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‘Burger Boy’ by Jerry Newman Case Study

What appear to be the problems at this Burger Boy? As the ‘Burger Boy’ appears to be a valid and truthful narrative that was written by Jerry Newman that devoted almost two years of being employed at several restaurants of the famous fast food chain, the problems that he had identified in this experience retell are considered to be binding and credible. Several issues had been established with the given location, such as shortage of working staff; the absence of the understandable and coherent description of various jobs occupied by the staff; the lack of personnel that is responsible for the difficult and urgent situations at work, for example, one of the employees calling sick or else. As the story of Jerry Newman tells the reader about the particular episode from his work days on the Friday afternoon around lunch time, the circumstances could be evaluated as stressful and overloaded with work. The problems with this particular location of Burger Boy were established when two out of ten workers warned the authorities that they will not go to work that day due to health problems. As a result, the remaining employees were departed from their formal daily positions in order to make restitution for the people that were not present. It came into sight that that particular Burger Boy location did not possess an adequate number of staff workers in order to compensate for missing employees during rush hours. The policy of the management to make the current workers in charge of assignments that were usually not their responsibility had led to the dissatisfaction with the service not only of the clients but of the employees as well. To my opinion, this particular location of Burger Boy occurs as a quite agitated and edgy environment to work in, and its approach towards organization requires being re-evaluated. How many of these problems could be explained by compensation issues? After reading and evaluating the case written by Jerry Newman, it could be said that most of the problems described in the answer to the first question are caused by the compensation issues that aroused in this Burger Boy location. First of all, in order to achieve a great level of running a restaurant and administration in general by increasing the payment for all the workers and the employees who are responsible for the rush hours and unexpected situations in particular. Moreover, the supervisors and management failed to provide a respectful, efficient and comfortable atmosphere for their workers. The author claims that he did not receive proper respect and morality from his administrator: “Leon looks over at me and shouts above the din: ‘Good job, Jerry. Keeping up with Friday rush on your third cooking day, good job.’ That’s the first compliment I have received in the two weeks I have worked here, so I smile at the unexpected recognition” (Newman 93). Furthermore, due to the small payment, some employees may tend to call in falsely sick, which leads to the difficulties and challenges at the workplace. According to the author, the workers are not rewarded for working overtime or taking the responsibilities of other people that have been assigned by the manager; as a result, the employees at this particular Burger Boy location are not feeling appreciated and satisfied with their jobs, salary, and the administration of the restaurant. To my opinion, establishing a useful compensating strategy for every encounter and occurrences of working overtime would absolutely without any doubts lessen the physical and mental pressure on the workers; moreover, with implementing the compensating strategy would give the workers the motivation and encouragement to perform better. How many other problems could be lessened with by diligent use of rewards other than pay? In the case of this particular location of the Burger Boy, the implementing the reward system would significantly lessen various problems, for example, the dissatisfaction of workers with their working environment. “Angrily Leon stomps back to the office and confronts Otis. The yelling quickly reaches audible levels. Everyone in the store, customers included, hear what is quickly broadening into confrontations about other unresolved issues” (Newman 94). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At Burger Boy, employees should have been administered with adaptable working shifts; workers should be treated as equals to the managers; efficient relations between staff and management should be determined; workers should be adjusted to the primary target of the Burger Boy; workers should be aware of expectations towards them; staff members should be as well presented with rewards for outstanding and exemplary performance of their job; people in charge should always be apprehensive of each of their workers circumstances, special occasions or personal demands; and all members of the staff should be granted with the capability to preserve professionalism and stay consistent. If the measures mentioned above were put into practice, this location of the Burger Boy would have an opportunity to eliminate the issues that the restaurant is experiencing at the time. Are hours of work a reward? What might explain why I was happy to be working 20 hours per week, but Chuck was unhappy with 30 hours per week? How might schedules be used as a reward? A number of hours that the employee had worked at the restaurant could be considered as encouragement towards better work in cases where a person is also getting compensation through in financial or non-financial manner. The administration of the restaurant is strongly advised to grant their workers with a monetary refund for every hour they have worked overtime. Moreover, the implementation of the adaptable working shifts would be highly beneficial for the restaurant. The working schedule that satisfy the demands and personal needs of the workers is considered to be useful in a rewarding system along with granting an employee an opportunity to get some time off from work due to illness or urgent circumstances as long as there is another member of staff who would fill his place out. Moreover, In the Burger Boy case Chuck was working 30 hours a week and did not get any compensation for overtime; as a result, he was dissatisfied with his work environment and management. “Chuck has only worked here for six weeks but has prior experience at another Burger Boy” (Newman 92). However, not only Chuck is disappointed in his payment and work hours. During a fight, Otis says, “I am sick of your whining, Leon. I work 50-60 hours a week. I’m sick of working 10-12 hours a day for crappy wages. I’m going home and try to forget this place” (Newman 93). If the management of the restaurant had established a better compensation and reward policy, all employees would be appeased by their positions. Also, an individual working in a positive environment and being treated fairly by a supervisor and other staff could have a lasting effect on an individual’s performance on the job. Works Cited Newman, Jerry. My Secret Life on the McJob. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2007. Print.

Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization Exploratory Essay

Introduction The primary objective of most global companies other than the non-profit organizations is profit maximization. As such, nearly all the companies’ operations are geared towards making profits. Nevertheless, it is also important that companies and organizations incorporate ethics in their operations by taking care of the society they operate in through corporate social responsibility (Moon). This is something not considered by most global companies who care less about their society. Most of them forget that it is the same society, which comprises of the consumers of their goods and services. In fact, it was noted that the companies that fail to incorporate social responsibility in their policies and operations face insuperable problems (Sun). Corporate social responsibility otherwise referred to as CSR, is therefore, the process through which companies get back to the society by behaving in an ethical manner and improving the quality of life in the society via economic development (Carroll 2). In this case, companies integrate ethical and responsible practices into their organizational operations. This paper will be an exploration of the corporate social responsibility issue by looking at the benefits that come in hand, as well as, how companies can effectively implement CSR in their community. Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility A company that practices corporate social responsibility not only benefits the society but also gains several advantages from it. It is evident that once a company practices effective CSR, it will definitely gain competitive advantage over others that do not. This is because it will have created a positive image in the society making people prefer it to others. As a result, the sales of the company will shoot up leading to high profits. For instance, when Starbucks Coffee Company in the United States released its CSR report in 2006, the sales of the company increased tremendously. Corporate Social Responsibility also looks at the welfare of the employees. As such, companies that uphold CSR in their policies will not collide with its employees as their needs will have been considered. This will in turn ensure smooth running of the organizational operations because there will not be cases of riots, strikes or go-slows. Corporate social responsibility ensures that employees and the employers have a mutual relationship. Thus, the company will benefit from this by having increased productivity, which in turn results to profit maximization. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main themes of corporate social responsibility is environmental conservation (Noer, Ewait, and Weiss1). Therefore, a company that practices effective CSR will ensure that it takes good care of the environment. As such, the company will be following the regulations of National Environmental Boards hence free from cases of malpractices. This will save the company lots of money that could be spent on court cases and fines resulting from environmental degradation and pollution. The implementation of CSR in a community Given the benefits that come in hand with practicing corporate social responsibility, it is of significant importance that companies try as much as they can to implement it in the society. There different ways through which, companies could effectively implement CSR in a community. Below are some of the possible methods of effective implementation of CSR. Environmental Conservation As mentioned earlier in the paper, conservation of the environment is one of the main themes of corporate social responsibility. Therefore, companies can use it as one way of implementing CSR in a community. This can take two dimensions yet achieving the same objective. The companies could advocate for environment conservation by supporting and giving financial aid to organizations that deal with environmental conservation. They could also recognize and appreciate such organizations by presenting them with awards. This will motivate the environmental conservation organizations, making them carry on with their activities of conserving the environment. In this case, the company will have participated indirectly to conserve the environment. At the same time, companies in the manufacturing industry who produce effluents to the environment should put control measures to ensure that what goes to the environment is safe. For instance, they could treat their water effluents before releasing it to the water bodies so that it does not affect the life in the water environment. Companies could also incorporate filters in their smoke chimneys to filter the hazardous compounds before the smoke gets into the atmosphere. All this is done to ensure that the environment remains clean and safe for the survival of all living organisms. Health Perspective This is another way through which, companies can implement CSR in the community. Again, this is twofold because it can be achieved in two ways. First, the companies should make sure that the products they manufacture have no health effects. For instance, the food companies should minimize the number and quantity of additives they add on food commodities during processing. In