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Borderline Personality Disorder in Female Patients Report (Assessment)

Table of Contents Introduction: Background and Essential Information Practice Description: Patients and Their Concerns Practice Evaluation: Performance and Communication What Has Been Learned: The Information Acquired in the Process New Skills and Abilities: Developing Crucial Habits Opportunities to Pursue: The Course for the Further Progress Conclusion: Retrospect and Implications for the Further Practice Works Cited Introduction: Background and Essential Information Personality disorders rank among the mental issues that are currently on the rise, according to the statement made by the National Institute of Mental Health (National Institute of Mental Health). The Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) can be deemed as one of the most common occurrences that, nevertheless, lead to significant negative implications (Goodman et al. 112). The fact that female patients are affected by the disorder shows that there is a specific vulnerable population whose needs must be addressed accordingly (Bertsch et al. 426). Therefore, there is an urgent need in exploring the subject matter closer so that new strategies for addressing it could be designed successfully. The practice carried out at Cambian Alders Clinic (CAC), Gloucester, UK has shown that the promotion of self-management among patients, as well as the use of the Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT), is overly exaggerated as far as its success in managing BPD is concerned. (Andreasson et al. 522). Therefore, the experience can be viewed as the crucial step toward developing a new and improved approach toward improving patient outcomes. In retrospect, the experience that I had at the hospital was twofold. On the one hand, it pointed to the areas on which I had to work in order to improve my skills. On the other hand, it provided a deeper insight into the problems that the contemporary strategies of managing the BPD in women had, therefore, shedding light on how I could possibly contribute to the improvement of the target area as a healthcare expert. Therefore, the practice that I had at CAC served as the foundation for my further evolution as a healthcare provider. Practice Description: Patients and Their Concerns As a Mental Health Support Worker (MHSW) at CAC, I had to carry out the suggested healthcare plans for women with BPD, as well as monitor the changes in the patients’ behaviour and report the observed phenomena to the therapist so that the appropriate actions could be taken. Furthermore, active promotion of physical and mental well-being was necessary along with active us of a patient-centred care approach. Thus, the foundation for significant improvements in the quality of mental care could be created, and more satisfactory patient outcomes could be achieved. The observations carried out during the practice at CAC have shown that the application of DBT has not led to significant improvements in the target are. Particularly, the female patients suffering from BPD have not gained the required degree of independence as far as the choice of the appropriate behaviours is concerned, nor did they get rid of their suicidal tendencies (Gratz et al. 31). While their situation did not aggravate after the application of the said approach, the same support techniques of the same intensity had to be provided to prevent the incidences of suicide among the target population. Regular counselling and psychological assistance were offered to the target population, yet the patients remained at the same stage of BPD development, requiring more efficient strategies (Biskin and Paris 1791). It was also suggested that the Schema-Focused Therapy (SFT) as the basis for improving the outcomes among patients with BPD was bound to lead to better effects (Malogiannis et al. 322). The fact that the identified approach allows creating a treatment package shows that it may possibly trigger positive long-term effects. Therefore, the identified strategy needs further studies, as the practice outcomes have shown (Leichsenring et al. 364). Practice Evaluation: Performance and Communication In retrospect, the practice carried out at CAC was quite successful. For instance, the essential tasks that I had to complete as the MHSW were accomplished accordingly. Particularly, the process of patient monitoring was carried out efficiently with the help of appropriate tools (i.e., close supervision, detailed records of the patients’ behaviour, analysis of the key trends in the behavioural changes, etc.). Furthermore, the provision of the daily care for the target population also met the set quality standards. Particularly, the quality of the patients’ lives was set at the appropriately high level by providing them with support and helping them accomplish their daily activities such as bathing, eating, and movement, in a more general sense (Sanchez and Moges 187). There were also several instances of physical violence which were addressed accordingly and managed successfully. Particularly, the patients were provided with second-generation antipsychotics along with extensive therapy so that the opportunities for controlling further instances of aggression could become a possibility. The refusal from the traditional first-generation sedatives as the primary tool for controlling the patients’ actions can be viewed as a significant step forward and the chance to provide the patients with a certain amount of independence. As a result, a more successful management of mental disorders became possible in the environment of CAC (Lacey et al. 4). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, putting a stronger emphasis on the role of families in therapy sessions carried out in the context of the hospital could be considered an essential step in promoting a faster recovery. Therefore, overall, the practice can be considered rather successful. One must mention, though, that there were some problems such as the failure to take the cultural specifics of the patients’ background into account when implementing the intervention. For instance, in case of an African American patient, the significance of family ties as an important cultural characteristic was omitted, leading to a prolonged therapy (Harper et al. 18). What Has Been Learned: The Information Acquired in the Process My experience at CAC provided a deep insight into the job of an MHSW and shed a lot of light on the issue of managing patients’ needs. Particularly, I have realised that every single case needs to be addressed with the patient’s unique cultural background in mind. The significance of understanding the target population’s culture is crucial since it informs the MHSW about the tools that can be used to promote a faster recovery of the patient and determines the choice of a particular strategy (Barksdale et al. 371). Furthermore, the importance of family and community support has been revealed during my practice as an MHSW in the CAC environment. While the gravity of failing to invite family members to participate in the patient’s recovery process has been known or quite a while, the importance of the community support still needed to be tested (Pang et al. 35). The practice, in its turn, served as a perfect tool for proving that the community support and assistance, in fact, creates the foundation for a faster recovery of the patient (McGorry et al. 10). Finally, the necessity to promote cooperation among healthcare providers in the environment of a specific facility has become evident to me while I was performing as an MHSW in CAC. A range of processes occurring in the identified setting, from patient handovers to the provision of interventions, required that a significant amount of data, including the patient’s personal information, should be transferred from one healthcare expert to another. Therefore, there was a consistent need in deploying the tools that could allow for handoff communication, storing the relevant data, transferring it successfully, etc. My practice at CAC, therefore, showed that it was imperative to introduce modern IT tools, such as corporate networks and IT devices to improve the quality of data management (Berzin et al. 5). New Skills and Abilities: Developing Crucial Habits In the course of the practice, I have developed a range of new skills and abilities. For instance, I have gained the ability to engage in active listening. Working with mental health patients, I realised that it was crucial to take active part in the process of listening to the target audience. Thus, the necessity to develop the appropriate skills emerged. As a result, I have acquired the ability to prompt people to start a conversation, express their ideas, fears, and concerns, etc. (Gallagher et al. 3). The decision-making skills have also been improved significantly over the course of working at CAC. For instance, I am capable of identifying the relevant factors and passing my judgment to address a particular problem much faster than it used to take me several months ago. As a result, the needs of the target population can be met within a much shorter amount of time, leading to improved patient outcomes (Orza et al. 58). Finally, the ability to engage in active learning should be viewed as one of the essential skills learned in the course of practice at CAC. There is no secret that every case is unique, and experience defines the success of MHSW’s efforts to a considerable degree. By focusing on acquiring new knowledge and skills on a regular basis, I started engaging in lifelong learning, thus, building a profound basis for further professional development (Lubben et al. 3). We will write a custom Assessment on Borderline Personality Disorder in Female Patients specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opportunities to Pursue: The Course for the Further Progress Wirth the acquisition of new skills, I got a chance at exploring new opportunities as an MHSW. Particularly, the possibility of continuing my professional development by practicing the newly acquired skills in the identified healthcare setting deserves to be mentioned. Equipped with the knowledge and abilities acquired during the previous practice, I am now fully capable of applying