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Buffer and pH

Buffer and pH.

Hello there. This is a lab report. I will send you the data derived from the experiment. Please go through each step and make sure to answer every question that’s asked. If it asks to graph please use excel. Also please use word document to answer the questions. Thank you! The website to the lab manual is… This lab starts at 36 and ends at 39! Fill out any data, that’s necessary. After selecting you, I will send you the experimental data. If the link doesn’t work let me know!
Buffer and pH

Entrepreneurship Question.

I’m working on a entrepreneurship test / quiz prep and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Assignment 2Due date is Friday, May 14th, 12:00 NoonInstructionsThe excel files contains (completely hypothetical, made up) information about grades in a large introductory statistics course. The data contains for every student in the course the unique ID number, the tutorial the student is enrolled in, whether a student was working while they took the course, and the final grade. The markingsystem is like that at the University of Adelaide, ranging from 0 to 100, with 50 as the pass grade.Answer each of the following questions making use of the data given in the attached excel file. The file also contains a number of excel commands that you might find useful. Additional resources for Excel are included in the textbook or available on Your answer should explain what you do (i.e. if you simply note an answer without explaining how you get there, points are deducted). There is no formal word limit (as it contains a number of calculations in addition to text answers), but answers that excessively long and contain irrelevant details will be penalizedCalculations can be done in Excel. If you do, please do notsubmit your excel file, butdokeep it until grades are releasedas this allows you to prove you did work yourself rather than copying from somebody. Please submit your answer as a Microsoft Word file. Please make surethat your answer contains your name and ID number. Also, please indicate in the file separate sections for each question, so the markers can easily identify which particular question you are answering.You can access Excel and Word through ADAPT, or through a direct licence for your own computer: 1You are interested in the question whether working besides studying leads to a lower chance of passing. You have information containing the grades of all students in a large introductory statistics course as well as whether these students did work while taking the course. Derive and compare the probability that a student failed the course when she or he was working with the same probability for those that were not working.Question 2You believe that 40% of students in Australia work next to their studies.Determine the numberand shareof students enrolled in tutorial 1 that work next to their studies. Thendo the same for the whole course. Calculate the probabilities that you do observe exactly thecalculated numbers(not shares)of working students in tutorial 1 respectively the whole course, given the probability stated above. Shortly discuss whatassumptions you made in your calculations and whatyou observe about the results.Question 3a)If you believe thatfinalgrades were randomly distributed following the uniform distribution, how many students do you expect to failthe course next year?Explain your reasoning.b)Explain and conduct a check of the data, which has to make use ofa chart, to see if the assumption of a uniform distribution for the final grades is valid. If not, determine a more appropriate distributionforthe final grades, including deriving the mean and standard deviation. Then use this information to calculate the probability that a student might fail this coursenext year. Question 4a)James was the tutor of tutorial 21. However, he is interested in the outcome of the overall course. To help him out, you use the information for tutorial 21 to calculate two point estimatesof the average grade for the whole course usingtwo different ways. Explain if you expect the two estimates to be the same. b)Then calculate an interval estimate for the average grade using the information from tutorial 21. If you need any further information besides that given, you are free to select it as you wish as long as you shortly explain your choice. Explain the result and discuss which assumptions you made and how these could be justified. Determine the numberand shareof students enrolled in tutorial 1 that work next to their studies. Thendo the same for the whole course. Calculate the probabilities that you do observe exactly thecalculated numbers(not shares)of working students in tutorial 1 respectively the whole course, given the probability stated above. Shortly discuss whatassumptions you made in your calculations and whatyou observe about the results.Question 3a)If you believe thatfinalgrades were randomly distributed following the uniform distribution, how many students do you expect to failthe course next year?Explain your reasoning.b)Explain and conduct a check of the data, which has to make use ofa chart, to see if the assumption of a uniform distribution for the final grades is valid. If not, determine a more appropriate distributionforthe final grades, including deriving the mean and standard deviation. Then use this information to calculate the probability that a student might fail this coursenext year. Question 4a)James was the tutor of tutorial 21. However, he is interested in the outcome of the overall course. To help him out, you use the information for tutorial 21 to calculate two point estimatesof the average grade for the whole course usingtwo different ways. Explain if you expect the two estimates to be the same. b)Then calculate an interval estimate for the average grade using the information from tutorial 21. If you need any further information besides that given, you are free to select it as you wish as long as you shortly explain your choice. Explain the result and discuss which assumptions you made and how these could be justified.
Entrepreneurship Question

HU How Toys Influence Gender Socialization in Human Life & Also Animals Essay.

