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Building a business case: Additional Implementation Issues

Building a business case: Additional Implementation Issues.

Hello. This is a continuation assignment there I need to identify three implementation issues not already covered in the business case. the official assignment is below:The purpose of this section is to identify any implementation issues not already covered in the previous sections of the business case.Identify and explain three issue areas and how they will be handled in the implementation of the proposed system.The issues identified could come from any aspect of the system; the following questions may be considered, but issues do not have to be limited to these areas: What else should the organization consider? What things should the project team keep in mind?Are there any ethical or cultural considerations?What impact will there be to the employees if processes and/or systems are changed? What impact will there be on the workplace? Approach to Developing this Section Consider the system being proposed and the organization in the case study, and identify three issues that have not previously been discussed in the business case.Consider the questions above, as needed, to assist in the analysis.For each of the three: Identify the issueExplain why it is an issueDescribe how it should be handled during the implementation of the proposed system.
Building a business case: Additional Implementation Issues

Reflections on Diversity.

By successfully completing this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assignment criteria:
Competency 1: Describe theoretical ideas of power and identity in relation to social norms and values.

Compare differences between majority and minority groups, and groups based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age, and social class.
Apply major sociological perspectives.

Competency 2: Identify historical and contemporary influences of discrimination in American culture.

Recognize historical experiences of discrimination.
Differentiate the varied experience of different social groups.

Competency 5: Apply diversity strategies in professional, educational, and personal contexts.

Recognize opportunities where diversity is needed to address social problems.
Employ strategies to respect cultural differences in personal interactions.

Competency 6: Communicate effectively in a variety of formats.

State and support a clear central idea in a coherently organized document.
Use the accepted form and style of the field.
Follow conventional rules for style, format, grammar, usage, and mechanics.
Respect the dignity, cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and individuality of other people.

For this assignment, you will reflect on a particular aspect of diversity and connect your reflection to ideas and issues we have covered in this course. Choose one of the following topics for your reflection essay:
Discuss a time when you felt like an outsider in a particular social setting, whether in the workplace, at school, amongst a group of friends, et cetera. Describe what that experience was like, how it affected you, and what you learned.
Discuss a time when you noticed someone being excluded, discriminated against, or otherwise neglected or treated unfairly in a particular social setting. Describe that experience, how you reacted, and what you learned.
Explain how your own life has been shaped by one or more of the categories of diversity we are discussing in this course: race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, age, or social class.
In your essay, connect your personal experiences to at least three concepts, issues, themes, or theories from the course readings. Highlight these concepts, issues, or theories in boldface. For example, if you are writing about what if feels like to be an outsider, you could connect your discussion to the concept of power or social structure, or the broader issue of relationships between dominant-minority groups. Based on what you learned from the experience you choose, share personal strategies that are useful for improving interactions or relationships between social groups.Your essay should be 2–3 pages, with a title and reference page. Cite the course material in the body of your essay when you refer to concepts from the reading, and include full citations of the readings you refer to in the reference list. Check to be sure your citations and paper are formatted according to APA rules.Requirements
Reflect on an experience related to diversity.
Connect your personal experience to concepts, issues, themes, or theories addressed in the course.
Discuss what lessons can be learned from your experiences, and share personal strategies for improving interactions or relationships between diverse social groups.
Refer to and cite the course material in correct APA format.
Ensure the paper length is 2–3 pages.
Note: Your instructor may also use the Writing Feedback Tool to provide feedback on your writing. In the tool, click on the linked resources for helpful writing information.
Reflections on Diversity

UWM Happiness Friend & Fortune Empirical Evidence 1998 US Essay.

I’m working on a social science Essay and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Assignment Instructions From Class:To complete the research paper, you must do the following:Choose a topic related to the themes of the courseFind two (2) PEER REVIEWED RESEARCH articles on the chosen topic (These articles should not be opinion pieces, editorials, or from non-academic publications. They also must include empirical research and not be theoretical in nature.)Write a two (2) page, singled spaced paper that provides a synopsis AND critique of both the articlesProvide APA citation of both the articles you have read on a third page including journal of publication and date.Topic related to theme of course: Faith and Happiness*Attached in files below is a post on faith and happiness from earlier in the year from this course. This will get you familiar with the topic.* (Titled “Faith and Happiness Post.docx”)Peer Reviewed articles to reference for the paper:Both are attached below and include empirical studies. Please do not reference any sources outside of the ones attached.
UWM Happiness Friend & Fortune Empirical Evidence 1998 US Essay

