I’m working on a literature question and need support to help me learn.
1- For the final paper, you’ll choose a hero or superhero, find out more about them, and write an essay that analyzes them using some of the concepts we studied this semester (like the hero’s journey or ethical positions). I encourage you to choose a hero we haven’t discussed in class – there are so many interesting ones! (Here’s a very brief list to start your thinking: Shrek (hero or antihero?), Anna and/or Elsa from Frozen, Merida from Brave, any of several characters from Star Trek, Aang from Avatar, Naruto, WandaVision, Katniss from Hunger Games, etc.)
For this proposal, please write 2 paragraphs explaining what you plan to write about. Who is the hero? What is their story? Why is this hero interesting and/or important to you? What questions do you want to find out more about and discuss?
Bowie State University Appearance Stereotypes in the Shrek Movie Discussion
Nova Southeastern University New Medicine for The US Health Care System Discussion
Nova Southeastern University New Medicine for The US Health Care System Discussion.
I HAVE TO REPLY TO 3 POSTS FIRST POST Hospital-Acquired Falls Hospital-acquired patient falls can be a burden on a healthcare organization’s economy. Nonfatal falls can still cause patient’s major injuries with prolonged effects and can increase costs for both the patient and healthcare system (Haddad et al., 2019). Fehlberg et al. (2017) state that “Up to 1,000,000 inpatient falls occur annually in the United States with associated direct medical costs greater than $30 billion.” In 2008, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) stopped reimbursing costs related to hospital-acquired falls since they are events that should have never happen or “never events” (Fehlberg et al., 2017). The CMS Non-Payment Policy did influence the implementation of fall preventions in the inpatient setting. However, due to the CMS Non-Payment Policy, fears of the overuse of physical restraints were feared (Fehlberg et al., 2017). Restraints could limit patient mobility and cause negative outcomes. I work at a restraint-free hospital, but we do have a fall prevention policy which includes, yellow non-skid socks, fall-risk armband, bed or chair alarm, and we must do purposeful hourly rounding. If the patient is a high fall-risk they should be placed in a room closest to the nurses’ station and if needed, a personal sitter should be provided. The CMS Non-Payment Policy impacts the use of those cost-effective interventions to prevent falls. Bed alarms are the easiest to implement and least expensive and a personal sitter is probably the costliest intervention (Fehlberg et al., 2017). A master’s prepared nurse can promote the importance of fall prevention by implementing the fall-risk interventions in their daily practice. It is important that every healthcare team member respond to any bed or chair alarm. By doing so, a fall can be prevented almost immediately. Hospital-acquired falls are preventable especially when all fall-risk interventions are in place. Research has shown that the CMS Non-Payment Policy has influenced the increased practice of nursing fall prevention care (Fehlberg et al., 2017).ReferencesFehlberg, E. A., Lucero, R. J., Weaver, M. T., McDaniel, A. M., Chandler, M., Richey, P. A., Mion, L.C., & Shorr, R. I. (2017). Impact of the CMS no-pay policy on hospital-acquired fall prevention related practice patterns. Innovation in Aging, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx036Haddad, Y. K., Bergen, G., & Florence, C. S. (2019). Estimating the economic burden related to older adult falls by state. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 25(2), E17–E24. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000000816 SECOND POST Ventilator-Associated PneumoniaVentilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hospital acquired condition among mechanically ventilated patients. VAP is defined as pneumonia that develops 48 hours following endotracheal intubation (Villar et al., 2016). Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rate of VAP remains between 33-50% (Villar et al., 2016). However, VAP is a preventable complication of mechanical ventilation. Economic EffectsVAP contributes to an increase in healthcare costs; therefore, it affects a healthcare organizations’ economy. According to Ladbrook et al. (2020) “VAP places significant demand on acute beds and is a key contributor to rising acute health care costs” (p. 2). In fact, VAP-related hospital costs are estimated to be between $25,000 to $28,000 per patient in the United States (Ladbrook et al., 2020). Furthermore, financial estimates suggest that VAP adds an additional $1.45 billion annually to the overall cost of health care provision (Ladbrook et al., 2020). As a result, there is a global need to reduce healthcare expenditure related to VAP.Cost-effective CareThe Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) have instituted financial penalties to healthcare organizations for healthcare-associated infections such as VAP. The additional cost of care associated with managing VAP is not covered by CMS; therefore, healthcare organizations must implement cost-effective strategies to alleviate the risk of VAP (Ladbrook et al., 2020). Although controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of financial incentives, it is introduced as a means to provide cost-effective care. Evidence-based PolicyVAP care bundles have been