(Grammar errors will result in a rejected paper) (Native like English writing skills required) (950 words, Apa Format) ——————————– Subject of the paper: How Toys influence Gender Socialization (Looking for tutors who understand Social Science concept and this is NOT a generalized paper) Requirement: Instructions: Visit the 3 biggest online toy retailer websites (Target, Walmart, Amazon). Observe and take detailed notes of what you see in terms of gender and toys. Compare the “boys” toys with the “girls” toys. Then, complete a 4-5 page essay (min. 950 words) on how toys influence gender socialization. Your reference page does not count toward your word count. You should write more than one draft. Do not write this paper the night before. Take your time and revise, revise, revise. And, consider visiting the writing center if you need additional support for writing (see syllabus for information). Essay: Themes/questions to think about when writing your essay. Your paper will examine how children are socialized into gender roles by looking at toys as a social indicator of gendered expectations. Your paper should have a clear thesis, and lay out the following: Organization of essay: Paragraph 1 will begin with an introductory sentence followed by your thesis statement (you should italicize your thesis). Your thesis should explicitly demarcate what you intend to argue and focus on in your paper. Then, you need to provide an in-depth overview of gender socialization and gender roles. Your paper must also articulate how gender is a social construction (you must reference at least 5 concepts in book!). In doing this, you should discuss how masculinity and femininity are social categories that maintain inequality, make sure to discuss gender roles, as well. Choose 2-3 toys for each gender that represent common “gendered themes” that you identified. You should then analyze the findings from your study of toys and gender. End with a conclusion that re-states your thesis, main argument(s), and findings. Some questions to consider about your data on toys: What types of toys are associated with girls versus boys (active, cognitive, violent, domestic, etc.)? What social messages do they reflect, and what do they tell us about gender roles and expectations. What colors are used in each section? What qualities or characteristics do the toys model for children? What impact might these toys have on boys and girls at a young age? What type of jobs/roles are the toys preparing children for when they become adults? What do the boys’ toys tell us about violence and masculinity? What do the girls’ toys tell us about femininity as it relates to beauty, domesticity, fashion, sexuality, and consumption? How might toys influence political beliefs (war, strict gender norms, violence)? Other things to think about: is one race represented more on the toys or their packaging? Be specific. You must write a formal argumentative essay, which articulates a sociological argument based on the social construction of gender (gender is a socially produced category, that reinforces inequality). You must have a clear thesis statement (what the essay will argue about gender, socialization, and toys), clear evidence (theoretical support from the readings, and examples from your “toy data”). Avoid using long quotes, instead paraphrase (and cite) and include some sociological theories from the textbook. Your fieldwork report must engage sociological theories discussed in the class to support your argument. You may also use information from lecture (lecture must too be cited by the date of the class). This is NOT an opinion paper; instead, you need to explore this topic from a sociological perspective. You should skillfully, and thoughtfully, integrate terms and concepts from the book to ground your paper (no outside sources besides your textbook). In Conflict and Order Chapter 10 “Gender Inequality” Sociological Concepts that will be useful to draw on to support your analysis: Gender Roles Conflict perspective on gender Gender socialization Doing Gender Learning Gender through Play Learning Gender at Home Mass media (advertising) Male Dominance Structural Gender Inequality at the Workplace Occupational Sex Segregation Intersection of Race and Gender in the Workplace Read over this synopsis of some relevant research on the topic of gender and toys. (Links to an external site.) Data Set: Your toy inventory will act as your data set. You should use your data set to provide specific examples in your fieldwork report. You must therefore perform a toy inventory of 20 toys (10 from the “girls” section and 10 from the “boys” section). YOUR DATA SET MUST BE ATTACHED TO THE ESSAY Your inventory should include: (1) the name of the toy; (2) a brief description of the toy; (3) a short description of its packaging. Make sure your paper answers the above questions in an essay form (your inventory will NOT count toward the word count, but is required for you to turn in). Logistical Information: Before turning in your paper, make sure your paper meets ALL of the following requirements or you will lose points for each item you did not follow directions on. I suggest you check each of the following off before turning in your paper: (1) Cover page which includes all of the following in this order: a) your name b) Gender Socialization & Toys c) SOCIO 1 d) Dr. Wilson e) Word count (e.g. Word Count) f) Make sure your data set is included at the back of the essay (2) Formatting: a) Times New Roman, 12 point font, 1-inch margins (no exceptions), double-spaced b) MLA citation style c) page numbers at bottom of each page after the cover (the cover page does not count as a page number) d) You must also have a reference page at the end, following MLA guidelines. You also must cite properly, the author’s name within your essay when you paraphrase. Nothing whatsoever can be taken or used from any outside resources, books, internet. Everything you need will be from the course readings and your inventory. Other information: Reminder: APA Format No plagiarism is accepted (people are checked through two different systems for plagiarism) Only academic resources should be used, no older than 5 years old Adhere to the requested number of words/pages No Grammar errors (refunds will be asked for incoherent/ full of grammar errors papers) *** Coherent and correctly written papers are the only ones accepted*** ——– Thank you for your support
