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Building an Economy Government Planning vs Entrepreneurial Innovation Paper

Building an Economy Government Planning vs Entrepreneurial Innovation Paper.

Write a short research paper for a peer-reviewed research paper that pertains to the week’s assigned reading. This will be a detailed summary of the research paper and what you gained from the research. Each week, you will find an article/peer-reviewed research paperOnce you find the article, you will simply read it and then write a review of it. Think of it as an article review where you submit a short overview of the article.Your paper should meet the following requirements:• Be approximately 3 pages in length, not including the required cover page and reference page.• Follow APA6 guidelines. Your paper should include an introduction, a body with fully developed content, and a conclusion.• Support your answers with the readings from the course and at least two scholarly journal articles to support your positions, claims, and observations, in addition to your textbook.• Be clearly and well-written, concise, and logical, using excellent grammar and style techniques. You are being graded in part on the quality of your writing.
Building an Economy Government Planning vs Entrepreneurial Innovation Paper

Bio Fertilizer Industry In India. Bio-fertilizers are contain live such beneficial microorganisms which on application to seed, root or soil mobilize the availability of nutrients by their biological activity in particular, and help build up the micro-flora and in turn the soil health in general. An increasing number of farmers and agriculturists are turning to the use of bio-fertilizers as these are gentler on the soil as against chemical fertilizers. It is easier to fully appreciate the importance of bio-fertilizers when we know how harmful the chemical fertilizers for the soil and the crops are. Chemical fertilizers are meant to boost the growth of plants and increase the fertility of the soil; however they cause significant damage to the environment and also human health by increasing the day by day concentration of toxic chemical in food. These chemical based fertilizers also make use of nitrogenous fertilizers or chemicals, are expensive and not as conveniently available. Unlike other environmentally harmful chemical fertilizers, bio-fertilizers work on naturally building up the resistance and enhance the nutritional value of the soil and the host plant by adding primary nutrients. Application of high input technologies has resulted in significant increase in agricultural productivity. There is, however, a growing concern about the adverse effects of indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers on soil productivity and environmental quality. For those looking at organic farming, bio-fertilizers make the perfect choice. A large number of people are realizing the value and benefit of living an eco-friendly life, and therefore the demand for organic products is ever increasing. Using bio-fertilizers is a great way to produce organic products and promote good health. The current research study is based on using the secondary data for the analysis or market of bio-fertilizer in India. Market analysis includes the annual requirement and production of different bio-fertilizers state wise in India and to find the root cause behind tremendous gap between requirement and production. This study will analyse the major bio-fertilizer producing states and identify major government and non government manufacturers. In this report we also analysis the market revenue of bio-agri (bio-fertilizer) and constant increasing demand and growth rate of this industry in India. And also analysis the strategies used by the industry to increase the market of bio-fertilizer. Also, this study will contribute in building a trend analysis for the production of bio-fertilizers in India over the last 10 years. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In the current scenario one of the major concerns faced by the agriculture industry is the contamination and pollution of soil. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has caused tremendous harm to the environment. There seems to be a growing concern about the adverse effects of indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers on soil productivity and environmental quality. An answer to this is the bio-fertilizer, an environmentally friendly fertilizer now used in most countries. Bio-fertilizers contain micro-organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of soil. These micro-organisms supply in addition to nitrogen, considerable amount of organic matter enriching quality of soil. Inoculants of these micro-organisms have proved their technical feasibility, economic viability and social acceptability. They are therefore called as `bio-fertilizer’. Hence the term `bio-fertilizer’ may be defined as those fertilizer which containing living or latent cells of efficient strains of the nitrogen fixing, phosphorous solubilising or cellulolytice micro-organism. For those looking at organic farming, bio-fertilizers make. The perfect choice a large number of people are realizing the value and benefit of living an eco-friendly life, and therefore the demand for organic products is ever increasing. Using bio-fertilizers is a great way to produce organic products and promote good health. This research study based on analysing the annual requirement and production of different bio-fertilizers state wise in India identified Tamil Nadu as the major biofertilizer producing state of India. Other regions of production of biofertilizers are Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, ChennaiBio Fertilizer Industry In India
PAD 3003 Howard University Topic 5 Changing Organization Environment Essay.

