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BUS 125 Cuyamaca College Fiduciary Duty and Duty of Loyalty Discussion

BUS 125 Cuyamaca College Fiduciary Duty and Duty of Loyalty Discussion.

The Case of the Director Who Wore Too Many HatsMaria is one of 5 directors of Beta Investments Corporation. She is also a majority shareholder holding both common and preferred stock. Her stock with voting rights amounts to 47% of all stock issued with voting rights. Maria buys, for $1,500, an option to purchase a tract of real estate called Blackacre, which is next to Beta’s home office, for $50,000. Maria forms a new corporation, Commercial Property, Inc., to hold the option. She then has Commercial Property buy Blackacre. As a director of Beta, Maria orders Beta to authorize its real estate agent to negotiate the purchase of the land from Commercial Property for $100,000. After a successful negotiation for the purchase of Blackacre for $100,000, Maria has Commercial Property sell it to Beta, and loan the money to Beta for the purchase price at a 5% interest rate which is 2% below the market rate. Lakesha, a minority shareholder in Beta, formally complains to Beta’s board which takes no action. The TrialLakesha files a suit against Maria on Beta’s behalf seeking to cancel the sale. Maria asks the Court to dismiss the lawsuit as Lakesha has no standing to bring the lawsuit.Arguments At TrialMaria’s attorney argues that Blackacre is necessary for Beta as it will allow them to expand their offices and production plant thus increasing the net worth and potential profits to the shareholders. Further, the Board of Directors of Beta authorized the purchase which appeared to be in accordance with the Articles of Incorporation.Lakesha’s attorney argues that the purchase of Blackacre should have been put to a vote of the shareholders of Beta as required by Beta’s Bylaws. Beta’s Board of Directors failed in its duty to make sure this sale was in the corporation’s best interest.Questions to DecideWhat kind of suit will Lakesha file and what is its basis?Who are the Plaintiffs and who are the Defendants? Why?What are the defenses, if any, of Beta or Maria?Who will win the case and why?
BUS 125 Cuyamaca College Fiduciary Duty and Duty of Loyalty Discussion