HU How Toys Influence Gender Socialization in Human Life & Also Animals Essay

Writer’s Choice ash Essay

Writer’s Choice ash Essay. A drug company is beginning a new drug trial for a narcotic medication that is used to treat pain related to juvenile arthritis (JA). Melanie is a 19-year-old female who has had JA for 2 years and does not feel that she has full relief of pain from the medications she has taken. She states she has fallen on hard times since she became ill and the money for the study will also be beneficial. She wants to participate in the study. As the nurse, you u nderstand that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays a role in clinical drug testing. You also know that the prescription, distribution, storage, and use of controlled substances are closely monitored by the Drug Enforcement Task Force (DEA) in an attempt to decrease substance abuse of prescribed medications. Discuss the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in clinical drug testing. As her nurse, what would you counsel Melanie on regarding clinical trials. Describe how the DEA controls drugs that have abuse potential. List the different Schedules of Controlled Substances, provide an example of a drug in each category. Discuss at least 1 way a nurse would monitor a patient receiving a controlled substance, and the rationale.Writer’s Choice ash Essay

Food Role on Social Events Essay

online homework help Table of Contents Introduction Description The Broad Food Repertoire Broader Patterns Cultural relevance Cultural comparison and contrast Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Food and culture are inseparable factors in a community. The food that people eat defines and shape their culture. For example, a community that feed practice farming feed on vegetables and cereals. A community that feed on meat are hunters or keep domestic animals. On the other hand, the peoples’ culture shapes their feeding habits. For example, an industrialized community depend on other communities for food. As a result, their eating habit diversifies. They eat vegetables, snacks, traditional food, meat and other. Therefore, it is clear that food is at the center of culture while culture is the central point of feeding habits. Therefore, this paper will present a summary of a food event. The summary will include a description of the event, location of the food within a large repertoire of the community, the relationship between the food and traditions of the targeted group. In addition, it will aim at giving the broader reflection of the groups’ culture and the traditional relevance in their community. Particularly, it will focus on a food event that they held in Kenya. I had a chance to visit the country and join in the celebration of his brother’s marriage. During the event, they prepared food known as Mukimo Wa Njahi. Description The food event was a wedding ceremony which they held in Kenya. Particularly, it was in the Kikuyu community. The Kikuyu community lives in the central region of the country. Their main source of livelihood is farming and doing business. The parents of the couples initiated the wedding ceremony for their child. The culture of the community allows parents to find spouses for their children and induce marriage. They provided the necessary resources that the attendants required during the day. However, the two spouses must agree to the marriage before it takes place. Many people attended the wedding ceremony. They included relatives, parents from both sides, friends, elders, religious leaders and, the community member. Distribution of responsibilities among the attendants followed the lines of expertise, gender, age, position in the community, and the relationship that they had with the family. For example, the religious leaders conducted players and offered spiritual guidance. The elders welcomed relatives and made significant remarks concerning the expected behavior of the couple. However, there were some attendants who did not have responsibilities in the event. These included the young girls and boys, expectant women and the disabled members of the community. Younger children would be included in case of any emergency and simple commitments. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the event, they cook Mukimo Wa Njahi as the main meal. This meal is an important food in the Agikuyu community. It is at the heart of their culture and traditions. When preparing the meal, they use traditional cereals called Njahi. Njahi is a traditional cereal that is rich in protein. The community associates the cereal with abundance. Also, the meal contains green vegetables that grow on the river banks. The vegetables include the stinging nettle. In their native language, they refer to it as Hatha. The two components are mixed with potatoes and cooked together. The mixture is smashed and served to the attendants. Before the attendants eat the food, the bride and bridegroom tasted the food assuring the people that it had been good. Culturally, the bride serves the bridegroom first, and the bridegroom does the same thing for the bride. Among the attendants, there were a group of women who made ululations. They made four ululations for the bride and five for the bridegroom. The ululations were made when each of them served Mukimo Wa Njahi. The bride then went round serving the parents and elders of the community. The rest of attendants were served by selected women in the community. The service women were required to be married. The Broad Food Repertoire The event coincides with the history of the attendants and remains relevant to the attendants. Most of the attendants are married. In fact, bachelors and spinsters do not get significant roles. The participants celebrate the newly married couples and consider them as being newborns. To them, a newly born couple enlarges their family. Therefore, the