I’m working on a research & summaries multi-part question and need support to help me study.

Write an essay on knowledge/information as a source of power in the organization. After a brief introduction, discuss the following three issues. Follow the A to C order below.A. How knowledge/information is communicated, utilized, and manipulated in the organization? In the context, make sure to explain how the organization “absorbs uncertainty”. B. Explain the power of public managers as professional experts in the organization.C. How the use of professional expertise, or technical knowledge, in the organization might become unethical and a threat to democracy?
PAD 3003 Howard University Topic 5 Changing Organization Environment Essay

Gender and Colonialism Encyclopedia Entry

Gender and Colonialism Encyclopedia Entry.

I’m working on a social science writing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Choose ONE of these two topics. topic 1: Agency and Resistance: Drawing upon the course material, write an encyclopedia entry explaining the concept of agency and its contrast to resistance. Use the film They Call Me Muslim and the debate on the Burkini ban to provide illustrative contemporary examples of what agency and resistance mean. ORTopic2: Gender and Colonialism: Drawing upon the course material, write an encyclopedia entry explaining how gender and sexuality structured, and were (and are) structured by colonialism. Then, pick EITHER hijra criminalization in India OR female circumcision in Africa as your illustrative example. Your illustrative example should discuss both the colonial period and contemporary times.
Gender and Colonialism Encyclopedia Entry

The Racial Wealth Gap Between Blacks And Whites

programming assignment help The Racial Wealth Gap Between Blacks And Whites. Slavery and segregation played a major role in the amount of racism and inequalities in America. During slavery times, Whites had the power to purchase Blacks and land. If the Blacks were fortunate enough to be able to accumulate the money, they were able to purchase their and their families freedom. (Oliver and Shapiro 278, 1995) However, this seldom occurred due to the fact that it was very hard for Blacks to gain any money while in slavery. During the Jim Crow segregation in the south, there were laws prohibiting Blacks from operating businesses on an open market, meaning that they were not allowed to sell their products to Whites. (Bobo and Smith 187, 1998) They were at a disadvantage because they could not make the profit that they deserved simply due to their skin color. After the segregation, Whites were still not willing to help out and purchase from Black businesses. Because of this, Blacks were forced to focus mainly on selling to the Black community. Since the Blacks were very limited on what they could sell, this caused them to be more like a consumer than an owner. Since past generations of Blacks had to endure this racism and inequality, their poverty has been passed down from generation to generation; families have been unable to or struggling to get out of the debt of their ancestors. Each disadvantage that the Black community as a whole has had to endure has accumulated over time creating the sedimentation of inequality. Whites have gained more advantages over time simply resulting from the disadvantages that the Blacks have gone through. The restriction of access to schools, jobs, healthcare, and public services are products of segregation. The freedom of choice restricted from the Blacks has been legally sound while progressing through the centuries but has always been immoral. In 1988, only 50% of White Americans favored a law prohibiting racial discrimination in housing sales and rentals. (Farley and Squires 221, 2005) Housing policies, programs, and practices have played a large role in the gap of wealth between Blacks and Whites. In 1939, the FHA manual prohibited granting loans to families due to race. (Fischer 140, 1996) This meant that they didn’t want to ‘disrupt the racial integrity’ of a neighborhood. They wanted neighborhoods to be occupied by the same racial and social classes to ‘retain stability’. During the 1940’s, the FHA recommended that developers use covenants that were racially restrictive to ‘protect’ from people of color. (Fischer 140, 1996) Because of this, Blacks and other people of color could not buy homes in most of the neighborhoods that Whites lived in; the middle class communities. In the 1940’s, the government began helping families buy homes by backing the loans. In order to get a loan, the house had to be in a neighborhood that was in the top two of four categories. The assessors used a red pen to circle the neighborhoods that fell into the bottom two categories. This was called redlining, and the neighborhoods that fell into these bottom categories were primarily Black neighborhoods. These neighborhoods were ineligible for the loans which caused racial segregation throughout cities. Also, Blacks could not buy homes in the most affordable neighborhoods. Public housing projects were built in the redlined communities. The 1949 Housing Act was a renewal program that was aimed to get rid of the inner city ghettoes, and to remove many people from their homes by condemning them, forcing them into public housing. The majority affected by this were Blacks. The Whites then began to leave cities and move to the suburbs, bringing the middle-class jobs with them. Racially restrictive covenants were ruled illegal in 1948, yet they were not enforced by the FHA until 1950. (Fischer 141, 1998) This meant that communities were able to segregate based on color without issue. Once racial segregation was made illegal within neighborhoods, ‘White Flight’ became an issue. White flight was when White families would leave neighborhoods when a person of color would move in because they thought that they would lower the property value and the overall value of the neighborhood. Although this was legal, the morals behind it were cruel and unethical causing racism to spread more and causing the gap to widen. The media and the overall sense of racism within communities played a large role in the gap of wealth and social standing between Whites and people of color. The media has often portrayed Blacks as lazy and not wanting work. Also, in many cases the media has portrayed Black women as welfare reliant, wanting to ‘have babies to receive welfare checks’. This was because of AFDC, a welfare program that seemed to give incentive to women to have children so that they could gain more welfare benefits. (Week 5The Racial Wealth Gap Between Blacks And Whites