Benefits and Drawbacks of Vertical Integration

Vertical integration is the corporate strategy which the firms take to gain the competitive advantages by of in multiple markets or industries simultaneously. Best strategy of the common ownership is the vertical integration where the supply chain is being united there by producing a monopoly termed as vertical monopoly. Vertical integration is the degree to which owner owns suppliers of upstream (towards raw materials) and the buyers of downstream (towards end customers). Vertical integration is having important implications in a business unit with respect to its financial position, differentiation and other issues of strategic importance. In the corporate strategy the most important consideration is the vertical scope of a firm. In an organization the first strategic change is vertical integration. Any company has its own centre of gravity. Any initial strategic move will never affect the centre of gravity because of any prior as well as subsequent changes as they are operated usually for the benefit of the centre of gravity. 2. Vertical Integration: Based on the stream of integration it can be Integrating Backward Integrating forward Integrating in balanced 2.1. Integrating Backward: Acquisition of control subsidiaries which is intended to create (produce) some inputs which could be used in the production of its products. Integrating towards upstream or suppliers or raw materials. Backward movement is done to guarantee in terms of supply as well as to secure bargaining leverage on vendors. 2.2. Integrating forward: Acquisition of distribution centres which can extend up to the retailers to reach the final or end customers directly. Integrating towards downstream or buyers or end customers. Forward movement can guarantee markets and volume for capital investments and it would become own customer thereby providing feedback regarding new products. 2.3. Balanced Integration: Acquisition is done both in upstream as well as downstream which is integrating in both forward as well as backward its towards raw materials and finished products. 3. Benefits due to Vertical Integration: Cost reduction in terms of transportation can be done. More co-ordination in terms of supply chain management is possible Expansion could be possible in terms of core competitors. Capturing the profit as well as maximising the profits both from upstream as well as from downstream. More opportunity provision by differentiation through control over inputs. Through vertical integration the barriers of entry can be increased for the potential competitors. We can increase the access towards downstream distribution channels or else it may not be accessible. In some specified areas we can go for high investment in which upstream and downstream players finding it difficult to invest. 4. Drawbacks regarding vertical integration: Building excess upstream capacity (more investment) so that down stream can have sufficient supply even under heavy demand. There will be lack of supplier competition which will lead to low efficiency resulting in potentially higher costs. Even though vertical-related coordination may increase. The flexibility may get reduced due to previous investments in both upstream as well as downstream. If there is need for significant in-house requirements then it will reduce the ability to produce the product variety. Sometimes existing competencies should be sacrificed to develop new core competencies. Definitely the bureaucratic costs will get increased. 5. Factors in favour of vertical integration: Vertical integration is favoured by some of the situational factors like Taxations as well as tough rules and regulations regarding market transactions. Unexpected obstacles happening while formulating and monitoring contracts. Vertical related activities many times have the strategic similarity. Large scale of productions generally results in benefits like good economies of scale. Hesitation from other firms for investing in some specific transactions. 6. Factors opposing vertical integration: Some factors make vertical integration less attractive like The minimum efficient scale of production of the particular raw materials is much more than what is needed by the production department in that case the company must bear the loss happened due to this excess production which will increase cost of production. Sometimes the activity needed is very different type of core competencies. Very different types of industries like manufacturing retailing must carry out vertically adjacent activities. The firm may be viewed as a competitor rather than as a partner as firm needs to co-operate for the addition of new activity places. Technology of static importance: There will be many internal gains like Transaction costs could be reduced. Supply and demand synchronization is possible along the chain of products. Since there is less uncertainty there will be less risk involved hence high investment is possible. Throughout the chain the market foreclosure is possible. This in turn gives the ability to monopolize the market. At the same time there is a possibility to face the internal losses In case of switching of the suppliers or buyers there higher organizational costs as well as monetary costs. There are some benefits to the society like 1. Since there is reduced uncertainty which in turn result in more investment which will enhance the growth At the same time there are losses to the society as well 1. There will be monopolisation of the markets. 2. There may be a throwaway society due to monopoly on intermediate components. Technology of dynamic importance: 1. In order to keep up with the competition the company would be forced to reinvest infrastructure. This indicates that some times vertical integration will eventually would hurt due to availability of new technologies. The cost production will get increased due to reinvestment in new technology. Vertical integration Vs Outsourcing: In a firm when something is found it is not a core competency then it is liable to get outsourced, through outsourcing we can do more strategic use of scarce resources in a firm as well as cost saving with better productivity is possible. Even though some of the gigantic oil companies like Standard oil as well as Exon is completely under vertical integration. In the current scenario until and unless if there is any compelling reasons for vertical integration the firms are going for non-integration or out-sourcing. By product seller: Among the strategic categories the poorest performer is the by-product sellers who are vertically integrated. Generally the by-product sellers are the primary manufacturers of the raw materials which are the upstream business in process in any business. The problem behind this is that there is no resource allocation across multiple products it got confined within a single business. Ultimately there is also no possibility for any change due to the fact that management skills partly technological as well as know-how whereas it do not transfer across the industries at the primary manufacturing centre of gravity. By product diversification Most of the vertically integrated company first sell by products as a move towards first diversification. But both the centre of gravity as well as the industry will remain unaltered. Full Integration: It generally exists between two stages of a production process both A and B. All the A’s production sold internally and all B’s requirement obtained internally. For example in case of integrated steel plants the steel plant gets all Pig iron it is not purchased outside. Tapered Integration: It generally exists when two stages of production both A and B are not self sufficient internally. For example a car company gets most of its spare parts externally even though the core component is been produced within the care company. b