essence of celebrating is welcoming the couples into a new world. As a result, the event coincides with the history of the participants perfectly. It reminds them of their obligation in marriage and strengthen the bond they made earlier. This is because they are proud of getting a new company. In addition, the people consider the event as a holy authorization of reproduction. In this community, bearing children before marriage is evil. They consider premarital pregnancy as immoral. As a result, the community views the event as a clean and legal action. Therefore, it coincides with the communities’ morals and behaviors. Consequently, it is a component of the larger community culture. Broader Patterns There are various social-cultural events that exist in the community. During the events, they take the Mukimo Wa Njahi as the meal. These ceremonies are carried out in preparation of the marriage ceremony. In the patterns, one of the main events is the Irua ceremony. During Irua ceremony, boys are circumcised as a sign of passage from childhood to adulthood. The event is carried out in the same way as the marriage ceremony. We will write a custom Essay on Food Role on Social Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The attendants must be already circumcised. This creates bondage between the circumcised and the newly circumcised boys. During the ceremony, the attendants feed on Mukimo wa Njahi as as a sign of inducing strength of the newly circumcised boys. Also, they have Ngoima ceremony. They perform it before the marriage ceremony. During this ceremony, the bridegroom’s parents take goats to the bride’s parents for compensation. They aim at compensating for taking the bride at their home. When marriage is due, it happens in patterns. For example, a girl will not get married before her older sister is married. This pattern is followed to the letter in the entire community. Cultural relevance The event has cultural similarities with other behaviors. The bride and bridegroom chose to adopt a traditional approach in their wedding ceremony. The choice aimed at showing the importance of their culture and the relationship it has with the other parts of practices of the community. From the description, we find various components and practices of the Agikuyu marriage ceremony. The practices are culturally symbolic ad designate significant implications. The choices that are made in the ceremony carry relevant messages to the community. They have lessons that teach and inspire the young people in the community set up. In fact, the marriage ceremony is termed as the pure reflection of their cultural heritage and believes that govern the entire community. For example, Mukimo W Njahi comprises of the stinging nettle and Njahi. Njahi is a cereal that grows in the abundance of rainfall. Therefore, it signifies a lot of harvest and abundance. The inclusion of Njahi in the Mukimo is a sign of blessings for the couple. The community wishes them a fortune and abundance in their marriage. On the other hand, they include the stinging nettle. The stinging nettle is a sign of challenges and problems. It shows that the marriage will have flaws at times. Therefore, couples learn a crucial lesson that prepare them to handle the tasks before them with perseverance. The Mukimo Wa Njahi is made through smashing. When they smash, the three components appear like one. This is a powerful message to the couples. It suggests that they should remain in complete collaboration and togetherness. The bride and bridegroom serve food to each other. This teaches them to serve each other and fulfill their obligations. The bride serves the elders to show respect to the community, parents and the people who are older than them. The unity that the attendants show during the ceremony is a reflection of the community’s culture. Cultural comparison and contrast The event has differences with other cultural event. They differ in several aspects ceremonial aspects. The aspects include the nature of attendants, emotions that prevail and the values induced in the community. Firstly, the marriage ceremony is accompanied by happiness and ululation. Some the cultural events are accompanied by sadness and tears. For example, a death ceremony is characterized by the grief. Not sure if you can write a paper on Food Role on Social Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another example, that is carried out differently is Ikari. This ceremony prepares the warriors for war. During the ceremony, they feed on meat. Two mature bulls are selected from the herd. The two bulls engage in a fight against each other. The bull that wins is slaughtered for the warriors. This is to signify that the warriors would win the war against the foe. These are examples of ceremonies that differ the marriage ceremony. On the other hand, the event coincides and show similarities with other events of the community. The similarities emerge in various aspects of the event. For example, the community has a ceremony during child birth. They celebrate the new born in total happiness and vigor. In fact, the ululations that are made by women are in a wedding ceremony are made at child birth. They make five ululation for a boy baby and four for a girl. This is a perfect similarity to that of the wedding ceremony. According to the community, they signify happiness and fortune. Another ceremony that show similar emotions is the Ngoima. The Ngoima ceremony celebrated during the payment of dowry to the bride’s parents. Mukimo wa Njahi is the meal for the ceremony. This coincides with the marriage ceremony in the community. The similarities show that the community is consistent with its culture and behaviors. Conclusion The ethnographic exercise that is described above is a perfect evidence that the food events show a strong relationship between food and culture. In addition, it shows show the reflection of cultural behavior on food events. It analyses the importance and significance of every activity and the lessons they portray in the community. It reveals the patterns of the various events that take place in the community. Moreover, the paper shows the various similarities and differences that exist between the marriage ceremony and other events. Works Cited Jenks, Chris. Culture. London: Routledge, 1993. Print. Kenyatta, Jomo. Facing Mount Kenya: the tribal life of the Gikuyu. New York: Vintage Books, 1965. Print. Macpherson, Catherine. Food