SFSU Black Lives Matter and Asian Communities Discussion.

choose either oneStandard paper: Write a 4- to 5-page paper with Introduction [including research question and thesis statement], body, conclusion, citations, and bibliography that addresses one particular issue, concept, event, etc. that was covered in class.Creative piece: If you choose to do a creative piece, please write a 2-page write up that identifies a particular issue, concept, event, etc. that was covered in class and shows the connections that it has to your creative piece. You will turn in a representation of the creative piece as a file to iLearn (such as PDF, JPEG, mp3, mp4, Word doc, PPT, screen shot, etc.) Examples of creative pieces:Video project (up to 3 minutes)Photo essay with captionsA social media campaign that addresses a particular issue or problem that is relevant to yourself, family, and/or communitySpoken word piece or songDance pieceA script of a scene of play or movieA recipe collection
SFSU Black Lives Matter and Asian Communities Discussion

Stratford Stereotype of Aging Physical Development & Cognitive Development Discussion

Stratford Stereotype of Aging Physical Development & Cognitive Development Discussion.

Please complete the following steps: Please read Introduction to Late Adulthood found in Module 10. Please read Physical Development found in Module 10. Please read Cognitive Development and listen to Treating Delirium found in Module 10. Please read Psychosocial Development found in Module 10.Please read Relationships found in Module 10.Watch .
Then, robustly respond to the following questions:1. Based on what you’ve read/learned, how would you say these seniors trying to alter the typical stereotype of aging? 2. Imagine yourself in this stage of development. What type of senior
would you like to be? How do you plan to defy aging? Please be
specific in your answer. Lesson 8Please complete the following activities: What are four factors that contribute to longevity? What is primary aging? What is secondary aging? Please provide two examples of each. Identify five generalizations about the aging process listed in the assigned reading. What are three ways adults can achieve Erikson’s stage of generativity? How can attitudes of aging impact one’s experience in late adulthood? Explain your answer in 4-5 sentences.
Stratford Stereotype of Aging Physical Development & Cognitive Development Discussion