NEIBCC Time Value of Money Concepts in Managerial Decision Making Discussion

help me with my homework NEIBCC Time Value of Money Concepts in Managerial Decision Making Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Aligning Stockholder and Management Interests/TVM/Markets (Turnitin is Active))
Part 1: Stockholders and Management Interests
Stockholders and managers want the same thing, don’t they? Theoretically, yes, but in reality, it does not always work that way. Too often, managers’ personal goals compete with shareholder wealth maximization. Sometimes, managers pay themselves excessive salaries or bonuses that are at odds with the idea of shareholder wealth maximization. How many times have you seen in the news examples of CEO excesses or outlandish spending on events or things that definitely do not help the overall goal of stockholder wealth maximization? 
To prepare for this Discussion, think about a time in your professional experience when a decision was made that seemed to benefit a specific manager or small group of managers and not the overall corporation. If you do not have professional experience directly related to this topic, research a situation in the news where this theme is demonstrated. Consider the outcomes of such an imbalance between manager and stockholder interests and research on how to avoid such a situation.
Describe the situation from either your professional experience or your research.
Explain two or more motivational tools that can aid in aligning stockholder and management interests.
Explain how your selected tools are effective in resolving potential conflicts among managers and stockholders.
Support your discussion with appropriate academically reviewed articles. Use APA format throughout.
Part 2: Application of Concepts/Time Value of Money
Review the video links below. Based on the materials presented in these videos, discuss how you will use the time value of money concepts in managerial decision making. Be specific and give examples based on your experience or research.
Time Value of Money

NEIBCC Time Value of Money Concepts in Managerial Decision Making Discussion

Operations Management: Metrics and Measurement Essay

Table of Contents Warehousing Job Opportunities Performance Measurement Conclusion References Warehousing Job Opportunities Having searched for employment opportunities in the warehousing industry, I managed to get two managerial positions. The first job was advertised by Wilkinson Green Limited Company. The location was in Cheshire and Stockport in England. The job was titled “Assistant management jobs.” The job qualification was a candidate with a bachelors degree from a recognized university and at least three years of experience in the field. Key responsibilities included stock-keeping covering goods brought in, supplied, retuned from customers, and stock taking. The candidate was expected to achieve the targets set by the line manager. It was his/her duty to report any discrepancies in delivery to the supplies department, make decisions when there was no buyer consult on deliveries and report this to the purchasing department, co-operate with department supervisors on the storage of overstock and creation of space. The manager had to ensure that communication with customers is clear, professional, and maintain proper documents of supply. Lastly, the candidate had to be able to work and cope in a warehouse with a fast environment involving voluminous transactions. It was a permanent job with a salary ranging from 18,000€ to 20,000€ plus other benefits. The other job advertised by Brightwork Company Limited was titled “Warehouse operation manager.” The vacancy was in Glasgow, Scotland. The responsibilities of this job included full control of budgetary and operational responsibilities, management of over 150 operatives in a fast-moving environment, management of consumer service, and the welfare of the staff. The applicant had to have a senior level of warehouse management experience in parcel delivery, retail distribution, food service, or any other relevant field as a basic requirement. The candidate will have an advantage if he/she has accounting skills or previous experience in an accounting environment. Benefits included a salary of 45,000€ plus bonuses, a car, and a pension. Performance Measurement Operation management is a careful process that entails the manufacture of goods and services and their supply to customers. Metrics and measurements enable the management to justify budgets according to the returns and come up with strategies that will enable growth and enhance innovation within the organization. This gives an organization a sort of guideline to follow in the performance of its operations to realize its goals and objectives. It also allows the company to know its performance during a specific period. In operation management measures, and metrics are discussed in the following four different contexts; plan, source, assembly, and delivery (Stewart, 1995). There are various metrics for planning. They include order entry method, order lead time method, and order path method. The order entry method is used to determine how the consumer’s specifications are changed to information that is exchanged in the supply chain. Order lead time is used to measure how long it takes from the time the customers order was received to the delivery of the finished product, while the customers order path is an important measure of how the order traversed and the time is spent in different channels. In the supply chain, it is important to establish an appropriate measure of performance, which is used to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the current system of supply that is used. Most companies use a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to determine this (Beamon, 1998). In the qualitative measurement, there is no direct numerical measurement, although some aspects of the measurement may be quantified. Factors that are considered here include customer satisfaction, the flexibility of the company, supplier performance, risk management, and material flow integration. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Quantitative measurements in the supply chain are those measures that can be quantified numerically. They can be classified, like those based on cost or customer response. Measurements based on cost include cost minimization, profit maximization, sales maximization, return on investment maximization, and inventory investment minimization. Those based on consumer response include lead time minimization, minimization of product lateness, maximization of functional duplication, and increase in the production time (Beamon, 1998). Measurement of the supply chain ensures that the company uses the best method to acquire orders, manufacture, and supply goods to consumers. They, therefore, are good indicators of the companys efficiency in production. These measurements aid companies to identify and solve problems in the supply system, which is in place. Due to these measurements, the innovation of new and better systems of supply can be enhanced and implemented to save time and money. Proper application of these measurements and metrics leads to the minimization of costs, thus increasing the profitability of the company. There are, however, some disadvantages to these methods. First of all these methods are expensive to conduct, thus causing the company to incur an extra expense. In some instances the measure which is calculated is indicators of only one aspect of the supply chain, thus does not truly reflect the true status of the company supply system. At times these measures are difficult to quantify either due to their difficult technicality or as a result of the absence of relevant data which is necessary for quantification. In Canada, there is a warehouse and supply company known as Quik X Company Limited. It is well known in North America for its quality services in the warehousing and supply of goods. They provide highway and intermodal transportation of goods and also truck loading services. In their operations, over the years, they have employed various metric systems that have helped them in the supply of their goods and services (Quik X, 2010). In their operations, they have used various measures and metrics to evaluate their performance. By using order entry, order lead-out, and the customer order path, they have managed to improve on the efficiency of receiving orders, processing them, and delivering the goods to their customers. It has increased their reliability over time, making their customers have trust in them. This company also uses the qualitative and quantitative measures of supply to evaluate their system of supply. The data which they get help them to maintain the standards of operations which they are doing well and improve in places where they are not doing well. These measures and metrics thus act as a guideline that checks their performance ensuring, that they are on track with their management plan. Conclusion In the supply chain of operation management, it is necessary to conduct metrics and measurements from time to time. These measurements and metrics act as important indicators in the performance of the companys activity, especially those regarding the supply of goods and services to consumers. Through their application, the efficiency and effectiveness of the operations within a company tend to improve over time, therefore, increasing consumer efficiency, minimizing costs, and increasing profitability. We will write a custom Essay on Operations Management: Metrics and Measurement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Beamon, B.M. (1998). Supply Chains Designs and Analysis. Models and Methods. International Journal of Production Economics, 55 (4), pg. 281-294. Stewart, G. (1995). Supply Chain Performance Benchmarking Reveals Keys to Supply Chain Excellence. Logistics Information Management 8 (2), pg. 38–44. Quik X Logistics. (2010). Quick X. Web.