The Power of Introductory Word to the World of Faerie Knights Essay

Edmund Spenser was one of the most famous English poets of the 16th century whose main achievement was the creation of the epic poem, The Faerie Queene. This poem is considered to be a successful example of how the stanzas may be organized, and Spencer’s contribution to the development of fixed verses was considerable. In this paper, the two beginning verses of the poem will be analyzed in order to comprehend the motives of the author as well as the main messages sent from the end of the 16th century. Each line of The Faerie Queene is a kind of brick that creates a magnificent path to the door that opens the world of Faerie knights, ladies, and emotions which develop various types of relations. There are two verses of 9 lines each which are introduced in the iambic pentameter ended with one Alexandrine line. Such combination of lines facilitates the reading process and shows that more interest appears with each new line offered. Lo I the man, whose Muse whilome did maske, As time her taught, in lowly Shepheards weeds. (Spenser and Kaske 3) The author admits that he is not ready to disclose his personality but still underlines that he has certain skills to introduce a story as he has Muse that had already inspired him long time ago. Am now enforst a farre unfitter taske, For trumpets sterne to chaunge mine Oaten reeds. (Spenser and Kaske 3) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These lines show that the author has to take a serious step in his life and undergo a number of changes to meet the expectations of the society. Though he is not sure whether he is ready to take such a step, he makes an attempt and wants to succeed. And sing of Knights and Ladies gentle deeds, Whose prayses having slept in silence long. Me, all too meane, the sacred Muse areeds To blazon broad emongst her learned throng: Fierce warres and faithful loves shall moralize my song. (Spenser and Kaske 3) His task now is to describe the life of knights and their ladies, and his previous duties were far from evaluating such amazing times of honor, prudence, and passion. Though the stories about those past times are hidden to the reader, the author wants to disclose the peculiarities of human lives. Fights, love, and glory are the main aspects of the poem. Helpe then, O holy Virgin chiefe of nine, Thy weaker Novice to performe thy will. (Spenser and Kaske 4). The author is not afraid to ask for help and admit his own weaknesses. Still, he has to perform the will set, and he will ask anyone for help to succeed in his activities. Lay forth out of thine everlasting scryne The antique rolles, which there lye hidden still, Of Faerie knights and fairest Tanaquill, Whom that most noble Briton Prince so long Sought through the world, and suffered so much ill, We will write a custom Essay on The Power of Introductory Word to the World of Faerie Knights specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That I must rue his undeserved wrong: O helpe thou my weake wit, and sharpen my dull tong. (Spenser and Kaske 4) In these lines, the author introduces one of the main ideas of the poem, and “fairest Tanaquill”, the queen of the Land that is considered in the story. Not much information is available about people, the land, and the activities of the queen, this is why it is so interesting to investigate the events from the past and describe their urgency for the reader. Suffering and pain have been inherent to the times of the queens and knights, and it is a human duty to appreciate personal past and be aware of how different people fight for their freedom, love, and honor. Life is divided into the parts, and the main task of the knight is to find his own place in the world and his mistress in order to make the life complete. In general, the idea of the two first verses of the poem is clear indeed: there are some themes from the past that have to be disclosed to the reader, and the author takes the responsibility to introduce the world of the knights and queens from his own perspective. Of course, he understands that he is not powerful enough to describe properly each aspect of past life; this is why he is ready to admit his weakness and to ask higher powers for help and inspiration. Works Cited Spenser, Edmund and Kaske, Carol. “The First Booke of the Faerie Queene. Contayning. The Legend of the Knight of the Red Crosse, or of Holinesse.” The Faerie Queene: Book One. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.: 2006.

Benefits of Regular Exercise for the Elderly

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The benefits of regular exercise are numerous. Through multiple clinical trials, man has been able to deduce how exercise benefits the body and prolongs life. It reduces the probability of cardiovascular disease a leading killer disease in some countries in the developed world. It also helps keep obesity at bay and enables people across the age divide to maintain flexibility and independence over their lives. Exercise is also beneficial for mental well being in that it reduces the risk of getting depression. Many people have taken the prerogative to enroll in some sort of exercise programme. Due to lack of adequate information, not all individuals who partake in regular exercise are able to glean maximum benefits from their training programme. Time spent during exercise is an important factor. However, it is not the determining factor when it comes to how much an individual will benefit from the physical activity. Nutrition is an essential component of any exercise programme. This article aims at empowering the reader with information on how to maximize benefits from an exercise programme. PROVEN BENEFITS OF EXERCISE. Exercise prolongs life. People who engage in moderate to difficult exercise routines elongate their