doing this, companies will ensure that the society consumes healthy products hence remaining healthy as well. Companies could also actively participate in health promotion campaigns. This could be through funding, organizing the campaigns or being physically involved. The latter is achieved by having the employees of the company participate in health campaigns organized in the community. We will write a custom Essay on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Charity In each society, there is bound to be needy people who require support from others. Most of this support normally comes from people with stable income and organizations. Therefore, companies could use this as a way of implementing corporate social responsibility in their communities. For example, companies could allocate a given percentage of their sales revenue to donate to the needy people in the society. In this, the whole society will appraise the company for their work hence gain a good reputation. The aforementioned ways are just but some of the ways through which, companies are able to implement CSR in a community. Other ways include, presentation of awards to their employees, giving the leaves and off duties, organizing leisure trips for them and participating in community fundraisings among other methods (Visser et al). Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it is clear that corporate social responsibility is one way through which companies can give back to the community. Through CSR, both the company and society will benefit (Matten and Moon 324). This is because companies that give back to the community they serve gain better reputation than those that do not. As such, the people will prefer products from companies that practice effective CSR to those of companies that do not care about the community. The various ways through which companies can implement CSR in a community have also been mentioned, some of which include charity, health campaigns, and environmental conservation among others. Given, the benefits that come in hand with practicing CSR, it is important that all companies resort to effective implementation of CSR in their communities. Works Cited Carroll, Archie. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of Definitional Construct.” Business Society. 1999. Web. Matten, Dirk., and Moon, Jeremy.” Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics 54.4 (2005): 323-337. Print. Moon, Chris et al. Business Ethics. London: The Economist, 2001. Print. Noer, Michael., Ewait, David., and Weiss, Tara. “Corporate Social Responsibility.” Forbes. 2008. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sun, William. How to Govern Corporations So They Serve the Public Good: A Theory of Corporate Governance Emergence. New York: Edwin Mellen, 2010. Print. Visser, Wayne et al. The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility. New York: Wiley, 2007. Print.

The Random Access Memory Computer Science Essay

essay order Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information retention. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor), implements the basic computer model used since the 1940s[2].Physical memory is a general term that refers to the media data cache on your computer. Being processed for each program and data by the processor will be stored in physical memory. Data is stored in physical memory is temporary, because it will store the data stored in it on a computer that does not continue to flow through the power in other words, the computer is still alive. When you are re-set the computer on or off, will be the loss of data stored in physical memory. So, before you shut down your computer, do not store all data in the mass permanent storage usually tend to be permanent and the media-based disk storage, such as hard disk or floppy disk. There are some types of computer memory which is Random Access Memory (RAM), Read Only Memory (ROM), Virtual memory, Cache Memory and Flash Memory MAIN BODY Random Access Memory (RAM) consists of a set of chips. Chip-chip is able to accommodate the data to be processed, or program instructions, to process data which has been processed and waiting to be sent to output devices, secondary storage or communication also device. Operating system that controls the basic functions of the system data and instructions had accommodated in RAM is temporary. The contents of RAM can vary according to the processed data in it, or even use the program. RAM is the computer resources of its reusable or can be used of RAM referred to as the volatile products. This means that if the power is disconnected from the computer and the computer dead, then all content that is in RAM will be lost permanently. Because RAM is temporary and volatile, then the other storage media to create a permanent nature. This is commonly referred to as secondary storage. Secondary storage is durable and not too volatile, this means all data or programs stored in it can still exist even if the power or the power is turned off. Some examples of this such as secondary storage are magnetic tape, hard drives, magnetic disks and optical storage disk.Capacity of RAM is very diverse in different computers. Capacity is an important factor, because it determines how much data can be processed in