Porter’s Five Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages

write my term paper Porter’s Five Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages. Description of Porter’s Five Forces Model of Competitive Strategy Formulating competitive strategy necessarily needs to analyse the company within its environment. The model is based on analysis of company’s external environment. However the relevant environment is wide, the model is focus on organisation’s surrounding as industry in which it operates. Industry structure has powerful impact on competitive direction thus it is inevitable to analyse it. Five basic competitive forces determine the competition in an industry. The strength of the forces is to drive profit in industry in way of long term return on invested capital (Porter, 1980 p.3, 4). Next Porter says: “The goal of competitive strategy for a business unit in an industry is to find a position where it can best defend itself against these competitive forces or can influence them in its flavour.” Johnson et al. (2005, p. 78) refer to five forces as sources of competition which evaluate the attractiveness of industry. Authors give several points which company should take into account when using this model. When organisation has varied activities the framework needs to be used at the level of strategic business unit as for each of unit can be the impact of forces different. Next, it is inevitable to understand relations between five forces as well as macro-environment factors. As forces are not separate changes within one force influence other forces. It is a “dynamic process of shifting source of competition”. According to Luffman et al. (1996) the power of Industry competitor is consider to be the most important force of the model. Industry is in permanent change as every firm wants to success and it looks for opportunities to achieve it. Obviously, not all decisions lead to getting advantages some remain failure. There are many issues which influence the competition between companies as size of the company, industry structure and concentration, product differentiation and variety of rivals. Competitive rivalry is also determined by numbers and qualities of competitors. In situation of many companies in the industry which sell nearly equal product, the firm has a low level of power. Conversely if company’s product is unique, it is an enormous strength (Kilde, 2005). Buyer power poses the rate of influences of costumer on pushing price down. The size or number and concentration of buyers are the most significant determinants of buyer power. Other factors include the level of information or differentiation of competitors (Karagianno et al, 2005). There are situation in which buyer power tent to grow as a low switching cost for buyer to move to another seller, when the product is not differentiated or product failure to perform its primary function. In case of trading with small number of strong buyers they tend to dictate conditions to sellers (Luffman et al, 1996). The extent to which supplier drive price up, is reflected in Supplier power. The numbers of input suppliers, product specificity or switching cost determine supplier strength. When company has few suppliers or choice of suppliers is narrow, the supplier power is high. Question here is how easy company can change its suppliers. Grant (2005, p. 83) says that suppliers of raw materials or components are mostly small companies so their bargaining power is low while suppliers of commodities enhance their power through cartelization. Same it is with labour union. If there is a high percentage of a unionised employee within an industry their supplier power is high and company’s profitability is lowered. Substitutes are alternatives of product so they decrease demand for product. According to the value they give to consumer their power can be higher or lover. Johnson et al. (2005, p. 78) indicate these forms of substitution; product-for-product substitution, substitution of need when new product or service make previous unneeded and generic substitution means that product competes among others for consumer income to be spent on it. It reduces company’s power when its product can be easily substituted. An attractive industry tempts other companies to enter. Threat of new entry represents the capability of new companies to enter and be able to compete in industry. The process of entering is easier for new companies and consequently it becomes a greater threat for existing companies when there are no economies of scale, industry is not capital intensive, access to distribution channels is open or there is a little protection of technology. On the other hand when there are strong barriers existing companies can keep their position. Difference between new entrants and substitutes is that new entrants when successfully enter industry will offer nearly same product. Thus, it is a bigger threat to company (Luffman et al, 1996). Thompson et al (2007, p.54) describe the way of using the model for identifying the essence and strength of competitive pressures within an industry. They divided it into three steps. The first step is to recognise particular competitive strengths related to every force from the model. Secondly, evaluation of the pressures takes place. It is essential to find out how strong they are i.e. strong, moderate, and weak. The last step is to decide the contribution of strengths on achieving profits. Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the model Porter (2008, p.80) says this importance of the model: “Understanding the competitive forces and their underlying causes reveals the roots of an industry’s current profitability while providing a framework for anticipating and influencing competition over time.” He adds that effective strategic positioning can not be made without knowing industry structures. To avoid a subjective position for evaluation of the model we look at other authors views. The most significant strength of Michael Porter Five Forces model is that it remains best known and commonly used model in strategic management even after twenty years of it introduction. The simplicity is also consider to be a strength of the Five Forces model as it is easy to use and provides understandable way of market forces analysis (Kare-Silver, 1997, p. 46). According to Brandenburger (2002), the Porter’s Five Forces model remains to affect the scope of business strategy both in the education field and also in practise of organisations. He emphasises that the model is certainly the most known and used from competitive strategies. The reason is that it provides an obvious picture of important activities of firms. The model describes all movements from suppliers of resources through company to consumer. The role of company is stressed as it is the unit where value is created. On the other hand, suppliers and customers are consider to be necessary in such chain. The model provides useful information for three issues of company’s planning, according to Recklies (2001). Firstly, it enables to determine the attractiveness of an industry. Consequently the model helps to make decision about entering or leaving industry. Further, its usefulness lies in comparison the impact of the competitive forces on the organization with the impact on rivals. Secondly, when company knows about the power and intensity of model’s forces it is able to come up with possibilities for improving its competitive position e.g. differentiation, strategic partnership. Thirdly, the author says that the model with combination with PESTE analysis which influences changes in the industries, the Five Forces model can indicates the trends within the industry. Hill and Jones (2007, p. 66) also talk about importance of microenvironment. Forces in the model are not constant because they are determined by wider macro-environment as economic, politic, social and technological forces. These have evident impact on the model forces and consecutively on the whole industry. The role of macro environment is important but it is the subject of the PESTE analysis and we will not discuss it closer. According Lynch (2000, p.131) the model presents effective way of analysing the environment and it is recommended to use it as the firs step of company strategy development. He points out its real relevance as results are presented in logical and structured way. Hill and Jones (2001, p.97) see the model as very useful as it can be used to analyse character of competition within industry and for recognising opportunities and threats. Opportunities and treats represent the external part of SWOT analysis so we can see the clear connection of Five Forces model with another model. Another advantage of the model is that it looks on organization and industry through a wide range of aspects which are included in the model’s five forces. Thus, it is systematic approach for analysing the current situation of business and plan strategy (Oliva, 2002). For better picture of the model and to underline its strengths we look at an example of bank sector and examine the impact of launching the Internet banking in Five Forces model context (Siaw, Yu, 2004). In the terms of threat of entry force, the Internet banking enables small banks to enter the industry. Scale benefits are removed and network of branch is less important as there is direct access to customer in more suitable way. Bargaining power of buyers increases as they have more choices. Switching cost decrease because product has become more undifferentiated and standardised. As far as rivalry is concern, the differences between banks are smoothed as size of a bank is less important. Further providing services through the Internet is cheaper than using traditional distribution channels. Internet banking increased supplier power. Banks acted as supplier before. Now they pose intermediaries which enables access to range of products and delivery channels. Switching costs are high for bank if it is dealing with “big” customers. Such analysis helps manager to understand how the Internet influences five competitive forces. Existing banks using the analysis periodically can evaluate changes within the industry. Potential entrants can assess if the enter into industry will be profitable for them. Overall the analysis is useful in competitive strategy formulating (Siaw, Yu, 2004). Besides numbers of advantages the model is subject of many critiques. According Grant (2002, p. 89), the theoretical bases of the Porter’s Five Forces model are the most criticised by economists. Furthermore doubtful theoretical foundation, there are limitations because of static character of the model. Industry structures are considered to be stable and determinate by external forces. Grant (2002, p. 89) says that: “Industry structure drives intensity of competition, which in returns determines the level of industry profitability.” Therefore industry structures cannot remain unchanged in dynamic process of competition. Another issue which Grant points out is missing empirical evidence of importance of industry environment for company profitability. Faulkner and