implemented in many healthcare organizations in an effort to reduce the incidence of VAP. VAP care bundles are an example of an evidence-based policy for VAP prevention that combines the use of several core evidence-based elements (Ladbrook et al., 2020). Khan et al. (2016) describes a 7-element care bundle including head-of-bed elevation 30°-45°, daily sedation vacation and assessment for extubation, peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, oral care with chlorhexidine, endotracheal intubation with in-line suction and subglottic suctioning, and maintenance of endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20-30 mmHg. The master’s prepared nurse can promote the evidence-based policy of VAP care bundles by implementing its use in clinical practice. ReferencesKhan, R., Al-Dorzi, H. M., Al-Attas, K., Ahmed, F. W., Marini, A. M., Mundekkadan, S., Balkhy, H. H., Tannous, J., Almesnad, A., Mannion, D., Tamim, H. M., & Arabi, Y. M. (2016). The impact of implementing multifaceted interventions on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. American Journal of Infection Control, 44(3), 320–326. https://doi-org./10.1016/j.ajic.2015.09.025Ladbrook, E., Khaw, D., Bouchoucha, S., & Hutchinson, A. (2020). A systematic scoping review of the cost-impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) intervention bundles in intensive care. American Journal of Infection Control. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.11.027Villar, C. C., Pannuti, C. M., Nery, D. M., Morillo, C. M. R., Carmona, M. J. C., & Romito, G. A. (2016). Effectiveness of intraoral chlorhexidine protocols in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Meta-analysis and systematic review. Respiratory Care, 61(9), 1245–1259. https://doi-org./10.4187/respcare.04610 (Links to an external site.) THIRD POST Pressure ulcers are a prevalent hospital-acquired condition. Schellack (2020) describes a pressure ulcer as skin breakdown common among immobile patients. Pressure ulcers are also known as decubitus ulcers. Incontinence can make a person more susceptible to developing a pressure ulcer. Pressure ulcers are more common among the elderly. Pressure ulcers are caused by direct pressure on the skin. Pressure ulcers are often preventable and usually occur during a patient’s hospital stay classifying them as a hospital-acquired condition. Smith et al. (2018) discusses the economic impact of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). In the United States, pressure ulcers can cost an estimated nine to eleven billion dollars. Once a person develops a stage 3 or stage 4 pressure ulcer, it is a long and difficult process to heal it. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Non-Payment Policy influences resources for providing care. Padula et al. (2015) states that the nonpayment policy was proposed after CMS declared they would no longer reimburse hospitals for costs related to hospital-acquired conditions. Padula et al. (2015) studied the incidence of HAPUs in hospitals since the policy was enacted and found HAPU incidence decreased significantly. Hospitals have made a greater effort at preventing HAIs since the CMS Non-Payment was passed. The CMS Non-Payment Policy can have a negative effect on hospitals’ care. If CMS refuses to pay for HAIs hospitals have to take care of the cost themselves and that takes away from the hospitals funding which ultimately affects the care they can provide to their patients. A policy that supports the reduction of hospital-acquired conditions is a pressure ulcer preventative initiative called Deal with Heels. Birkil (2020) discusses how heels are the second most common site for pressure ulcers to occur. The Deal with Heels initiative was a project that was implemented across inpatient settings to reduce heel pressure ulcer prevalence. Over the three-year period, the project reduced incidence of pressure ulcers by 80%. The main focus of the initiative is education so the master’s prepared nurse can promote it by educating his or her patients on pressure ulcer prevention. Educating staff nurses on preventing pressure ulcers is very effective so the master’s prepared nurse can promote the Deal with Heels initiative by training and teaching the staff nurses about the plan.ReferencesBirkill, K. (2020). Deal with heels: a pressure ulcer prevention initiative. British Journal of Community Nursing, 25(3), S6–S10. https://doi-org./10.12968/bjcn.2020.25.Sup3.S6 (Links to an external site.)Padula, W., Makic, M., Wald, H., Campbell, J., Nair, K., Mishra, M., & Valuck, R. (2015) Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers at academic medical centers in the United States, 2008–2012: Tracking changes since the CMS Nonpayment Policy. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 41(6), 257-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(15)41035-9 (Links to an external site.)Schellack, G. (2020). Basic staging and colour-coding for pressure ulcer management. Professional Nursing Today, 24(2), 22–25.Smith, S., Snyder, A., McMahon Jr., L. F., Petersen, L., & Meddings, J. (2018). Success in hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevention: A tale in two data sets. Health Affairs, 37(11), 1787–1796. https://doi-org.ezproxylocal.library.nova.edu/10.1…
Nova Southeastern University New Medicine for The US Health Care System Discussion
Identify and formulate a research question/hypothesis
essay writing help Identify and formulate a research question/hypothesis.