the same time and how large and complex programs that can store. Computer operating system in charge of regulating the use of RAM so that programs can work well. To understand the capacity of the RAM, then some of the following terminology is often. Bit, which is a binary numbering system that represents the smallest unit of data in a computer system? A bit consists of only two digits are 1 and 0. In the computer, 0 means electronic or magnetic signals are absent or absent, while 1 means. Byte, which is a group of eight bits. A byte represents one character, a digit or a value. The capacity of computer memory, or RAM, specified in bytes or groups of bytes. Data, and program instructions stored in the RAM is actually stored in the bits that represent data, instruction and program earlier. Bits are stored in an electronic part called the microscopic capacitor. Read Only Memory (ROM) is a set of chips that contain part of the operating system which is needed when the computer starts up. ROM is also known as a firmware. ROM is not writable or changed its contents by the user. ROM classified in the media that are non-volatile storage. ROM chips come from the factory with programs or instructions that have been stored in it. The only way to replace its contents is removed from the computer and replace it with another ROM. ROM chip can contain frequently used programs, such as computational routines to calculate the root of a number of ROM and others. This example is for the storage of the BIOS (Basic Input-Output System) which by the manufacturer. BIOS are a very critical part of an operating system, which functions to tell the computer how I access the disk drives. When the computer is turned on, RAM is still empty and there are instructions in the ROM BIOS is used by the CPU to find the disk drive that contains the main files in the operating system. Computer and then transfer those files into RAM and then there are three variations of the ROM, i.e. PROM, or programmable read only memory. PROM chip is a chip that is empty in which the program can be written into it by using special equipment. PROM chips can be programmed once and usually used by the plant as a control device in the product. PROM or erasable programmable read only memory. EPROM similar to PROM, but the program can be removed and the new program could be written into it by using special equipment that uses ultraviolet light. EPROM is used for controlling devices, such as robots .EEPROM, or electronic erasable programmable read only memory. EEPROM chip can be reprogrammed using special electric impulses. Virtual memory is a data storage method in which part of the program or data stored in the magnetic disk and not in RAM, until such time as necessary. This will provide a kind of illusion that the RAM is its unlimited. Upshot simulates virtual memory itself as a RAM. He allows a computer to run more programs than ever before manipulate larger data and also runs a large program without fear of shortage of RAM. Virtual storage is slower than RAM and non-volatile nature. Cache memory is the storage of data or information, while the most frequently used or accessed by a computer. Cache memory located on the CPU or on a separate chip. CPU cache memory used to store instructions that are frequently used to run a program. Indirectly, this will improve overall system speed. There are two parts of the cache memory on a computer that is level 1 and level 2 caches is often with L1 and L2. L1 cache is on a built-in CPU and the L2 cache is located in a separate chip, and is located near the CPU. Some CPUs have a built-L1 and L2 and L3 are located on the outside. CPU which has a built-in cache memory much faster than the outside because it operates in tandem with microprosessor speed. Flash memory is non-volatile memory whose contents are maintained after power off. Flash memory can be read from and written to multiple times and more durable than floppy disks or compact disc. Flash memory devices used in various contributions to the stability, fast access, durability and clean energy power consumption. In addition to use as memory cards and thumb drives, flash memory is also used as a substitute for the hard-drive in the form of solid-state drive and hybrid. Flash memory to store and transfer files between computers and digital appliances. This is a form of EPROM electrically programmable read-can delete the memory-only. The types of flash memory are a compact flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD) media, memory sticks, multimedia cards, and xD-Picture cards. CONCLUSION The computer’s memory, often called memory only refers to any computer components, devices and recording media that retain digital data for a certain period of time. Computer data storage provides one of the main tasks of the modern computer, to store information. Memory is one of most important components in any computer system. Without Computer Memory, your computer system is useless and will only take up space in your desk. Computer Memory is a bridge between your permanent storage system disks, CDs, and the Processor. Hard drives are very slow when compared with a CPU processing time so Computer Memory is used to buffer data during time it is processed so bottlenecks are reduced.