lifespan by one to four years (Jonker 2006: Franco 2005). Exercise also adds value to those additional years. Through health benefits to the lungs, heart and muscle, exercise ensures that a person not only lives long but is still productive in those extra years. Aging is a natural process of life. With time, the health of an individual deteriorates. This increases the risk of developing chronic health conditions. The good news is that regular exercise such as walking 3 hours per week can ward off the onset of some of these chronic health conditions (Chakravathy 2002). Exercise enables a person to have a better outlook of themselves, elevates self esteem and reduces the risk of getting depression (Elvasky 2005: Schetchman 2001). In recent years chronic non communicable diseases have formed a substantial portion of the disease burden in the world. In people with conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, stroke, myasthenia gravis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise improves the standard of life (Stout 2001: Rochester 2003). Regular exercise spells out more benefits when it comes to metabolism of sugar in the body. It enhances plasma glucose control, can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes and if one develops the disease, it reduces the risk of death from complications in the cardiovascular system(Golden 2004: Virtartaite 2004: babyak 2001: Suh 2002: Church 2004: Short 2003: American Diabetes association 2003: McFarln 2004. Menopause results in decreased bone density. This is because of reduced estrogen levels in the body. Estrogen is bone protective. Post menopausal women are thus at higher risk of fractures because of weak bones. The fractures are more common at the hip joint and the femoral bone. Exercise has been shown to increase bone thickness and hence stronger bones in women of this age group (Cussler 2005: Kerr 2001). Osteoarthritis is a common skeletal disease that comes with advanced age. It affects joints in the body. Weight training and aerobics exercise has been shown to enhance balance in older people with knee osteoarthritis (Messier 2000). Exercise is not only for the adults. Exercise during childhood and teenage years ensure stronger bones later in life. Exercise during pregnancy is a healthy habit. Through it, an expectant mother is able to influence the size of her infant (Clapp 2003). METABOLISM, GETTING THE ENERGY WE NEED. Various metabolic processes interplay to ensure that body functions are maintained at optimum. These metabolic processes are affected by exercise. Once food is ingested, it undergoes digestion in the alimentary canal. With the aid of enzymes, the food is broken down into its basic components which are glucose, lipids and amino acids. Energy in the body is derived primarily from glucose. In the absence of glucose, fat is the alternative for energy production. Proteins derived from muscle mass are the least favored option when it comes to energy production. Breakdown of proteins requires a lot of energy. Ammonia is a byproduct of protein breakdown and it has harmful effects on health. In the setting of protein breakdown, damage to body organs and systems is inevitable. It also impairs the effectiveness of an exercise programme. Energy in the body is produced in the form of ATP. ATP production occurs in the mitochondria which are found within body cells. ATP is utilized in the body in various ways. It provides the energy required to power every energy consuming process in the body. It is also essential body building. It provides the energy required for repair of tissues and growth. Cleaving of a phosphate molecule from ATP to form ADP is the chemical reaction that releases energy. Nutrition and exercise are thus closely related. The role of nutrition is to provide enough energy to the muscles during the exercise and recovery period. It is important to know how muscles utilize energy during exercise. ATP is the first line energy source for muscles during contraction. However the amount of ATP stored in the muscle at any given moment is only adequate for one contraction. During exercise, rapid synthesis of ATP is therefore necessary to sustain the additional contractions. Creatinine phosphate is a molecule stored in muscle that facilitates the synthesis of ATP. This too has its limitations. This is because the stores of creatinine phosphate in muscle are also quickly depleted. Breakdown of glucose is responsible for replacing the depleted ATP and creatinine phosphate stores. A maximum yield of ATP is found when glucose is broken down In the presence of oxygen. This is called anaerobic metabolism. When oxygen is inadequate during glucose breakdown, lactic acid is formed. When the lactic acid builds up in muscle, it produces a burning sensation. The latter type of glucose breakdown is known as anaerobic metabolism and is common in exercises that are characterized by short bursts of activity. If glucose is depleted in the course of exercise, the body utilizes fat and proteins as alternative sources of energy. After exercise, the body will need to replenish the ATP stores in the muscles. This is an activity with high oxygen consumption. As mentioned earlier, anaerobic exercises are characterized by short bouts of activity. They are intense in nature and performed over a short period of time. They employ use of weights and are used primarily to build muscle bulk and strengthen muscles (Annianson 1981). Aerobic exercises are utilized in endurance training. These types of exercises are characterized by sustained low level muscle activity. One of the primary benefits of endurance training is weight loss. It also confers cardio protective benefits. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises can be carried out simultaneously. This widens the benefits an individual can glean i.e. one is able to lose weight and at the same time build up the muscle bulk. This is known as interval training (Martini 1995). MUSCLES AND AGING. With age, the muscle bulk reduces and muscles progressively weaken. This process is independent of lifestyle and exercise regimes (Brosss 1999). The elasticity of the muscles diminishes with time and they become more prone to injuries (Bross 1999: Braumgartner 1998). Their regeneration potential also decreases and repairs take longer. However age should not be a contraindication for exercise. Strength can be restored to weakened muscles through strength training (Anianson 1981: Frontera 1992). With advancing age, exercise helps keep weight in check and thus wards of diseases such as diabetes. It is advisable for the elderly to engage in activities that are not strenuous (Martini 1995). WHAT I HAVE LEARNED SO FAR. Benefits of exercise include weight control, prolonged life and mental well being. Metabolism is the process by which food is broken down to produce energy. Muscles utilize ATP for energy during contraction. Endurance exercises are cardio protective and result in weight loss while anaerobic exercises are utilized in building up the muscle bulk. TESTESTRONE REPLACEMENT. Andropause is the equivalent of menopause in women. It refers to the gradual decline of testosterone levels in men that occurs with age. Generally, 40-50% of men have low levels of testosterone by age 70 (Anawalt 2000). Symptoms experienced include decline in libido, heart disease and loss of bone and muscle. Growth hormone levels decline concurrently with those of testosterone (Karakelides 2005). Supplementing growth hormone and testosterone to enhance exercise looks like a viable option. However studies that have focused on this issue have found data that is insufficient to support this practice (Anawalt 2000). The risk of hormone dependent cancers is higher in the elderly and therefore any supplementation of testosterone should be approached with caution. Hormone replacement therapy if needed should thus be carried out under the watchful eye of a qualified physician. EXERCISE ENHANCING SUPPLEMENTS. Various supplements enhance muscle function. They include; Carnitine: this is an amino acid that aids in transport of fat into the mitochondria where it is broken down for energy production. Exercise capacity is enhanced when patients with kidney diseases or artery disease are given carnitine supplements (Baker 2001: Brass 1998). Carnosine: carnosine is present in muscle. Concentration of carnosine in muscle is highest during exercise (Suzuki 2002). Exercise is associated with formation of free radicals from the oxygen utilizing processes that take place (Yang 2000: Boldyrev 1997: Yneva 1999: Nagasawa 1999). Carnosine destroys the free radicals and prevents them from oxidizing body cells. It also protects proteins by inhibiting cross linking (Hipkiss 1997: Munch 1995). During strenuous exercise, carnosine also acts as a PH buffer thus protecting muscle from oxidation (Burcham 2000). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10): this is an essential enzyme that is utilized in the process of converting food into energy. It is located in the mitochondria. Oxidation processes take place continuously in the mitochondria. This results in the depletion of CoQ10 enzyme (Lonrot 1995: Dimeo 2001: Geneva 2004). Dysfunction of mitochondria coupled with depletion of CQ10 is thought to be an important causative factor in the development of age related diseases (Wallace 2009). This also results in production of less energy and increased synthesis of oxygen radicals (Choski 2007). The radicals further damage the mitochondria resulting in a vicious cycle (Di Lisa 2009). Shilajit: this is an organic substance harvested from biomass in the Himalayas (Schepetkin 2009: Goel 1990). It is famously utilized by ayurvedic practioners. It protects the body from illness and stress by acting as an adptogen. Advance in science has shown that it contains humic substances that enhance the flow of energy within the mitochondria (Agarwal 2007). A study conducted showed that shilajit decreased the rate of ATP decline in heart, brain and muscle tissue when given to rats that had been subjected to strenuous activity (Bhattacharyya 2009. The rate of depletion of CoQ10 was also slowed. When administered together, shilajat and CQ10 were found to have a synergistic effect. Shilajit contains two primary components that are essential for its function. These are fulvic acid and dibenzo-a-pyrones (DBPs). On its own, fulvic acid can initiate energy production in the mitochondria. It also prevents the oxidative damage to the mitochondria and transports DPBs into the mitochondria to aid in reactions that produce ATP(Piotrowska 2000; Ghosal 2006). When the mice were given oral CoQ10 supplements in isolation, there was increase in the levels of the enzyme in heart, liver and kidney tissues (Bhattacharyya 2009). However, when DBPs were supplemented concurrently with the CoQ10, the liver stores increased by 29% (Bhattacharyya 2009). Shilajit preserves ATP in the body. By ensuring that CoQ10 in the body is utilized maximally, it improves exercise performance. This was demonstrated in a recent study. People who took 200mg of Shilajit daily for 15 days had higher levels of ATP in the blood after exercise and the fitness score improved by 15%. Creatine: supplementing creatinine is beneficial. It increases both the lean mass and strength of the muscles (Nissen 2003; Kreider2003; Gotshalk 2002). ATP production requires phosphate molecules. Creatine acts as a donor of phosphate and thus enhances ATP production. In the setting of anaerobic glycolysis, creatine delays build up of lactic acid in the muscles. Muscle is not the only body tissue that benefits from creatine supplementation. Studies have shown that creatine is of benefit in patients with neurological degenerative disorders and it enhances memory in the elderly (Wyss 2002; Beal 2003; Tarnopolsky 2001; Matthews 1998; Tabrizi 2003; Laakso 2003; Yeo 2000; Valenzuela 2003; Watanabe 2002; Rae 2003). Branched amino acids: the basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids. There are two types of amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and are only sourced from the diet. Non essential amino acids are those that the body can synthesis. Leucine and isoleucine are examples of branched essential amino acids that have been shown to enhance performance and