological needs, follow by safety needs, then love needs, esteem needs, and self actualisation. He emphasis that as one needs is fulfil we move up to another. A key point to Apple Staff retention Goal setting (locke,shaw sari

HLTH 509 Liberty University Theory Evidence and Intervention Mapping Discussion

HLTH 509 Liberty University Theory Evidence and Intervention Mapping Discussion.

https://ijbnpa-biomedcentral-com.ezproxy.liberty.e…Read “Theory, Evidence and Intervention Mapping to Improve Behavior Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions” by Burg, et al., 2005. Discuss the following points (400-500 words)In this position paper the authors debate the proper use of behavioral theory in health promotion interventions. In their paper they cite 2 dictionary definitions for the word, “theory.” Which of the 2 is best suited to the position they are taking and why?In their discussion the authors point out that, while many behavioral theories are good at explaining current health behavior, they have limited success in predicting changes or improvements in that behavior. Why?In at least 3 places in their paper, the authors state that the use of Intervention Mapping as a health promotion intervention framework can mitigate some of the limitations of behavioral theory in bringing about health behavior change. Is this a realistic expectation? Why or why not?
HLTH 509 Liberty University Theory Evidence and Intervention Mapping Discussion

Work Life Balance Analytical Essay

The ability of a person to maintain the healthy work-life balance is critical for his performance and commitment to the goals set by leaders. Therefore, managers should enable workers to attain this goal (Bogenschneider, 2014). The key issue is that non-profit organizations usually provide more support to employees. It is important to understand why they act in this way. Overall, it is consider a wide set of factors such as inability to compete in terms of salaries, regulations, unionizations of workforce, and changes in the labor market. The analysis of these issues can be useful for understanding the methods for retaining the most skilled professionals. At first, it is important to mention that non-profit organizations are not able to compete with various enterprises in terms of salaries that they can offer to workers. Therefore, they need to attract potential candidates by offering some non-monetary rewards (Valcik

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