Origins of Wicca: The Beginning of a New Religion

The Wiccan religion has become one of the fastest rising religions in the United States. It is also one of the most misjudged due to the debates surrounding its history and the mystery cloaking its beliefs and doctrines. Wicca is frequently misconstrued to be allied with Satan and rituals that use elements of black magic. There are a number of popular TV series that have shown Witchcraft and Wicca in a positive light, such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Charmed, and because of this, its popularity has increased. The downside is this fame has not been partnered with a growth in understanding and respect. Margot Adler, a writer for Reader’s Companion to U.S. Women’s History, has said, “Wicca is the term commonly used to describe several different traditions of contemporary Paganism—an earth-centered religion that reveres nature; celebrates seasonal and lunar cycles; and worships a Goddess, or many Goddesses, or sometimes a Goddess and a God”.[1] This religion centers on revering an earth God or Goddess, and tapping into their power and the earth’s elements for the good of everything and everyone. Wicca offers a nature focused belief system with an assortment of customs and rituals,[2] yet, obliviousness and historical fallacies control public view. Controversies that surround Wicca begin with its exact origin. There are few who believe that it has origins in Witchcraft as there are similarities between them. Pagan practices, such as Witchcraft, began with the Celts around 700 B.C.[3] The region during this time was chiefly a rural culture, and as such, Celtic traditions were based uniquely on nature. Months were named after trees, and festivals centered around the solstices and equinoxes.[4] Being a polytheistic religion, pagans worship female and male deities and are connected with Goddess worship, a strong belief in the divinity of the female.[5] These paganistic principles and rites gradually merged with other European religious practices, such as magic, tonics, and liniments for healing, to form what we call now, Witchcraft. Those who did not have pagan views branded these beliefs as demonic worship,[6] which has led to the misconceptions of today. There are numerous Wiccan today that do not believe the beginnings of their faith is in Witchcraft, yet, others believe that these religious practices are a part of the foundation of Wicca. There has remained questionable historical evidence to support a direct connection between the two since paganism is not an organized religion and is passed on through oral traditions,[7] The introduction of Wicca is connected with Gerald Gardner (1884-1964).[8] Gardner had been a British civil servant and an informal archaeologist, who spent part of his time in Southern Asia. He authored the book Witchcraft Today after his return to England, which detailed the rituals, beliefs, and doctrines of the religion he coined Wicca. Gardner claimed his book was inspired from Celtic traditions; however, it was a combination of Western faith, Asian magic, God and Goddess worship, and Masonic rituals.[9] The religion he outlines in his book is a nature-based faith with a low emphasis on magic. There is an inclination to view Wicca and Witchcraft as the same and while some Wiccans identify themselves as witches, it is a choice each Wiccan makes. Wiccans today do not see themselves as witches. Witchcraft is viewed as a magic-based practice but does not hold the spiritual footing that Wicca exemplifies. The Wiccan religion of today is different than the one previous Christians tried to annihilate during the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem Witch Trials;[10] however, it is sometimes impossible to deny the similarities between them. Wicca, formally founded in England in 1950, arrived in the United States in the sixties and seventies during the religious movement, Neo-Paganism. This Neo-Paganism referred to religions that joined the worship of pagan deities, particularly of the earth, with witchcraft.[11] It has slowly gained in popularity since its inception, especially in recent years, and has gained recognition as an organized religion by the United States Government.[12] It is difficult to know the exact number of people in the U.S. that follow Wicca; however, approximations run anywhere from 40,000 members to 140,000 members.[13] Wicca is not what most would recognize as a religion as there is no large, central church or a communal set of doctrines. A traditional congregation does not exist. Some traditional congregations contain small groups within them. These small groups in relation to Wicca are called covens. Each coven consists of no more than twelve members, and it may also have a high priest or priestess, for a total of thirteen.[14] There are covens that reach numbers into the twenties, but a majority of the covens keep to a few members. Factors that make it impossible to establish an accurate number of practicing Wiccans in North America include the fact each coven contains a small number of practitioners, the religion is spread geographically, and many practitioners observe Wicca in private because of common misconstructions, such as its improper connotations with Satanism.[15] Wicca is a religion that consists of countless individuals. Several people come to Wicca through research into religions and find themselves drawn to the beliefs, rituals, and peacefulness of it. There are few people who are born into Wicca, and those that are had linage of witches in their family history. Individuals that decide to follow this faith oftentimes practice on their own before they seek a coven to join or begin their own, a way of experimenting.[16] Covens that form are different from each other in small ways as it is first practiced by oneself and each individual practices their own way. Every coven and practitioner possesses a book called the Book of Shadows, which differ as much as the covens do.