The contribution of hicks and slutsky to understand consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour is studying what consumers buy and for what reason do they buy a certain good or service. It is also the mental progression that follows. Consumer behaviour is essential in economics because demand and price of a product depend on the consumer and what they intend to purchase and for what price. In economics, theories on consumer behaviour concentrate on the consumer determined to maximise enjoyment (utility) from their purchased good/service. For example if the price of good A increases, then consumers will buy less of A because it is more expensive for them and therefore less utility. On the other hand if the price of good A decreases then consumers will buy more, meaning more utility. Consumer behaviour is the interaction between price change and consumer demand and what influenced the consumers to purchase the product, taking other factors into consideration such as budget constraints. John Hicks and Eugene Slutsky have greatly contributed to western economics as a whole and more specifically the understanding of consumer behaviour/consumer choice in microeconomics. John Hicks created the Hicksian Demand Function and Slutsky created the Slutsky equation, which linked both Hicksian demand with Marshallian demand. The two main components of consumer theory are individual preferences and utility, and the budget constraint. Both of these factors are needed to derive a demand curve, more specifically the Marshallian demand curve (uncompensated demand curve or constant money income curve). What Hicks wanted to achieve is a demand curve with limited constraint and maximum utility/satisfaction. On the traditional Marshallian demand curve, when price drops demand increases therefore real income rises. The rise in quantity demanded is due to the total price effect which includes the income effect and substitution effect. The substitution effect is the change in quantity purchased due to a change in price of a good e.g. if the price of good X is cheaper the individual will buy more of good X. The income effect is the rise or fall of real income and purchasing power of the individual because of a price change of the good. What Hicks and Slutsky sought was to create a demand curve without the income effect and to be left with the substitution effect. This was the compensated demand curve or constant real income demand curve. In order to achieve this, the demand curve would have to be developed from indifference theory. An indifference curve is a curve/s showing the consumption of two different goods and how much utility it provides and which combinations are possible between the two goods keeping income constant. Both Hicks and Slutsky use the indifference curve/s to produce their own theories on consumer behaviour. On the indifference curve the consumer is indifferent, i.e. they do not have a preference of one good over the other. It is presumed that the axioms of rational choice are in effect. These axioms are Completeness, Transitivity and Continuity. These are central to all the theories because if these change then the validity of the theories using indifference curves will be affected. There are different utility functions. For normal goods, it is a downward sloping curve with a declining gradient. However for perfect substitute goods, they are downward sloping with a constant gradient. For perfectly complimentary goods, the curve is an ‘L’ shape. On the graph there are an infinite amount of indifference curves on the graph. The marginal rate of substitution will determine the gradient of the curve. The marginal rate of substitution is the rate at which an individual is willing to substitute good A for B or vice versa. On the same graph we can also place a budget line showing the consumers budget constraint. This is usually a downward sloping line with a constant gradient. The equation to work out the budget line is M = PxX PyY where M is money income, Px and Py is price of Good X and Good Y respectively, X and Y is the quantity of X and Y respectively. The slope or gradient can be affected by factors such as price change of good A and/or good B. For example a fall in the price of X would mean that the individual is able to purchase more of X, therefore quantity of X purchased will increase. With the price of Y remaining the same, this would mean that the budget line would change, altering the gradient of the line, thus creating a new budget line compared to the original line (1 to 2 on diagram below). Where the budget line and indifference curve intersect, this is where the utility is at its highest for the individual at the current income level. This is called the consumer equilibrium. With a new budget line, we would need a new indifference curve (IC2) and therefore a new consumer equilibrium. From here the price consumption curve can be derived by joining all the consumer equilibrium points together. This method is also used to