the said skills to solve new and more challenging dilemmas faced by MHSWs in the context of a healthcare facility. For instance, I can resolve the problems associated with managing the needs of female patients with mental issues more efficiently (Diamond et al. 431). Furthermore, the chances to explore the cultural specifics of the target patients and the way in which these characteristics affect the application of various healthcare practices need to be listed among other opportunities. With a significant amount of knowledge about the role of multiculturalism in meeting the requirements of female mental patients, I will be capable of providing the interventions that will lead to a gradual improvement of patient outcomes. Thus, a more efficient framework for managing the target population’s needs will be created. Finally, I feel that the experience described above served as a powerful impetus for the further learning, Therefore, I am positive about the idea of lifelong learning as the foundation for my future career. The opportunity to explore new horizons in mental healthcare excites me, and I feel compelled to study the target area with even greater diligence. I feel that, being equipped with the new concept of lifelong learning as the basis for addressing the needs of a diverse population, I will be able to make a difference in the area of female mental healthcare (Morrison et al. 8). Conclusion: Retrospect and Implications for the Further Practice Promoting improvement in the area of mental healthcare and growing professionally is a challenging task, yet practice outcomes can serve as the guide in the identification of further goals and milestones. In my case, working at CAC and MHSW became the basis for identifying my further development as lifelong learning and consistent acquisition of the relevant skills. The reason for the identified objective concerns the necessity to meet the high-quality standards of the contemporary multicultural healthcare environment. Moreover, the practice at CAC proved that it was crucial to develop the communication skills that would compel the target population to share their concerns with the MHSW. By engaging in active listening, one can convince the patient to confide in the MHSW, thus, creating a bond that will, later on, become the foundation for a successful therapy. The significance of community and especially family support should also be listed among the key insights of the practice. Although the concept itself is not new, the importance of helping the patient build a connection with the community members is often overlooked, and the family members often do not have the skills required to engage the patient in the process of regaining social skills. The collaboration between the MHSW, the family members, and the community, therefore, must be viewed as the foundation for a successful intervention and the further improvement of patient outcomes. Thus, the experience at CAC was truly inspiring. It became a significant step on my way to becoming an MHSW and allowed me to gain not only the relevant skills and knowledge but also confidence necessary to assist female patients with mental health concerns. Works Cited Andreasson, Kate, et al. “Effectiveness of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy Versus Collaborative Assessment and MANAGEMENT of Suicidality Treatment For Reduction of Self-Harm in Adults with Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder – A Randomized Observer-Blinded Clinical Trial.” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 33, no. 6, 2016, pp. 520-530. Barksdale, Crystal L., et al. “Addressing Disparities in Mental Health Agencies: Strategies to Implement the National CLAS Standards in Mental Health.” Psychological Services, vol. 11, no. 4, 2014, pp. 369 –376. doi::10.1037/a0035211 Not sure if you can write a paper on Borderline Personality Disorder in Female Patients by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bertsch, Katja, et al. “Reduced Plasma Oxytocin Levels in Female Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder.” Hormones and Behaviour, vol. 63, no. 3, 2013, 424-429. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.11.013 Berzin, Stephanie C., et al. Practice Innovation through Technology in the Digital Age: A Grand Challenge for Social Work. American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare, 2015. Biskin, Robert S., and Joel Paris. “Diagnosing Borderline Personality Disorder.” CMAJ, vol. 184, no. 16, 2012, pp. 1789–1794. doi:10.1503/cmaj.090618 Diamond, Diana, et al. “Attachment and Mentalization in Female Patients with Comorbid Narcissistic and Borderline Personality Disorder.” Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, vol. 5, no. 4, 2014, pp. 428–433. doi:10.1037/per0000065 Gallagher, Elizabeth, et al. “How can Community Residential Services Effectively Support Adults with Intellectual Disabilities who Present with Challenging Behaviour and/or Mental Health Problems?” Austin Journal of Nursing
