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Book Critique

Book Critique.

Book Critique – LIST OF BOOKS HERE >>>>>>> https://docdro.id/HH8Wknd <<<<<<<<<https://docdro.id/GidkTBk – Book Critique Grading Scale.pdfhttps://docdro.id/T9zWA0I – The Chicago Manual of Style Online_ Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.pdfThis assignment is a 3-5 page double spaced critique of a book chosen from the list provided to students. It requires you to read the book, and then to find two or more reviews of the book by scholars. These must be from refereed journals or databases like J-Stor or Ebesco. This assignment is not a book report! It requires you to read the book critically, think about what you have read, and be able to demonstrate you understand the book.Follow this format EXACTLY:Work:Cite the book here.Example:Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.ORPhilip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987),accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.Reviews:Cite the scholarly reviews you found here.Example:Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.Problems:Explain the main ideas of the book here. At least a paragraph. Example:“The main idea of the book was about how societies fail, and do so for five main reasons.Those five main reasons are: environmental damage, climate change, hostile neighbors,friendly trade partners, and lastly the society’s responses to its environmental problems.The very last of the reasons was further discussed in detail on three different subjects thatinclude: the two different approaches to managing environmental problems (top-down/bottom-up), whether the responses to the environmental problem are successful ora failure because of three factors (economics, industry attitudes, and society’s attitudes),and why a society or group of people makes disastrous decisions (failure to anticipate a problem, failure to perceive it once it has arisen, failure to attempt to solve it after it hasbeen perceived, and failure to succeed in attempts to solve it).”Sources:Discuss the sources the book uses here. At least a paragraph. Example:“The sources that were used by the author were books written by other authors, scientificjournals, personal experience, and personal accounts from individuals through interviews.Jared Diamond referenced to numerous other authors and their books like Montana: AnUncommon Land by K. Ross Toole in chapter one when discussing the plight of Montanaor Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chipas and Yucatan by John Stephens inchapter five that discusses the Maya civilization. He used scientific journals like theChemosphere used in the prologue or the Journal of New World Archaeology in chaptertwo. He uses his personal experiences early on the book in chapter one when talkingabout Montana, which he visits quite often and interviews people who live there that areamong his friends that attribute to the personal stories found in that chapter.”Method:Explain the approach the book takes in discussing and defining the Problems. For example, does the author use other fields of knowledge (like archaeology) or techniques of historiography (like oral interviews)? At least a paragraph. Example:“The book takes a logical and straight forward approach in discussing and defining theproblems examined within the book by using specialized fields of study. On numerousoccasions throughout the book, he uses archaeology, palynology, and dendroclimatologyas direct evidence of all of the five reasons why societies fail. From archaeological sitesfrom the numerous societies discussed in the book there has been evidence that showed if that particular society was active in trade commerce, had hostile neighbors, and the sizeof a particular civilization. Dendroclimatology and palynology were used mainly for thefirst two reasons for collapse, environmental damage and climate change. Palynologywas used by taking samples from a specific place in where the pollen of particular specieswas calculated and recorded and showed if trees were the vast majority of fauna or ifgrasses and small plants were. This has been scientific evidence that supported whether aregion was deforested by its population or not because of wood used in buildingstructures or creating coal for heating or cooking purposes. When usingdendroclimatology, it was determined approximately when there was a dry or wet seasonby the width and number of tree rings. This offered archaeologists information aboutpersisting droughts or seasons of more than adequate rainfall that promoted growth ofplants. “Major Theses:Select at least four quotes from the book. These should be quotes you think express the main ideas presented by the author. You will need to explain how and why in your own words. After each quote be sure to put the page numbers in parentheses. DO NOT FOOTNOTE THE QUOTES! After each quote you will explain, in your own words, how the quote relates to the main ideas you identified in the Problems, Sources, and Methods section and why the quote is a Major Thesis of the book. At least four paragraphs.Example:““Thus, Norse society’s structure created a conflict between the short-term interests ofthose in power, and the long-term interests of the society as a whole” (pg. 276). What thisquote is saying is that the Norse Greenland society was undone by a corrupt top-downapproach when dealing with environmental problems. The Norse Greenland societyeventually collapsed because they lived in an environment in which they did not adapt to and held onto Christian cultural ideals that initially made them successful, but eventuallywas their undoing……”There need to be at least four of these from throughout the book.Scholarly Dialogue:The Scholarly Dialogue explains what the scholars whose critiques of the book you found think of the book and its contribution to our understanding of the Problems. The Scholarly Dialogue will be quotes from the reviews you found with page numbers (from the reviews not the book in this case) in parentheses next to them. Comment on the Scholarly Dialogue in your own words. At least a paragraph. Example:“All three of the scholarly reviews are in similar agreement as to say that Diamond hadsome compelling points in his book and asked the right questions. Kennedy callsDiamonds book “stunningly erudite tour of societies past and present” (1). He believesthat Diamond was accurate and precise in his approach throughout the book with the onlymodification to add the devastating effects of overpopulation and advanced technology.Scott seems to have a slightly negative attitude to Diamond’s claims to go as far to say…..SOME GENERAL REMARKS ON HOW TO WRITE A BOOK CRITIQUEThis assignment is not a book report! It requires you to read the book critically and be able to demonstrate you understand the book.First you need to read the book. You should be looking for the main ideas as you do this and make a note of them as they will be the heart of the Problems, Sources, and Methods. The Problem, Sources, Methods part should be your own original words and your understanding of what the book is about and how the author approached writing it.You will want to identify passages that might be Major Theses. Remember that you will need to explain these in your own words to show your understanding of them and why you chose them as Major Theses. They should be found throughout the book and not just in a small part of it.The Major Theses themselves and the Scholarly Dialogue are not your own words. But which passages you select for inclusion in your paper will reflect your original thinking and analytical ability. How you relate the passages you selected to the Problems, Sources, and Methods in your own words will show your understanding of the book’s ideas. You will want to find two or three good reviews of the book. At least one of these MUST come from a scholarly journal (such as The Journal of Modern History, The American Historical Review, The Journal of Roman Studies or any other similar refereed publication.) OR from EBESCO; J-STOR, or Academic Search Premiere. These are available online through databases. The College library subscribes to these.The reviews must be cited. The reviews and the comments of the scholars must be discussed in Scholarly Dialogue.Above all follow the Book Critique assignment guidelines and format EXACTLY.—————————————————————————Thank You
Book Critique