● Identify a viable project or thesis topic.
● Formulate a project or thesis research question.
● Develop valuable insights into the research topics.In this Assignment, you need to formulate a research question/hypothesis or project theme
that you will expand as your capstone research. It is necessary to accomplish this part early
during the session to give the Approval Committee enough time to approve or propose an
alternative topic. Submit your research proposal with at least five journal articles published
within the last two years or industry publications (industry publications can be older than two
years if they addressed standards) that would support your research question or project. In
your journal publications and industry publications, identify relevant paragraphs or synthesize
the relevant thoughts or gaps to support your research choice. **The research question/hypothesis is.. that automation and unmanned technology, such as self-driving cars, will expose a large arena of cyber threats that we may have some difficulty with in the near future. **500 words or more. APA style.
Identify and formulate a research question/hypothesis
The Required Multicultural Competence: Values and Misunderstandings Report
Our interaction with individuals from different backgrounds is always a great challenge if a person does not have the required multicultural competence. It is a common thing for an individual to hold certain biases, attitudes, beliefs and perspectives in our interaction with culturally deferent individuals (Long, 2006). Participation in groups and places of work entirely depends on our multicultural competence. Conflicting values and misunderstandings that result from cultural differences are a great hindrance to positive human relationships (Long, 2006). Cross-cultural differences can cause confusion at the workplace and in the process affect the performance of employees. The attitudes and perspectives of an individual are in most cases defined by their cultural backgrounds. Positive multicultural interactions are very critical in the formation of partnerships (Bochner, 1982). It is important to have some level of understanding of the cultures for you to have a rational view on certain issues. Many people stereotype ideas from culturally different individuals as a result of generalization (Bochner, 1982). There is a tendency to dismiss ideas from a culturally different individual and pay attention to ideas contributed by a person from your culture. Many people assume that their way of communication is the right one compared to how people from different cultures communicate (Bochner, 1982). Many people portray a lot of bias when it comes to cross-cultural communication. We always blame individuals from different cultures incase of a communication breakdown. It is very difficult for us to listen attentively to culturally different individuals because of the pre-conceived attitude that they can not tell us anything useful (Brislin, 1981). We always want individuals from a different cultural background to agree with our views without any kind of opposition. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We are always reluctant to come out of our comfort zones and accept divergent opinions. Individuals have their choices that need to be respected but many people are very unwilling to respect the choices of culturally different individuals (Brislin, 1981). Most of the cultural biases are normally caused by language differences. We tend to have a negative attitude towards people who do not speak the same language with us (Brislin, 1981). There is always a tendency to believe that our own culture is superior to other cultures. We always believe that other cultures are abnormal and our very own culture is the only normal one. It is common for us to believe that the way our cultural group behaves is the only standard of human behavior (Halverson, 2008). We tend to value people form our own cultural group compared to those form other cultural groups. It is evident from this discussion that people always hold certain biases, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions in their interaction with culturally different individuals (Halverson, 2008). Attitudes and perceptions influence a person’s interaction with culturally different individuals (Halverson, 2008). Communication is very critical in any kind of interactions and any wrong attitudes and perceptions always lead to a communication breakdown. People from different cultures have their unique communication styles that need to be accepted by both parties for any meaningful interaction to take place (Halverson, 2008). It is difficult to interact with a culturally different individual if you are not willing to accommodate their communication styles. Different cultural groups have different attitudes when it comes to conflicts (Long, 2006). Some cultural groups view conflicts as undesirable while others accept conflicts as a positive thing. It is a great challenge for individuals from different groups to interact well if their attitude towards conflicts is different. We will write a custom Report on The Required Multicultural Competence: Values and Misunderstandings specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflicts are part of our daily interactions and the way we view them affects how we interact with each other (Long, 2006). The attitude of a person towards relationship formation is influenced in a great way by their cultural background. An individual’s attitude towards relationship formation determines how they interact with others within a group (Long, 2006). People from different cultures pursue relationships differently and any conflicting perceptions will definitely affect interactions in a negative way. Positive interactions within a group can only occur if the individuals within the group have a certain level of multicultural competence (Baldock, 2010). There are some cultures that prefer consensus when it comes to making decisions while other cultures believe in the opinion of the majority. The attitude of feeling superior compared to culturally different individuals affects interactions in a very negative way (Baldock, 2010). A positive interaction takes place when two individuals from different backgrounds interact freely on equal terms without any kind of prejudice. People from different cultural groups have different attitudes and believes towards information disclosure (Brislin, 1981). Some cultures allow individuals to be frank with their emotion and do not find anything wrong in people disclosing their personal information in the course of their interactions with others. It is difficult for an individual from such a background to interact with a person who is not used to sharing his or her personal information (Brislin, 1981). A person’s attitude towards disclosure will definitely affect their interaction with other people. Avery open person tends to interact well with another open person and the same applies to discrete people. It is difficult for individuals with opposing attitudes towards disclosure to have a meaningful interaction. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Required Multicultural Competence: Values and Misunderstandings by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to note that two individuals from different cultural backgrounds can only interact freely if they are willing to adopt cross-cultural attitudes and perceptions (Bochner, 1982). An individual’s level of knowledge on values, practices and experiences of different cultures determines whether they will have healthy multi-cultural interactions or not. My level of knowledge on other cultures is reasonable enough to enable me interact freely with culturally different individuals (Long, 2006). I have some knowledge on multi-cultural communication and interaction that can enable me relate well with culturally different individuals. My understanding of a variety of communication styles and languages makes things easier for me when it comes to multicultural interactions. Interacting with people from different cultural backgrounds has its strengths and weaknesses (Long, 2006). Multicultural interactions enhance the performance of group projects because members from different cultural backgrounds can work freely without any barriers. The other strength of multicultural interactions is that they enable an individual to appreciate cultural diversities and form cross-cultural relationships. The major weakness of multicultural interactions is that people might forget their cultural identities and at the same time eliminate the beauty of diversity (Baldock, 2010). Having a balanced approach when it comes to multicultural interactions is the best way of dealing with the shortcomings of multicultural interactions. It is not advisable to completely forget about your own cultural identity while interacting with culturally different individuals (Baldock, 2010). It is important to look for proper interpretation of different cultural norms before coming up with wrong interpretations and perceptions. A person should also focus on other attributes such as the personality and education of a culturally different individual as a way of avoiding cultural stereotypes (Long, 2006). References Baldock, P. (2010). Understanding cultural diversity in the early years. New York, NY: SAGE. Bochner, S. (1982). Cultures in contact: Studies in cross-cultural interaction. London: Pergamon Press. Brislin, R. (1981). Cross-cultural encounters, face-to-face interaction. London: Pergamon Press. Halverson, C. (2008). Effective multicultural teams: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Springer. Long, R. (2006). Stepping out into cross-cultural interactions. New York, NY: Lulu.com.
Crimes in the United States Essay (Critical Writing)
Crime has been increasing over the years within the American society and the world over. People are forced to live in fear of falling victims to various crimes whereby they can be robbed, injured or killed. There are numerous ways which have been adopted in dealing with crime. This paper explores the various aspects that have been embraced in dealing with crime problems. Crime has been blamed on various aspects, but it is believed that the family background plays a great role is determining the deviant behavior of individuals. In this respect, it can be asserted that individuals who have been raised in dysfunctional families or from environments that do not foster good behavior are likely to develop criminal behavior. Therefore, it can be argued that crime problems in the society can be addressed by focusing on the root cause of the problem. The crimes being witnessed in the United States cannot comprehensively be solved through the implementation of stricter gun control or by incarcerating criminal offenders. The criminal problem can be resolved through socialization process, in which the young members of the American society can be taught on the righteous ways. Since socialization occurs at home and in school among other institutions, the parents and teachers have a big role to play in curbing the problems associated with crime. The family is the primary social institution which should play a vital role in shaping the characters of individuals. In most instances, parents do not have enough time for children. The children are exposed to dangerous programs in the media including the television and computer games. Other children are left to play with their peers from where they learn criminal behavior. The children who are left uncared for find solace in criminal gangs which act like their second homes. Therefore, the problem can be well addressed by emphasizing on good family and institutional socialization. Criminals and other deviants who break the established laws have to be dealt with in an appropriate manner so as not to repeat their offense, and serve as a deterrent to other members of the society. In this respect, law breakers have to be taken away from society and punished for their actions. Though these people need to be punished, there is need to give them a second opportunity in the society. Therefore, it is important to rehabilitate them to become productive members of the society. However, before they are released back to society, they should be thoroughly vetted to determine if they have truly reformed. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prison system as it is in the United States has to be improved, and emphasis should be put on corrective as opposed to retributive measures. In this regard, the prisons should be used in reforming criminals and make them productive to the society. The prisons should focus on imparting useful skills and changing the mindset of the criminals. This will enable them become readily accepted in the society after serving their terms. Most of the criminals have had a difficult background that led them to become what they are. In such cases, the prison has to help the criminals and integrate them back in the society. There is no doubt that crime is a growing problem across the world. Since the United States is a world leader in many aspects, it has to set a trend in addressing crime which will be emulated by other countries.
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