Anthropology homework help. Using a client (individual, couple, family, and group) from your field placements provide a case conceptualization of the presenting problem and the MI/CBT interventions utilized.,Conceptualization of the presenting problem and the MI/CBT interventions,Using a client (individual, couple, family, and group) from your field placements provide a case conceptualization of the presenting problem and the MI/CBT interventions utilized. This paper has two sections (Assessment and Application) but should be considered as one paper with a total of 6-8 pages.,A. Assessment section. ,Outline your case study and offer a case formulation and conceptualization from an MI/ICT/CBT perspective., Include in your assessment:, ·         Biospychosocial information and pertinent history, including demographics such as age, gender, orientation, race, SES, health status, etc.,·         Assessment of key issues should be included. If you have used any assessment measures please identify them and provide the rating (e.g., the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Key issues should include a section on strengths of the client, and section on issues/concerns, and the nature of the referral for treatment or care.,·        Also, Case conceptualization- discuss the origin of the target problems/issues using a CBT lens. Summarize the pertinent history and precipitating factors concerning the presenting problems(s).  Please provide three MEASURABLE goals.  PLEASE REMEMBER TO WRITE THIS PAPER IN A NARRATIVE FORM AND NOT “LIST” THINGS.,Finally, this section should be 3-4 pages.,B. Application section (1-2 pages) ,Include which MI and CBT methods you have applied to your case. Please be specific and explain why you used that method and what evidence base you have with at least 3-5 research citations supporting the efficacy or effectiveness of this intervention method for the problem you are working on.,Presenting Problem;, Karen Bonner is a 28-year old woman who has been married for years with two children (boys aged 4 and 6. Karen grew up in a decent household with both parents, father was a doctor and a mother was a housewife. According to Karen, her father was abusive to her mother and as such her mother turned to drug use and started abusing and neglecting Karen and her two siblings. Karen has been doing drugs secretly while also cheating on her husband. She is still an amazing mother to her children, but she is afraid she is turning into her mother. She said everything was great until her husband, a surgeon started keeping late nights and started using harsh words on her. Lastly, the client explains she feels different, her mood is all over the place and she believes she is depressed.,These are the assessment instruments use d (feel free to add more), Mood disorder Questionaire (MDQ), ,The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), PHQ…..,Additionally, PLEASE USE YOUR IMAGINATION FOR THIS CREATIVE WRITING PIECE. If my presented problem does not work for you please create your own BUT PLEASE follow the prompt for both parts.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Anthropology homework help

CSU Learning a Second Language and Alzheimers Disease Prevalence Essay

CSU Learning a Second Language and Alzheimers Disease Prevalence Essay.

Answer this question and make the paper about it as well: “What is the association between learning a second language and Alzheimer’s Disease prevalence?”Main Objective of Term Paper:1) Explore in-depth your personal interest in Gerontology2) Demonstrate expertise in that specific area in Gerontology. Ask a question that pertains to Gerontology, then provide “an answer” using empirical results from professional publications. Peer-reviewed literature from other scientific domains may be used (e.g., developmental psychology, personality/social psychology, health, community, medicine & nursing (palliative care), public policy).Length: 3-5 pages· Three articles from professional journals that report research studies (not popular magazines or webpages)· APA Format: Introduction: Explain why you chose your research question and why it is an important one. Provide a basic overview of the topic (i.e., definitions, where might you encounter topic in life, frequency of topic, general research done on topic). Provide a hypothesis of what you expect to find.Method: State the type of experiments/studies that were conducted in each of the publications used. What questions were asked? What was being measured? How was it being measured? How will the methods provide answers to your question? Who did they sample? For instance, 200 undergraduate students from a liberal arts college were surveyed. Likert scales surveys were used to measure well-being, a higher score meant more positive sense of well-being; the participants were judged by three independent observers for anxious behaviors, the higher the rating meant that they were exhibiting greater anxious behaviors according to the judges.Results and Discussion: Explain the results and discuss them. What is your interpretation of the results? How does everything fit together? What did you learn? What did you gather from results? Where there any surprises? The results and discussion should be “the bulk” of your paper. Add whatever you think is appropriate to support how you formulated your conclusions.Limitations and Future Suggestions: Discuss any limitations encountered by the studies you reviewed in your paper. Provide suggestions about the possible future implications of the research and what can be improved upon. Suggest a more “ideal” future study that would fill in some hole in knowledge.Conclusion: Short synopsis of what you learned (about a paragraph).References and APA Format: Cite all references used (APA format)..doc file | APA | Research Paper | 4 pages, Double spaced