Palestinian economics

Palestinian economics. Paper details • Any research published on issues related to the Palestinian economy is selected, provided that the study is published by a research body (institution or research center) or published in a refereed scientific journal. • The summary should include the following items: • Title: It must express the problem or the scientific topic in a holistic manner, meaning that it includes the main research focus, which the research reviews. • Introduction: It should be very brief, about what the research talks about, its importance and scientific contribution to it. • The scientific method of research: What is the methodology that was used in the research. • Research problem (research problem): What is the main issue that the research is exposed to, or trying to find an answer to it, or linking some relationships.. • Limits of the search: The limits of the search have more than one dimension, which is the spatial limits of the search, which is represented in the place of conducting the search, whether the country or the city or more than one place, and the time limits of the search, which is the timing or period of the search, and these limits are one of the important elements In the scientific research summary form, which must be clarified. •Research objectives: the meaning of the word goal in general is the thing to be achieved, and from this point of view, the research objectives are what the researcher wants to reach through the research procedures, and must use simple language when formulating the research objectives, and those objectives are related to the nature of the research •Research questions or hypotheses: Research questions or hypotheses are an important part of the scientific research summary form. As for the research questions, they are interrogative questions that begin with an interrogative tool such as: how, is, when, what, what … etc., and are used extensively in Researches with a theoretical, descriptive or humanistic tendency, as for hypotheses, they are a relationship between two variables, the researcher explains the impact of one on the other through research procedures, and is mostly used in pure scientific research, and sometimes the researcher markets research questions and hypotheses at the same time, and that In order to enrich research and expand. •Research results: The results of the research are among the most important elements that must be included in the scientific research summary form. •Research recommendations: Recommendations or suggestions are made, based on the researcher’s findings on the topic or problem under scientific research.Palestinian economics