[17] The Book of Shadows include spells, potions, and wisdom that can be passed down. New members who join are often drawn to something in an individual coven rather than the religion as a whole. Each coven has its own set of beliefs, which makes Wicca difficult to label and categorize. There are varying covens in the religion, but it is often tough to distinguish one from the next. There is one coven, Gardnerian, created by Gerald Gardner, which only differentiates itself due to its devotees’ worshipping in the nude.[18] There is no defined chain of power in Wicca; still, covens are frequently led by a High Priestess, a High Priestess and a High Priest, or in some rare cases, a High Priest only.[19] Such people are usually long-time members of the religion, the coven, and are seen as an of Elder of the group that neophyte members can go to for guidance. The meetings that covens hold are called esbats. These meetings, or gatherings, are held for the coven to conduct coven related business, hold coaching and training sessions, i.e., spell-casting and potion-making, and perform rituals such as initiations and other similar ceremonies.[20] Esbats are held at full or new moons, for a total of thirteen annually. There are other gatherings in addition to the esbats. Eight holiday events in which Wiccans recognize and gather for are called sabbats.19 These sabbats are traditionally planned around major events in nature, such as the changing of the seasons, and life cycles. There are four major and four minor sabbats. The four major holidays were originally designed to commemorate the changing of seasons and to revel in the hunt and harvest.[21] The minor holidays are celebrated with regard to the solstices and equinoxes. Modern practitioners use these sabbats to celebrate life and perform rituals to honor their interpretation of these days.[22] Wiccan religion has more variances than other religions as it is a religion of constant involvement. There is no preacher who stands before a congregation and leads them in lessons from a bible. Those that lead from within the covens decide how they want the members to worship and the manner in which rituals and ceremonies are to be performed. The principal belief system of Wiccan religion is based on natural law. Natural law is grounded in morality and ethics. It is exposed to humans through the use of reason and choosing between good and evil, thus finding its supremacy in realizing universal standards in morality and ethics.[23] Wiccans, therefore, believe nature functions separate of an all-controlling, ever present God and instead conducts themselves by their own laws, on their own clock. There is no Heaven or Hell in the Wiccan world, nor an incorporeal, prodigious God that is set apart from nature quietly controlling all aspects of it. God, instead, is an objective creating force, called “The One.”[24] The One is a personification of all in nature, everything that has its own unique energy or lifeforce, networking and influencing each other to form a balanced accord. Everything, in essence, has a celestial spirit, and, when put together forms a broad depiction seen as The One. The principal deities for Wicca are the Mother Goddess, who represents the fruitfulness of the earth, and the Horned God, who perished and was revived, signifying the earth’s renewing powers.24 The conviction is that all living things are part of the main God and Goddess, and that the Earth itself is an active organism. Each and every living being is seen as an integral part of that organism. A bond is formed by tuning into the communications from the Earth and nature. Wiccans are actively involved in protecting and promoting Earth and her natural resources. Practitioners hold numerous festivals and celebrations to honor these Gods and Goddesses.24 This concept is not an exclusive one to Wiccans, however, it is one that has continued to be a vital part of the Wiccan religion. Although modern Wiccans draw on their Pagan roots and continue to worship a multitude of ancient pagan deities, it is very important to note that these deities are not considered actual individual Gods or Goddesses but part of The One divine spirit.[25] This is a problematic notion for some monotheistic, patriarchal religions, such as Judaism, to grasp. Wiccans believe that the intergalactic dynamisms of the universe [The One] are comprised of balanced masculine and feminine characteristics, embodied in the Goddess and God.[26] The Goddess and God encompass a variety of features that can be further denoted by the individual ancient pagan Gods. The deities act as a way for Wiccans to identify with the different facets of the singular divine spirit, The One. Praying, for instance, for guidance in a love relationship, it would be simpler to relate to Venus, the Goddess of Love, than an impersonal, all-encompassing divine force.[27] Wicca is not a very structured or rigid religion, so one will find variation in how Wiccans classify themselves: monotheistic, duo-theistic, polytheistic, etc.; but in general, many support the idea explained above. Wiccans support the premise of natural law, of a non-interfering divinity, however, they expand on the belief that they can tap into or channel the energy of the divine to influence or manipulate things.[28] The explanation for such credence is since the celestial life-force exists in everything, each individual can attain a personal connection or communion with the force, such as tapping into its energy. This is quite different from the traditional God/worshiper roles existing in numerous monotheistic religions. This leads to a deeply personal relationship between a Wicca practitioner and the Goddess and God. The ability to tap into and manipulate the powers of the deity comes a moral obligation. There is a strong desire for peace and harmony among Wiccans. They desire this not only within their religion but also with all of nature’s creatures. Followers are allowed freedom in what they do as long as it does not bring any intentional harm to any other living beings. Wiccans adhere to a peaceful belief system which are outlined in the Wiccan Credo,[29] a widespread and publicized poem written in the early 1900s with its origins concealed in mystery.