Campbell (2003, p. 249) also criticise static character of the Five Forces model saying that industry structures are continuously changing because of competition between firms and strategies adoped by companies within the industry. Static character of the model is also pointed out by Lynch (2000, p. 131), he says that forces are constantly changing and the moves could be more rapid than the model explain. Next critic which Lynch expresses is about the buyer power. The model assumes that this aspect is as equal as others factors while he argues that buyers should be got greater importance. According to the model, the environment is viewed as a threat to a company however some organisations see co-operation with others, especially with suppliers, very beneficial. Faulkner and Campbell (2003, p. 249) express their view to this question, too. They criticise Porter’s view on rivalry and competition between companies to be more essential than possible interaction as joint ventures or alliances. Lynch also questions the fact if it is sufficient for company to create its corporate strategy just after applying the Five Forces model. Further critics of model presented by Lynch consider its ignorance of human aspect of strategy. The model overlooks features as country cultures or management skills. The presumption that company’s own interests are primary might not be correct for some charitable and government institutions. Hill and Jones (2001, p. 97) reveal two weaknesses of the five forces model. The first is, as the other authors say, about its static character however they enhance their critique to disregarding the role of innovation. Innovations represent driven force of competition within the industry. As any company comes up with new product, technology or process it can gain great competitive advantage and earn profit. Another function of innovation lies in converting industry competition. As the production costs could be cut down due to e.g. new technologies, the barriers to entering the industry are removed and small companies can also access the competition. They provide example of the steel industry where after introducing technology as electric arc furnaces, the characteristic oligopoly industry became more price competitive and fragmented industry and smaller companies can also compete. Porter (2008, p.86) does not see innovation itself as a strong factor which can make industry profitable. He argues that often industries with low technology, high switching costs or price intensive buyers are more profitably than attractive software or information technologies ones. Because the model is static, all changes, which arise in the industry, cannot be recorded. Hill and Jones (2007, p. 66) conclude: “The Five Forces model is of limited value because it represents no more than snapshots of a constantly changing situation. Thus, managers must constantly repeat industry analysis and pay attention to changes in the forces of competition.” As far as the second critic is consider, same as Grant (2002, p. 89), Hill and Jones (2001, p. 97) talk about overrating the role of industry. Industry is given too much importance as the determinant of organisation profit while the differences between individual companies are neglected. Companies profit within industry varies and it has been detected that only 10% to 20% of differences is explained by industry structure. Consequently, we can say that company’s own capacity and resources are more significant for profitability than industry in which it operates. None of company will be successful just because it is in the attractive industry. Company’s strategic resources as intangible assets, brand name are critical for analysis and strategy making (Crook at all, 2003). Other authors who agree that the Porter’s model is completely focus on external environment rather than internal resources of a company are Faulkner and Campbell (2003, p. 249). They criticise Porter’s view on outside environment as a root of firm’s success. Their another critique consider the application of industry analysis to individual company. This might not be as successful as first thought. In spite of critics authors admit that the Porter’s model of industry analysis stays as one of the most significant model of strategic management even though it has been introduced twenty years ago. Further shortcoming of the Porter’s model is that it was meant for industrial companies g.e. Coca-Cola, Ford Motors or Dell, not for knowledge based firms in field of advertising, consulting or legal. Manager of these companies bear some risk by using this tool and it is recommended to alter the model according to needs of such firms (Sheehan, 2005). Recklies in her article “Porter’s 5 Forces” (2001) indicates various criticisms. Besides acknowledgement that the model is static and it does not take into account co-operation between companies, the author gives also other critiques. As the model supposes perfect market, it has limited application in more regulated industries. The model fits the best to analyse simple market structures. In the case of complex industries with numbers of interrelations it is very complicated to analyse all five forces. On the other hand the author alerts that too narrow look on one segment in such industry can cause oversight of important factors. She concludes, as well as others authors, that the Five Forces model present a tool for managers to view the current situation of the industry in easy and understandable way and it is a good beginning for additional analysis. Recklies in her another