derive the income consumption curve, but this can only be produced if the new budget line is parallel to the initial budget line i.e. they will not intersect. With this graph, the Marshallian demand curve can be obtained by using the quantity of good X where each consumer equilibrium point lies. This would be complimented by the different price of good X to pinpoint the positions and therefore by connecting the points, a Marshallian demand curve is created. What Hicks wanted to achieve was a demand curve without the income effect because utility cannot be measured as such, which Alfred Marshall assumes The Marshallian demand curve shows the demand with income and substitution effects. By excluding the income effect, it will show how the individual will react to a price change with just the substitution effect. Thus this will show how demand varies with a change in price. This assumes that as the price of the product changes, the individual is compensated enough to keep them on the original indifference curve and therefore there is no change in real income, nullifying the income effect. In order to obtain this, Hicks moved the new budget constraint line so it would be a tangent to the initial indifference curve. This is the Hicks compensating variation. The Hicks equivalent variation is initial (original) budget line is moved to the new indifference curve, which is the opposite compared to the compensating variation where the new budget line and initial indifference curve was moved Both these variations would create a varied demand curve compared to the Marshallian curve. For normal goods, the Hicksian demand curve is steeper i.e. larger gradient than the Marshallian demand curve. Hicks’ demand function was further developed on by Eugene Slutsky. Even though Hicks’ method was theoretically correct, it had a flaw which could not relate it to the real world. In order for Hicks’ compensated demand curve to work in the real world, you would need the exact indifference curve to find out the demand curve and therefore affect consumer income. To counter this predicament, Slutsky had a different method to derive the compensated demand curve. Hicks’ method keeps utility level constant (before change in price). This would also mean that the budget line would be the same as well. This method to separate the indifference curves into the substitution and income effects is better for welfare economic comparisons. In contrast to this, Slutsky’s method kept the consumption bundle identical as before. He focuses on a new indifference curve which compensates for the shift of the budget line to be at the initial level of consumption and consumption bundle. Slutsky’s method places the consumer on a higher indifference curve. For Slutsky’s compensated variation, instead of moving the new budget line so it is a tangent to the indifference curve, he shifted the new budget line so it would intersect the initial consumer equilibrium. This would mean for a normal good the budget line, in Slutsky’s method, would be higher than Hicks’ approach. For Slutsky’s equivalent variation, he shifted the initial budget line where it would intersect with the new consumer equilibrium, instead of shifting the initial budget line to become a tangent to the new indifference curve which was Hicks’ method to reduce the income effect. With Slutsky’s method of eliminating the income effect on the indifference curves, a compensated demand curve can be created. This new demand curve is steeper than the Marshallian demand curve (uncompensated) but does not have a higher gradient than Hicks’ compensated curve (see graph below). This graph shows the uncompensated (Marshallian) demand curve, labelled Dm. It also shows the two types of compensated demand curve which are Hicks’ demand curve (Dh) and Slutsky’s demand curve (Ds). Because Slutsky’s derivation of the demand curve uses the consumer equilibrium points on the indifference curves , the compensated demand curve for Slutsky has a lower gradient (but still negative). This is because Slutsky uses higher points in the indifference curve to derive his version of the demand curve. The demand curve shows us the progression Hicks and Slutsky made with demand functions. The uncompensated demand curve represents the demand for a particular good or service but with the income effect and substitution effect included. On the graph, point X1 to X2 represents the income effect and substitution effect. Alternatively, Hicks’ (Dh) and Slutsky’s (Ds) compensated demand curves show the demand plus the substitution effect only. The reason for the difference between the two compensated demand curves is that in the Hicksian compensated demand curve, the income effect is assumed to be larger compared to Slutsky’s income effect. Therefore in this case (the product being a normal good), Slutsky’s method of deriving the demand curve underestimates the size of the income effect, so in turn he overestimates the substitution effect because if you move along the demand curve for Slutsky, the quantity of goods will increase or decrease more than Hicks’ demand curve. As a result the Slutsky compensated demand curve has a lower gradient than Hicks. Because of the different gradient of the compensated demand curves, this will yield different results for consumer surplus calculations. Consumer surplus will help measure how much utility or satisfaction a consumer obtains from a particular product or service Consumer surplus is the difference between what the consumer is willing to pay for the good or service (indicated by a point on the demand curve) and what they actually pay for the good or service (market price). It is also an economic measure of consumer satisfaction within the market. It is the extra benefit the person receives when making transactions at the market price. Economists cannot measure utility so therefore they use producer/consumer surplus as a money measure of utility change. On a demand curve, consumer surplus is the area below the actual demand curve and above the price line (triangular area). The Marshallian demand curve only gives an estimate of consumer surplus because it includes consumer surplus gain or loss due to the income effect whereas the Hicks compensated demand curve does not suffer from this problem, since real income remains fixed thus the focus is on the effect of price on quantity demanded. This means that Hicks’ compensated demand curve is theoretically accurate, and it also gives us a more accurate measurement of consumer surplus. The only problem with Hicks’ compensated demand curve is that you would need that exact indifference curve to work out the demand curve which is implausible even though it is theoretically correct. This is where Slutsky’s method would come because you do not need this in order to work out the demand curve, and therefore consumer surplus. The disadvantage of this method that it will overestimate consumer surplus compared to Hicks but underestimate compared to Marshallian curve. Both Hicks and Slutsky methods are more accurate measures of consumer surplus because they have reduced the effects of the income effect. In conclusion, John Hicks and Eugen Slutsky contributed greatly to the understanding of consumer behaviour. By using indifference curves, they developed the compensated demand curve, which nullified the income effect in order to find out consumer behaviour without taking purchasing power into account. This would find out the true demand patterns for a good or service. The demand function invented by Alfred Marshall was very important for economics, who developed the Marshallian demand curve. However Hicks noticed flaws in the model and therefore created his own theory. Hicks developed the distinction between the income effect and substitution effect (both become the price effect). This therefore allowed the invention of the demand curve with only the substitution effect, so the change in relative price could be observed. Hicks’ method is theoretically correct but difficult to apply to the real world due to the inclusion of the exact indifference curve between two goods. This is unlikely to create because it is difficult. This is where Slutsky’s method would help because in this method you do not need the exact indifference curve to create the demand curve. The disadvantage is that Slutsky’s method overestimates the substitution effect, but the difference between Hicks and Slutsky is minimal and therefore Slutsky is used. These methods are important to discover consumer surplus. The Hicksian Demand Curve is the right one to use for consumer surplus calculations, but we generally use the Marshallian curve because again the differences are minimal for simple calculations, and for more accurate measure than Marshallian, we would use Slutsky. Consumer surplus is used by economists to measure utility gained or lost in a price change. This method developed by Hicks was revolutionary because before his theory, it was near impossible to measure utility appropriately. Theoretically correct, but again hard to find the correct data. For that reason, Slutsky expanded on Hicks theory by giving a more realistic approach, but losing its accuracy. This is still more accurate than working out the consumer surplus on a Marshallian demand curve. Overall, Hicks and Slutsky revolutionized the way we understand consumer behavior from demand patterns, with the measurement of consumer surplus by using utility form the good or service. The Marshallian demand curve overestimated consumer surplus because of the income and substitution effects. By isolating the substitution effect, we are able to see what consumers would do in a change of price of a good or service without purchasing power affecting results. This would show the pure demand patterns of a product and also what consumers would give up in order to acquire that particular good without wealth factors. Hicks accurately measured this while Slutsky took a more realistic approach to consumer behavior.