[30] The peaceful mentality of Wicca can be perceived in the first three lines of the poem: “Bide within the law you must, In perfect love and perfect trust. Live you must and let to live, Fairly take and fairly give.”[31] The Wiccan Credo is notorious for containing the two most observed laws of Wiccan behavior: The Wiccan Rede and The Threefold Law. (Please refer to the end of the document to view a full version of the Wiccan Rede.) The true nature of Wicca can be seen towards the end of the Wiccan Rede, where it states: “An ye harm none, do what ye will.” Translated, this simply means, practice as you please as long as it harms no soul or thing. The Threefold Law holds another view of the true nature of Wicca as it introduces the Wiccan belief in karma and rebirth. The Threefold Law is found within the Wiccan Credo in the following lines: “Mind the Threefold Law you should, Three times bad and three times good.”[32] It can be deduced that this suggests an individual’s actions return to him or her three times over, whether good or bad. Some practitioners do not buy into the literalness of the factor of three, but they do advocate the idea that their deeds will have repercussions. This idea is expanded further in the common belief in reincarnation. This notion is best summarized as some believe a soul is continually renewed whereas others believe once a soul acquires all life instruction, it is permitted everlasting rest in their new home called the Summerlands.[33] Reincarnation is the ultimate method for curbing the misuse of magic and evil behavior as it distributes cosmic impartiality. A person is reborn in a place that suits their deeds from their former lifetime. The origins of Wicca may have some similarities to Witchcraft; though, after examining the history and the birth of this religion, the differences become evident. The doctrines and beliefs of the Wiccan’s hold the true nature of their practice; a respect for nature and human-kind. Wicca is not about promoting or provoking harm or ill intent toward anyone or anything. Wiccans do not use magick or spells to benefit from others’ misfortune, contrary to popular belief. The mystery that shrouds this religion is easily dispelled after examining its true nature. Once an individual researches the practices of this religion, they will have an understanding of respect instead of fear. The Wicca religion prides itself on the Wiccan Credo which states that if they do not harm another person or thing, they can practice as they wish. But should they choose to do evil, their deeds will be reaped upon them threefold. Morality and ethics frame the basis for Wicca, as well as the idea of a divine spirit that is represented in the Goddess and God. Throughout history, Wicca has had a major impact on its followers and non-followers. People are either believers or non-believers, followers or non-followers, or for it or against it. The true nature of Wicca is peaceful and caring to both humankind and the natural elements of the world, and as such, deserves a level of respect and understanding. Bibliography Adler, Margot. “Wicca.” Reader’s Companion to U.S. Women’s History. 637-638. US: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 1998. History Reference Center. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. Aten, James. 2008. “The Truth About Wicca And Witchcraft: Finding Your True Power.” 2nd ed. Aten Publishing. Berger, Helen A., and Douglas Ezzy. “Mass Media and Religious Identity: A Case Study of Young Witches.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48, no. 3 (2009): 501-14. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.shsu.edu/stable/40405642. Boyer, Paul S, and Stephen Nissenbaum. 1974. “Salem Possessed; The Social Origins of Witchcraft.” Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Cunningham, Scott. 1987. “The Truth About Witchcraft Today.” St. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications. Gardner, Gerald Brosseau. “Witchcraft Today.” Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1954. Gaskill, Malcolm. “The Pursuit of Reality: Recent Research into The History of Witchcraft.” The Historical Journal 51, no. 04 (2008): 1069. doi:10.1017/s0018246x0800719x. Grimassi, Raven, and Connie Hill. 2002. “The Witches’ Craft: The Roots of Witchcraft

Business Memo Essay

The assignment is based onExcel project which I attached in the file. Your memo should be between around 400 words and should be typed up using Word. It should be double-spaced, 1-inch margin, and with 12-point Times New Roman font • Your recommendation on which firms would be the best candidates for future investment, and • Your reasoning behind the recommendation, and • A brief response to each of the items in the following list: 1. The fund manager wants to first find out when and by how much stock prices for the selected firms fluctuate drastically. i. In your memo, include only the days on which top-most positive and top-most negative % change fluctuations occur. See Part-A for instructions to complete this. 2. The fund manager plans to discuss these results with colleagues. This requires a visual summary of the stock pricing data and NASDAQ Composite index. Create a pivot-chart that will help the fund manager in her discussion. In your memo include a copy of pivot chart and a couple of sentences about your observations from this chart. See Part-B for instructions to complete this. 3. The fund manager wants to know how the ROI of your IT portfolio compares with that of NASDAQ, which is the market index for IT firms. She wants to know whether it was better than that of NASDAQ (i.e. whether you beat the market). ii. In your memo, include a couple of sentences explaining this comparison with NASDAQ. See Part-C for instructions to complete portfolio analysis.