article (2001) says that one of the reason for critics are today’s changed economic circumstances. The model is found on the situation in the eighties. Cyclical developments, steady market structures and strong competition are typical for this time. Nowadays, technologies, the Internet and e-business application are seen in all industries and it transforms industry structures. This is the reason why the model cannot be used to explicate today dynamic changes and she adds: “It is not advisable, if not to say impossible, to develop strategy solely on basis of Porters model.” Downes realised the same trend and in the article “Beyond Porter” (1997) he introduces three new forces – digitalization, globalization and deregulation as current issues which influence businesses. The new forces are seen in business activities as they are moving from physical world to computerised networks. According to Downes new strategic framework and analytical tools are essential to apply. Digitalization enables firms to gain access to greatly more information than before on the other hand it pose the treat of unfamiliar and unpredictable competition. Due to Globalization even local companies are able to become global as logistic and communication improved. Deregulation also opens up new possibility for company e.g. restructuring, more open international market. More others authors argue that the model should be extended about another force. They have various views on what it should be. Hill and Jones (2007, p. 57) see the sixth force as complementors. Complements are considered to be determinant of demand for products thus having a satisfactory supplier affects company’s profit. Attractive complementary products create value and opportunity for company within an industry. On the other hand inefficient complementors pose threat and they are cause of slow industry development and low profitability. Also Grant (2005, p. 103) see complementors as significant impact on companies competitiveness and refer to them as to the sixth force. In the case of close complements of products, products have low value separately as consumer wants the whole. Question is how the value is divided between producers. The most common the supplier with stronger market position who is able to lower the value of other complements, gets much of profits. Karen-Silver (1997, p. 46) argues while current competitive environment calls for new forces to be consider, the original core i.e. five forces stays the most powerful. Porter (2008, p. 86) agrees that there are other important issue within an industry but he refers to them as to factors not forces. He presents factors like industry growth rate, technology and innovation, Government, complementary products and services. In addition he says: “It is especially important to avoid the common pitfall of mistaking certain visible attributes of an industry for its underlying structure.” In summary, Michael Porters models do not have the influence they used to have any more. New economic laws came up and other drivers stared to transform markets. Nevertheless, that does not mean that Porters theories became invalid. All we have to do is to apply them with the knowledge of their limitations in mind and to use them as a part of a larger framework of management tools, techniques and theories. This approach, however, is advisable for the application of every business model – brand-new or old, from Porter or from somebody else, and in every economy Bibliography Assen, M., Berg, G., Pietersma, P., (2009) Key Management Models: The 60 models every manager needs to know. Essex: Pearson Education, UK 2nd ed. Brandenburger, A., (2002) Crook, T.R., Ketchen, D.J., Snow, C.C., (2003) Competitive Edge: A Strategic Mnagement Model, ….pp. 44-53 Downes, L., (1997) Beyond Porter, The Context Magazine. Available at: Faulkner, D., Campbell, A., (2003) The Oxford Handbook of Strategy: Strategy overview and competitive strategy. Oxford (New York): Oxford University Press, USA, pp. 248-250 Grant M, R., (2002) Contemporary Strategy Analysis: concepts, techniques, application. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, UK, pp. 89 Grant (2005) p. 83 Hill, C.W.L, Jones, G.R., (2007) Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. 7th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, USA pp. 46-67 Hill, C.W.L, Jones, G.R., (2001) Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, USA pp. 97-98 Johnson, G., Scholes, K., Whittington, R., (2005) Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and cases. 7th ed. Essex: Pearson Education, UK Kare-Silver, M., (1997) Strategy in Crisis: Why business urgently needs a completely new approach. London: Macmillan Press, UK pp.45-47 Karragiannopoulos, … Luffman, G., Lea, E., Sanderson, S., Kenny, B., (1996) Strategic Management: An Analytical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers UK, pp. 48-55 Lynch, R., (2000) Corporate Strategy. 2nd ed. Essex: Pearson Education, UK, pp. 124-132 Oliva, A.R., (2002) A Framework for Success, Marketing Management jan/feb. pp.39 – 42 Porter, M., (2008) the Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review. Recklies, D. (2001) Porter 5 forces, Recklies Management Project GmbH, Available at: 5f.pdf Recklies, D. (2001) “Beyond Porter” ACritique of the Critique of Porter, Recklies Management Project GmbH, Available at: Sheehan, N.T., (2005) Why old tools wont work in the “new” knowledge economy, ….. . 26 (4), pp. 53 – 60 Available at: Siaw, Yu Thompson Porter’s Five Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages

Process Analysis and Problem Solving in Wal-Mart Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction The case study of Wall-Mart Implications Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Currently, information technologies are regarded as a valuable tool for improving various processes within an organization. They can greatly benefit both private companies and public organizations. This paper is aimed at discussing the strategies adopted by such a corporation as Wal-Mart since this example can demonstrate how information technologies can contribute to the financial performance of a business and its long-term sustainability. It should be noted that Wal-Mart began to use IT in the early seventies at the time, when these tools were not widely adopted (Odih 161). This policy was supposed to improve the functioning of the supply chain in this corporation, especially the procurement of products. The most important objective was to minimize the levels of inventory and reduce the operational costs of the corporation. One can say that this approach enabled this company to gain competitive advantage of its major rivals. Finally, the initial principles underlying this strategy have not become obsolete. These are the main issues that should be considered during this discussion. The case study of Wall-Mart One should take into account that Wal-Mart had to adopt an alternative approach to their supply change management. They faced a challenge that was encountered by many growing retailers. In particular, some of the products that the customers requested could often be out of stock (Ray 73). In contrast, other goods could be oversupplied, but they were not often requested by buyers. These deficiencies resulted in extra expenses for the company and they prevented the corporation from achieving growth. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, it was evident that the supply management strategies did not enable the organization to respond the changes in clients’ demand. The most important goal was to minimize the levels of inventory while avoiding stockouts (Ray 73). This task was critical for the sustainability of this corporation especially at the point when it was opening new stores in different cities and towns. These were the major rationale for introducing information technologies. There were several actions that the management of Wal-Mart took. First of all, they required the major suppliers to install information technologies that gave them access to the sales data of Wal-Mart stores (Odih 161). These information systems could tell the suppliers when it was necessary to replenish the stores of Wal-Mart (Odih 161). More importantly, Wal-Mart insisted that different suppliers should share information with one another (Ireland and Crum 21). One should note that these organizations could be closely related to one another. Therefore, it was unreasonable for them to conceal information from one another since this approach prevents many businesses from improving their performance (Odih 161). This approach was adopted in the early seventies, and it allowed Wal-Mart to build an extensive network of stores throughout the United States. The senior managers of Wal-Mart invested capital in the creation of the central database which tells business administrators about the quantity of products available at different stores of the corporation (Schermerhorn 471). These are some of the initiation actions that were taken by the management. Apart from that, the supply chain management in this organization involves an information system called Retail Link, and it plays a critical role for the competitive strength of this corporation (White and Bruton 8). We will write a custom Research Paper on Process Analysis and Problem Solving in Wal-Mart specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Its main function is that it continuously updates the records about inventory. These changes are registered when a certain product is purchased by a client. The main strength of this information technology is that it updates records almost instantaneously. Again, this system is accessible to suppliers that can see what kinds or products should be delivered to Wal-Mart as soon as possible (Ireland and Crum 21). Thus, business partners of Wal-Mart can see the changes in demand and supply and respond to these changes (Ireland and Crum 21). Thus, one can say that this technology ensures effective cooperation and its business partners, and it was essential for the growth of this corporation. Moreover, the data that it provides enables this organization to forecast the demand for products for a certain period. Certainly, one should not assume that these forecasts are always accurate, but they can give the management at least some idea about the quantities or products that will be purchased by clients in the future. The main benefit of this system is that it helps Wal-Mart to avoid the shortages of good while keeping their inventory at the minimum level (White and Bruton 8). Certainly, this software solution has been modified several times, but the main principles of this application are still relevant to this corporation. This is one of the reasons why this company was able to grow very rapidly, especially in the early nineties. During that period, the company turned into the largest retailer in the United States. Currently similar software solutions can be used by other firms, especially retailers that try to compete with Wal-Mart. These organizations have to take similar initiatives in order to operate effectively at a national or international level. Thus, one can say that the decisions that the management of Wal-Mart took were quite successful. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward. It should be considered Wal-Mart intends to implement other strategies to improve the work of the supply chain. For example, they intend to use the RFID or radio frequency identification technology (Schermerhorn 471). Not sure if you can write a paper on Process Analysis and Problem Solving in Wal-Mart by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This tool enables the company to track the location of a product from the moment when it leaves the premises of a supplier until the point when it is brought by a customer. This initiative is also related to the supply chain management and the reduction of operational expenses. First of all, this strategy is supposed to prevent the theft of goods or their misallocation. In this case, close attention should be paid to misallocation because this problem results in the increase of operational costs and delays since employees have to spend much time while searching for these goods. Apart from that this technology enables the management to identify possible problems at an earlier stage. This opportunity is particularly important in those cases when some of the suppliers fail to meet the deadlines set by the company. This is the main benefit of this technology. It should be taken into account that this project is expected to cost approximately $ 8 billion per year, however, the management is going to accept this price (Schermerhorn 471). Currently, a significant part of the suppliers have already introduced this technology. Therefore, it is possible to argue that the management is willing to invest into the IT infrastructure of this corporation (Schermerhorn 471). In their opinion, this policy can ensure the sustainability of this corporation. They usually focus on such aspects as supply chain management, namely the procurement and storage of products. On the whole, this strategy can be quite justified because it has already enabled Wal-Mart to become the leading retailer in the world. Apart from that, its competitive position has not been disputed. It is also worth mentioning that Wal-Mart was one of the first retailers that began to share its sales data with its suppliers. In the past, many retailers were reluctant to give away this information and it was strictly confidential (White and Bruton 8). In fact, suppliers could only purchase these data. This is one of the reasons why many firms could not decrease their operational expenses. Wal-Mart chose to depart from this tradition because this policy was counter-productive. Thus, one can say that the management of Wal-Mart did take some innovative decisions and these decisions were critical for the success of new information technologies. These are some of the main initiatives that should be considered. Additionally, the management of Wal-Mart invested not only in the technological infrastructure. They also focus on the expertise of employees who had to know how to use various software solutions. For example, they needed to know how to interpret the data provided by Retail Link (Pride and Ferrell 37). This is one of the issues that business administrators should keep in mind. One cannot assume that only by purchasing the most up-to-date applications, one gain competitive advantage. Furthermore, senior executives of Wal-Mart continuously work on the development of their information systems. One can even say that this task is implemented for almost several decades. These principles were important for the growth and sustainability of Wal-Mart. Overall, it is possible to argue that the strategies of Wal-Mart were based on several important assumptions. First, the senior officers emphasized the importance of information and exchange of information within and between organizations. This issue was vital for the growth of this organization especially at the time when its stores were located in different parts of the United States as well as other countries. Without this cooperation, the effective functioning of the supply chain would not be possible. Overall, this approach enabled the company to become agile or responsive to the changes in the market. Furthermore, this corporation had to work with various suppliers that could be located in different states or even continents. Moreover, Wal-Mart was able to avoid many of the challenges that were faced by other retailers. The problem is that many companies tend to become less effective when they grew. The management of Wal-Mart was able to avoid this pitfall. Additionally, one can point out that effective implementation of information technologies enabled Wal-Mart to set lower prices for its products and gain the loyalty of clients (Hill