CSU Learning a Second Language and Alzheimers Disease Prevalence Essay

Due Date: Wednesday, December 8th by 11:59pm Length: 6-8 pages Sources: 4-5 Scholarly Articles from JSTOR Format: MLA (Times

python assignment help Due Date: Wednesday, December 8th by 11:59pm Length: 6-8 pages Sources: 4-5 Scholarly Articles from JSTOR Format: MLA (Times New Roman font, 12 point, Works Cited etc.) Topic: Select one of the writers from the Declan Kiberd article, “The Empire Writes Back”. Research and write an essay which characterizes the writer’s use of literary English in the context of decolonization. Articles:

The Dowry By Guy De Maupassant English Literature Essay

In The Dowry, the action of Maitre Simon Lebrument was married Mademoiselle Jeanne Cordier is because he want the dowry to pay for the practice of Maitre Papillon. The practice is already buy but he had no money to pay for it. Then, the purpose of that marriage is state clearly in the text. This statement show that the story is textually explicit. Story Structure Theme In “The Dowry” by Guy de Maupassant, raised the story with related to the money. Three hundred thousand francs be as an expansion story. The theme established in this story is thematic patterning which distribute the concept of a story and a moralistic motif among the various incidents happens as a frame of a story. “MaitreLebrument had bought out the practice of MaitrePapillon; naturally, he had to have money to pay for it; and Mademoiselle Jeanne Cordier had three hundred thousand francs clear in currency, and in bonds payable to bearer.”(pg 1, line 1) The explicit theme around the story make the reader easily relates the flow of story and can determine the causes incidents happen. The minor theme we can found in this story is about love betrayed. Love betrayed is proved when a husband just leave his wife in the trip for the honeymoon, the true love can’t do this thing during honeymoon time. “I say that he has disappeared with your–your capital–that’s all!” She stood there, a prey to conflicting emotions, sobbing. “Then he is–he is–he is a villain!” And,faint from excitement, she leaned her head on her cousin’s shoulder and wept Character Character developed by the author in this story is flat because each character is drawn through the exterior appearance. The main character for this story is Maitre Simon Lebrument and Mademoiselle Jeanne Cordier. Maitre Simon Lebrument is a man with a pleasant appearance level. Have a high charm and style. He used his good appearance to get what he needs in his life. His character plays a role to expend the story. “MaitreLebrument was a handsome man. He was stylish, although in a provincial way; but, nevertheless, he was stylish–a rare thing at Boutigny-le-Rebours.” (pg 1, line 5) Mademoiselle Jeanne Cordier, known as Jeanne is honest and innocent girl. Her character was describe “was graceful and fresh-looking, although a trifle awkward; nevertheless, she was a handsome girl, and one to be desired.” (pg 1, line 7) She is a caring women where she treat her husband in gently and romantic way. “She would sit on his knees, and taking him by the ears she would say: “Open your mouth and shut your eyes.” (pg 1, line 16) Plot Starting with the wedding ceremony as an initiating event attract the reader to explore and continues the reading. The wedding ceremonies with young couple and the message for the first paragraph give the big question marked to reader to continue the reading and to aims what the story is talked about. “The marriage of Maitre Simon Lebrument with Mademoiselle Jeanne Cordier was a surprise to no one.” (pg 1, line 1) A rising action develop when the couple on trip to honeymoon in chronological order to give flow to the story. When the couple at the middle of their trip in front of the Saint-Lazare Station, his husband starts his agenda to trick his wife. “Oh! yes. Let’s eat at the restaurant. Is it far?” He answered: “Yes, it’s quite a distance, but we will take the omnibus.” (pg 2, line 24) The point of climax show when the bus conductor cry out to Jeanne whether she want to stop at Vaugirard or not. It’s make Jeanne realize that only herself who is left on the bus. “Little by little all the passengers left. She was left alone, all alone. The conductor cried: “Vaugirard!” Seeing that she did not move, he repeated: “Vaugirard!” (pg 4, line 4) Resolution part created when Henry, Jeanne’s cousins analyze the problem and make his conclusion that make it cleared to Jeanne what was happen to herself. “Well, my dear cousin, by this time your husband must be well on his way to Belgium.” She could not understand. She kept repeating: “My husband–you say–“ “I say that he has disappeared with your–your capital–that’s all!” She stood there, a prey to conflicting emotions, sobbing.” (pg 6, line 13) Style The language is a classical language where there is evident as there are a few words such as”tete-a-tete”, “to-morrow”and writer describe Jeanne as handsome girl “she was a handsome girl”. A proverb was used as a motto. “Everything comes to him who waits.” (pg 1, line 13) MaitreLebrument was described as men who will get what he wants and do not give up easily. There is also have some figurative language and simile word describe by conductor such as “You can find ten men for every one that you lose. Now run along. You’ll find another one somewhere.”. (pg 4, line 27) Literary Criticism 1 (Plot) In “The Dowry”, Guy de Maupassant uses the climax to make this story interesting. Is it the climax is interesting? So, based on our reading, the climax makes people who read this story will continue read until the end. “On the top! There hasn’t been anybody there for a long time” (pg 4, line 23) will makes people shocked during read this story. A lot of questions will have in mind. Why Maitre Lebrument left his wife? Did he forget about his wife? What will happen to Jeanne? All the questions make we cannot wait to know the ending of this story. We want to know what happened actually. So, we think that the climax is interesting. It can make our emotions change suddenly. Especially when the conductor said, “A big portfolio! Oh, yes! He got off at the Madeleine. He got rid of you, all right! Ha! Ha! Ha!” (pg 5, line 6). This part makes our heart beats so fast. Why? Why? Why? This questions have always in our mind. Then, we will start making an assumptions. In positive thinking, maybe Maitre Lebrument have emergency that make him had to leave his wife. In negative thinking, maybe Maitre Lebrument are forced to married with Jeanne. Maybe he does not love Jeanne and already have woman that he really loves. But, how about the ending of this story. Is it interesting? Is it makes people who read this story satisfied? We do not think so. The ending is bored. It makes our emotions fall down. When we read the climax, we become so excited, but when we read the ending, we will said, “That’s it only? How about Maitre Lebrument?” The ending does not answer all the questions when we read the climax. It only tells about Jeanne who was very sad and disappointed when she knows that her husband is villain. “And, faint from excitement, she learned her head on her cousin’s shoulder and wept” (pg 6, line 19). It does not tells us about Maitre Lebrument. What happened to him when he left his wife? Maybe, the author should extend slightly the ending of this story. Maybe, Maitre Lebrument also has been cheated by the person who sell the practice to him. This will show the reciprocation to him for the bad things that he does to his wife. So, people who read this story will more satisfied with this ending eventhough it is cliche but it is want by people. Literary Criticism 2 (Character) In this short story, we would like to criticize some of the main characters who is Maitre Simon Lebrument (husband). According to the motto of his life “Everything Come to him who waits” could describe her attitude which he will do anything for pleasure in his life; he did not emphasize the values ​​needed in life as a husband and wife, even with his wife. As a husband and wife, must have the spirit of love and affection among each other. We also think that her husband is a cruel who was willing to exploit the wife for her pleasure and solve the problems faced by it. Supposed occurrence of a marriage based on love is not as an evil agenda. At the beginning of their marriage her husband has not shown the good attitude as her husband to his wife where the wife should expect from a husband. How are the bad husband who planned the honeymoon with his where it is a beautiful dream of a married couple, but it became something bad and sadness for Jeanne Cordier Modemoiselle which abandoned on the bus alone by her husband. Maitre Simon is useless husband because she dared to leave her unattended and go with “The Dowry” 300 thousand France. He takes advantage of the softness and weakness Modemoiselle Jeanne Cordier who have never protested and complained about her husband’s behaviours bothered. For me he is a coward and a husband should not be eligible to become a husband who should have been the role of a husband is to protect his wife, but not for exploit it. He is no humanitarian nature in himself, his life were to him only, not for anybody else. He is very greedy and selfish people without thinking others who always thinks of himself and love himself. Conclusion In conclusion, the story telling about an honest wife was cheated by her own husband. At the beginning, she did not realized her husband have another purpose in their married. After all the things happened, she know that her husband not honest in their relationship because that man only want her money. The moral of the story is, do not believed other person fully although he or she is very close to you.

The Example Of Monopolistic Competition

1.0 Introduction Monopoly refers to there is no competition and therefore the supplier has a very high degree of pricing power. In addition, monopoly also is a situation in which a single organization or group owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service. Besides, it also contains several characteristic, example and diagram in monopoly market. In addition, there are four common types in competition free market which is perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly. There are different meaning, features and examples in these four common types in a market. 2.0 Monopoly A monopoly is when there are many buyers but there is only one seller that controls the supply of a product and its price. This allows the supplier to charge higher prices than if there was competition. Burkett, John P. (n.d, pg345) states that if a product has no close substitutes and a single seller, economists say that its market is a monopoly and its seller is a monopolist. Monopoly is like a market structure in which one company sells a special product into which entry is blocked in which the single firm has considerable control over product price. So, consumer has no option and choice to buy their product and service. There is few government agencies keep the formation of monopoly under control, especially in markets such as cable companies like Tenaga National and media. 2.1Characteristics of Monopoly Monopoly market structure is having a one seller of a product which has no close substitutes. The characteristics of a monopoly market are as follow: 2.1.1 Single Seller There is only one seller in a monopoly market. The seller controls the supply of a product and decides the product price. Besides, a monopolistic also control over the entire market because there is a single particular services in the market accruing to a rather large number of buyers. 2.1.2 Unique Product without close substitutes In a monopoly market, their product and service are special and unique. They have their own idea and design for the product and service. All the units of a product are similar and there are no substitutes to that commodity in the company. The organization gains control over the market by offering a product or service that is not same with other. The company may use specialized information such as copyrights and trademarks in order to establish legal authority over the production of certain goods and services. 2.1.3 Barriers to Entry Normally monopoly situation in a market can continue only when other firms do not enter the industry. Barriers to entry places limits on new company that inhibits its operating and expanding within the market. Each barrier is strong enough to discourage or prevent any would-be competitors from entering its market. Therefore, a monopoly presents barriers and circumstances that prevent entry into the market by potential competitors. The barriers may even be statutory in that the firm to take benefit of copyrights, tariffs and trade restrictions and others. If want continue the monopoly market should not be no entry for new firms. 2.1.4 Profit in the Long Run The seller can earn more profit as he / she can if there is no any fear of competitive seller in the monopoly market. In other hand, if the seller gets abnormal profits in the long run, he / she cannot be removed from this position. However, this is not possible under perfect competition. If abnormal profits are available to a competitive firm, other firms will enter the competition with the result abnormal profits will be eliminated. 2.1.5 Price Discrimination The seller can change the price and quality of the product. He sells more quantities charging fewer prices for the product in a very elastic market and if sells less quantities charging high price in a less elastic market. 2.2 Diagram of Monopoly [profit maximising monopolist.jpg] The diagram above shows the graph of monopoly. Ac stand for average cost, MC stand for marginal cost, MR stand for marginal revenue, P1