PSY 302 CUNY City College of New York Males and Females Depression Research

PSY 302 CUNY City College of New York Males and Females Depression Research.

I’m working on a psychology writing question and need support to help me understand better.

Select a topic that you would like to explore in further detail. Ensure that it relates to world concerns that directly relate back to psychology. Minimum of 3 peer reviewed articles covering the topic selected.Develop a rough draft Introduction (introductory paragraph including the research question, followed by the literature review). Your literature review will build up to the next section, which is your Problem Statement – that is, a statement of some aspect of the underlying theory, a new variable, or a practical application of the theory that has yet to be explored or tested (e.g., a gap in our current scientific knowledge). Finally, in the Goals section, address what you hope to accomplish with this study (and why it is important for both theory and in practical, real-world terms). Your proposal will be a full version of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) recommended structure, the model that is followed in most of the social sciences. Before writing your paper, be sure to thoroughly review the detailed instructions in the Grading Rubric and Sample Proposal, both of which can download from Blackboard. This rubric can also be used as a checklist as you draft your paper. Your paper should only include the following sections:The Title Page comes first. Starting about 1/3 down the page and centered, list the title of your paper, your name, your institutional affiliation (i.e., School of Professional Studies, City University of New York), a date, and your professor’s name and course number/title. Your Title Page should also include a Running Head (see the APA Style and Formatting folder in Blackboard for more information).After inserting a page break, your next section is the Introduction, which introduces your topic through previous literature on that topic – this will be the largest section of your proposal. The Introduction begins with a repeat of your paper title, centered. Then use standard, double-spaced paragraph format for your review of the literature (3-4 pages), including indentation for new paragraphs and no extra space between paragraphs. You will be required to include a minimum of three (3) peer-reviewed sources in your proposal, as well as use properly formatted in-text citations for those sources (see the APA Style and Formatting folder in Blackboard for more information, as well as the Purdue OWL site for sample papers).The next section is the Problem Statement. In this brief section you will, based on your review of the literature, describe some kind of gap in our knowledge of that topic that will be addressed through your proposed study. You can remain somewhat abstract at this point – think about the underlying theory, general methods used in previous research, or potential applications of previous theory or research as you outline the problem you intend to investigate. The problem statement should be about 1 page in length.Finally, you will state the Goal(s) of your proposed research, clearly and directly. Some examples: Are you planning to provide supporting evidence for some theoretical prediction? Are you planning to develop an intervention based on the results of previous research as a way of addressing a practical social issue? Are you seeking to demonstrate the limitations of previous theory and/or methods, or explore a competing theory? Whatever you decide, be sure to support the importance of attaining your goal – explain how achieving this goal would be important. The goal section is about half a page. (NOTE: these are goals of the actual project; you may also address your objectives, such as how the results of this proposed study might be beneficial more generally.)The References section comes last (1 page minimum), and begins after a page break. Here you include the detailed citations for each of the articles from professional journals that you referred to in developing your hypothesis. Be sure to use the correct APA format for listing references.
PSY 302 CUNY City College of New York Males and Females Depression Research

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