prevent breakdown of muscle during endurance exercise (Workman 2002; Shimomura 2006; Ohtani 2006). Unlike carbohydrates supplements, amino acid supplements have been shown to increase muscle strength in the elderly (Scognamiglio 2004). Glutamine: glutamine is an amino acid that is present in abundant amounts in the healthy body. Prolonged exercise, surgery or infection can decreases the levels of glutamine in the body. There is an increase risk of developing respiratory infections in athletes who engage in strenuous activity. This has been linked to reduced glutamine levels in the body as a result of the exercise (Castell 2002; Parry-Billings 1990). Supplementing glutamine in marathon runners had the effect of reducing respiratory infections (Castell 1996). When used in combination with glycine and L-cysteine, glutathione helps enhance synthesis of glutathione which functions as an antioxidant in the body (Rennie 1998). When levels of glutathione are low in the body, muscle tissue is broken down to supply glutathione. Supplementing glutathione will bar this from happening (Antonio 2002; Hankard 1996). Metabolic whey protein: protein supplementation has been a popular practice among athletes and fitness enthusiasts. Exercise may deplete body energy stores. Protein supplementation will therefore provide an alternative source of energy and prevent muscle breakdown. Mechanical muscle function was found to be greater in patients who had protein supplementation compared to those who had carbohydrate supplementation (Andersen 2005). Plant protein: vegetable protein is an important source of proteins for vegetarians. With advancing age, blood vessels tend to lose their elasticity and hence their ability to dilate. Pea protein contains arginine which is used in synthesis of nitric oxide. This is a compound that is essential for dilation and relaxation of blood vessels (Zhou 2001).l. Contrary to common belief some vegetables contain higher amounts of protein when compared to animal based sources of protein. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC): muscle contraction is mediated by the nervous system. Information from the neural circuit is relayed to the muscle at the neuromuscular junction. Acetylcholine is the chemical mediator at this junction that relays this information. During exercise, PPC maintains plasma levels of choline which is a raw product used in the synthesis of acetyl choline (Buchman 2000). This ensures that there is continuous flow of electric information from the nerves to the muscles. Vitamin D: it is common knowledge that vitamin D is essential for proper bone health. It has recently come to attention that it is also important for muscle health. Vitamin D helps maintain muscle bulk by preventing shrinking of muscle fibers. Research has shown that adequate vitamin D intake reduces the risk of osteoporosis and muscle atrophy in the long run (Montero-Odasso 2005). D-ribose: D ribose is a molecule that is utilized during synthesis of ATP. Physical fatigue as a result of exercise is one of the chief reasons that puts off people from exercising (Annesi, 2005). During strenuous exercise, ATP levels in muscle can drop by up to 20% and it can take up to 72 hours for the muscles to replenish the ATP stores (Hellsten-Westing 1993; Stathis 1994). After exercise, many individuals feel spent. This has been linked to release of products of ATP break down into blood (Hellsten 1999). D-ribose will ensure that ATP levels in muscle are at optimum (Tullson 1988; Zarzeczny 2001). This will result in less fatigue after exercise and a person can happily look forward to the next exercise lesson. Exercise becomes an enjoyable activity instead of the drag many people have come to associate it with. D-ribose supplementation increases ATP stores in the muscle by up to four fold. This provides adequate reserve that can be utilized if need arises (Tullson 1991). D-ribose also enhances recycling of the products of ATP breakdown. This enhances the speed of ATP synthesis (Zarzeczny 2001; Brault 2001). Muscles that are fatigued take longer to replenish ATP compared to well rested muscles (Hellsten-Westing 1993).. In 2004, a study showed that D- ribose accelerated the rate of recovery of ATP in muscle among sprinters (Hellsten2004). The following protocols may also be of interest. Obesity and weight loss. Trauma and wound healing. Male hormone restoration. Female hormone restoration. LIFE EXTENSION SUGGESTIONS. Creatine: 2 – 5 g daily Carnitine: 1000 – 2000 mg daily Carnosine: 1500 – 3000 mg daily CoQ10 (as ubiquinol): 100 – 300 mg daily Shilajit: 100 – 200 mg daily Branched-chain amino acids: containing at least 1200 mg L-leucine, 600 mg L-isoleucine, and 600 mg L-valine Glutamine: 500 – 1000 mg daily Whey protein: consider taking 20 – 80 g whey protein daily. It is most important to consume whey protein before and immediately after your exercise session to make sure adequate protein is available to depleted muscles. Plant Protein: 18 g protein from a blend of plants including pea Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC): 900 – 1800 mg Vitamin D: 5000 – 8000 IU daily; depending upon blood levels of 25-OH-vitamin D D-ribose: 5 g, 1 – 3 times daily with food Also, the following blood tests may provide helpful information Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy Female Comprehensive Hormone Panel Male Comprehensive Hormone Panel Creatine Kinase DISCLAIMER. information contained in this article does not intend to disregard advice rendered to individuals by qualified clinicians. Before commencing on any diet or exercise programme, a person should seek professional advice from a qualified healthcare professional. The protocols described in this article are for adults only. Before use of any supplement, a person should familiarize themselves with the product information provided by the manufacturer. This information pertains to the dose, administration and contraindications. The authors and publishers of this article are not liable to injury or damage a person may endure after use of information contained herein. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp