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The heavier the burden, the closer our lives come to the earth, the more real and truthful they become. Conversely, the absolute absence of a burden causes man to be lighter than air, to soar into the heights, take leave of the earth and his earthly being, and become only half real, his movements as free as they are insignificant. What then shall we choose? Weight or lightness? (Bashkow, 64). Ira Bashkow brilliantly captures what it means to be an Orakaiva from Papa New Guinea in his book, The Meaning of Whitemen: Race & Modernity in the Orokaiva Cultural World.

As a response to the influences of post-colonialism, globalization, and modernity, the Orakaiva have constructed a unique perspective of white men as travelers with no sense of moral code. Stationed in Papa New Guinea, Bashkow engages in day to day activities with local Orakaiva people to investigate the complexities surrounding the social construction of race; and what it means specifically to be a “whiteman(men)”. Bashkow, in his findings, is less interested in understanding what it means to physically possess a white skin color, but rather, how the Orakaiva stereotype the whiteman as a foil to make sense of their own morality.

Bashkow spends a majority of his book drawing on differences between the Orakaiva and Whitemen through the indigenous Orakaiva lens. As he explains, many Orakaiva place an emphasis on being physically “hardened” and psychologically “heavy” by the social responsibilities of everyday life. These responsibilities range from the laborious agricultural/farm work required to prepare daily meals to the communal ideals of reciprocity. As the Orokaiva believe, social ties and debts between people establish a sense of heaviness to the land which reinforces the idea of being grounded in earthly relations.

Conversely, however, the Orakaiva believe that for a person to become light, they would then cease to be Orakiva; translating to not being human at all (Bashkow, 87). The concept of reciprocity plays an essential psychological role in the Orakaiva society. In any instance an individual is continually indebted to someone else within society. Bashkow explains this relationship as a powerful reinforcement of the moral code by which the Orakaiva follow.

In an example Bashow explains how cooking for a guest often implies that the guest will have to return the favor within his or her own means. For instance one might repay his favor by bringing over some fruits the following day if they cannot afford to prepare a cooked meal. These social relationships are strengthened by debts on a daily basis. Interestingly, instead of stressing over the many, seemingly, burdens of social debts, the Orakaiva take pride in accumulating debts because it further reinforces this idea of being heavy/hardened; therefore being connected to the Earth.

According to the Orakaiva, methods of travel, clothing, and money further not a neutral dimension, but rather a real obstacle that takes great effort to overcome for the Orakaiva (Bashkow, 72). However with modern technology and the influence of globalization, whitemen have somehow managed to maintain a lightness (in terms of earthly responsibilities) and are able travel vast distances at such ease. This becomes especially troublesome for the Orakaiva to grasp, considering their primary method of travel is on foot.

Furthermore, clothing, is often times an indication of the moral divide between the Orakaiva and whitemen. Orakaiva dress very simply. Often times this means a loose shirt and pants with no support on the feet (Bashkow 101). Whitemen, in contrast, are completely covered and possess various gadgets like atches which represent a dependence technologies unbounded by social relationships. Lastly, Bashkow spends a substantial amount of time discussing how money plays a profound role in the society of whitemen but does not exist amongst the Orokaiva.

The Orakaiva believe the concept of money is worthless and reinforces fundamental disconnect between whitemen and the Earth (reality). Whitemen, as Bashkow explains, are extremely reliant on money to settle their debts and facilitate their success and happiness. The Orakaiva on the other hand, seek the same outcomes through physical burdens of reciprocity. Bashkow explains that cultural tradition (stereotyping of whitemen) in Papa New Guinea has begun to shift amongst the younger populations; with the influence of globalization.

With the emergence of new corporations in Papa New Guinea, such as Oil palm businesses, many Orakaiva are faced with an identity crisis between traditional values and economic incentives provided by modernity. Bashkow explains that such projects like these are attracting people to grow oil palms for the sake of economic value rather than managing tarrow or pigs for means of trade and reciprocity (Bashkow, 237). This sense of identity crisis is especially evident amongst oung adults of both genders who have accepted globalization (and its ties to economic transactions) as a progressive trend.

Bashkow, in the summation of his work, argues a few critical points which work to guide the direction of his book. First, the socially constructed racial stereotypes of whitemen consist not only of ideas about persons but also crucially involve objects, institutions, places, and styles of activity (Bashkow, 12). This is especially important to note because his ethnographic work is not meant to dwell on racial superiority/ inferiority, but rather, the association of material goods that seemingly guide “reality’ or whitemen.

Secondly, BashkoWs most essential argument is that the Orakaiva use socially constructed categories and racial stereotypes of whitemen to reflect people’s experience of modernity and social and economic change/development as they conceive it. Because the Orakaiva consider their cultural values and traditions as morally correct, their understandings of whitemen are implicitly designed to exemplify their “moral yardstick” as a guide for non-orakaiva peoples to follow. 1 . Bashkow, Ira. The Meaning of Whitemen: Race and Modernity in the Orokaiva Cultural World. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006. Print.

List and describe five reasons workers suffer from low job satisfaction

List and describe five reasons workers suffer from low job satisfaction.


1. On each page: Student Name, ID Number, Course Number, Course Title, and Unit Number. 2. Responses typed, using a standard font, 12-point type size, double-spaced, with overall neatness and readability. 3. Restatement of the question and question number (exactly as stated in the Study Guide). Writing Assignment Evaluation 1. Student used standard essay format: Introduction/Body/Conclusion. 2. Student demonstrated proper use of grammar, spelling, punctuation, citation style, etc. 3. Student demonstrated an understanding of course content and key concepts, as discussed in the text. 4. Student was able to examine, assess, evaluate, and/or analyze course content and key concepts. 5. Student provided a clear and well-developed response to the question • Read pages 194-213 of your textbook • Reference: Psychology for Living: Adjustment, Growth, and Behavior Today by Steven J. Kirsh. Karen Grover Duffy, and Eastwood Atwater. 11th edition, 2014

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