Retail Banking Industry In India Marketing Essay

The Banking Industry is a unique service industry where customers are involved at both the initial and final stages of service delivery. Hence service delivery requires lot of effort from the companies part in ensuring customer expectations and needs are met to the fullest. When analysing the Indian banking industry, we observe that how it has evolved over the years with how customer expectations changed from traditional customers who visited branch to new age customers who want convince sitting at their homes. The various dimensions of service quality was also analysed to better understand the factors that would help fulfil customer expectations. The service blue print of the industry was mapped to better understand the points where customer interaction happened. The importance of physical servicescape and how the same can be used as to improve customer satisfaction was analyzed. Being in a very competitive industry, banks adopted various promotion tactics to lure customers with similar product offering across most banks and service being the only differentiating factor. The final section of the report was devoted to the industry analysis which helped understand how RBI regulations in the initial years helped develop a strong backbone for the Indian banking industry and how it would develop going forward and various opportunities which existed on account of the strong domestic demand in the Indian market. BANKING Industry INTRODUCTION A sound Banking system forms the backbone of any country and India is no exception with banking industry contributing around 5% of India’s GDP as well as generating employment for over 4 million people. Bank represents a vital link between the economic policies of the government and the various economic factors within the country. In the era of market oriented-economics banks have become the most important financial intermediaries and act as a reflection of the performance of the economy as whole. The focus of the report will be on the Retail Banking segment. CURRENT TRENDS The banking industry in India has undergone major changes right down from the pre liberalisation era when RBI (Reserve Bank of India) heavily regulated the industry to the post liberalisation phase where restrictions were eased and private as well as foreign banks played a much more significant role. The major trends that have been seen off late in the Banking Industry are: Retail banking will continue to grow due to the strong domestic demand from the vast Indian demographic. Mortgages are expected to grow and cross Rs 40 trillion by 2020. The new middle class consumer segment which is currently growing at a rapid pace will accentuate the demand for low cost banking solutions in the future. Branches and ATMs are still growing in order to better serve the huge bankable population of India. Low cost branch network with smaller sized branches will be adopted for the same. Mobile banking will come of age with increasing access of internet on the mobile phone. New generation customers prefer online banking instead of visiting the actual branches. Banks will adopt CRM (Customer Relationship Management), data warehousing and Business Analytics in a major way to reduce customer acquisition costs and improve risk management. Margins will see downward pressure both on retail and corporate banking due to increasing competition spurring banks to generate more fees and improve operating efficiency. ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY Despite the IT saga of the banking industry starting in the mid eighties with RBI forcing banks to automate services, it was only with the advent of private sector banks was technology truly leveraged. Technology has now become an integral part of any bank’s business strategy and is used as a tool for creating value and customer satisfaction. The major applications are in the areas of: Improving Customer experience through services such as Internet and Mobile Banking. Risk Management Reducing costs and improving efficiency Business Intelligence and Analytics in better targeting customers MAJOR PLAYERS Indian Banking industry can be classified as follows: Public sector banks These are government controlled banks and comprise of almost 90% of banks in the Indian banking industry. They further can be divided into: The State bank group (RBI owns the majority stake in this group comprising of State Bank of India (SBI) and its other associate banks), Nationalized banks (Punjab national bank, Indian overseas bank and oriental bank of commerce) and Regional rural banks (RRB’s). The state group and nationalized banks are collectively referred as public sector banks (PSB’s) Private sector banks These are non-incorporated banks where majority stake is held by private individuals or are traded in the market. ICICI bank, HDFC bank, Axis bank etc. fall under this category. Foreign banks These are multinational banks headquartered in foreign countries which entered India post 1991 liberalisation. Citi bank, HSBC etc. fall under this category. Apart from the ones mentioned above, there are cooperative banks, non-banking financial companies (NBFC’s), capital market intermediaries and state and central financial entities which fall under the broad spectrum of financial institutions in India. COMPETITION The major competition Retail Banking industry may face is from the financial markets. Traditional customers used to be risk averse while the new age customers are more risk taking and hence invests a significant portion of their savings in the stock market expecting higher returns. In addition to stock markets small scale local investors may also take money directly from the people. Thus competition for the Retail banking industry is moderate to low. INDUSTRY IN THE TABGIBILITY SPECTRUM The tangibility spectrum of the industry is as shown below: Figure : Tangibility Spectrum for Banking Industry Banking falls under the category of being intangible dominant since the only physical aspect is that of the documents one gets for the services. Most transactions are done through electronic form with very little tangible components. Typical service offering Customer Expectations The customer expectations of banking industry can be classified into 5 parts: Figure : Customer Expectations Simplified banking: Though banking has become sophisticated over the years it still needs to be simple in terms of process and services to enhance banking experience for the customer Service accessibility: Easy and reliable access to the service Data Privacy

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