Introduction Advertising has been known to lead to an increase in the sale of products due to informational and persuasive roles of advertisements. For this reason, many marketers have engaged in advertisement tactics aimed at increasing sales. To market products designed for children, marketers have engaged in widespread child-targeted advertising. Research indicates that advertising target at children is effective in creating positive attitudes and behavior towards the advertised products. However, there have been concerns that increased advertising to children may have negative impacts on children since they are highly impressionable. This has led some people to question the morality of advertising to children. This paper will argue that in spite of the negative impacts that are inherent in advertising to children, it is possible for marketers to engage in ethical advertising to children. This ethical advertising will be beneficial to both the advertisers and the children and mitigate any negative impacts of advertising to children. Advertising to Children: is it ethical? The children market is huge and it has therefore become very important to marketers. The AEF approximates that children represent $500 billion in direct spending and $500 billion in indirect spending. Millions of dollars are therefore being spent by marketers on advertising to reach this huge market segment. Advertising to children is an important issue for children are still developing and they can easily be influenced by advertisements. Clay (2000) observes that advertisements have a major impact on child development and the huge volume of advertisements should be cause for alarm. Impact of Advertising Values Advertising promotes materialistic values among the very susceptible young ones. This strong value for wealth encouraged by advertisements is associated with lower levels of personal satisfaction and high levels of distress in the individual. Clay (2000) confirms that because of advertising, children have gained the perception that they are inferior if they cannot have the numerous new products that are being advertised to them on a daily basis. The materialism promoted by advertisement extends into the adulthood years of the child therefore contributing the consumerism culture in the United States. Exposure to a commercial increases the child’s desire for the particular product that has been advertised. The major purpose of advertisements is to attempt to change the attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors of children through targeted advertising. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through advertisement, children’s recall or recognition of the advertised brand is increased. This might make the child like the particular brand leading to behavioral effects such as the child purchasing the product advertised or requesting for it from his/her parents. Advertising influences the eating habits of children by influencing their choice in foods. Most advertisements promote unhealthy eating due to the excessive advertisement of sugary goods and fast foods. Studies indicate that exposure to television food advertising among 5 and 6-year-old children directly influenced breakfast food and snack preferences (Bakir
Annotated Bibliography in APA Format.

Annotated Bibliography (1500-1800 words) Use 12-point Times New Roman font, double-spacing, a proper APA-style cover page, correct page numbering, and default margins. Do not justify (align) the right-hand margin. The purpose of this assignment is fourfold: to test your ability to 1) do database research, 2)write clear summaries, 3) quote effectively, and 4) use APA documentation accurately. Choose any topic – current, historical, political, cultural – that you find interesting. You will be reading essays on this topic, but you will not actually write an essay on it for this assignment. Find five database (Academic Search Complete) essays: these must be at least three pages long, written by different authors, and published in different journals/periodicals/newspapers. Arrange your sources alphabetically, using proper APA documentation. Below each entry, write a 300-word summary of the essay. Provide the main point of the essay and then the important supporting arguments. Be objective (do not add your opinions), complete (the entire article should be covered), and coherent (your summary should make sense by itself). Use two short quotations in the course of the summary (and provide page numbers). To find the Academic Search Complete database, from the ISU Homepage, click on Quicklinks and then on Library. Then click on Databases at the top and scroll down the Database listings, which are alphabetical. Click on Academic Search Complete, which is near the top of the listings. Once you get to Academic Search Complete, be sure to check Full Text and limit the pages to Greater Than 3. Then put in your search term(s) and pull up articles. You can use the sidebar Subject to limit your search further. Look at the Annotated Bibliography Format handout for an example of formatting the assignment. Interleave the references entries and the summaries. Do not add an extra References page at the end.
Annotated Bibliography in APA Format

Cypress Stress Food & Inflammation Psychoneuro Immunology and Nutrition Discussion

Cypress Stress Food & Inflammation Psychoneuro Immunology and Nutrition Discussion.

In this week’s discussion, we’re learning about and discussing how cells generate and use energy. Many of the organelles in a cell are responsible for the function of providing energy for the cell and the entire organism. What you need to doFirst, watch the video below, taking notes on what surprised you, what you learned, and anything you don’t believe. Next, discuss the video in a discussion post, addressing the following questions:Is there a metabolic booster or diet that you’ve heard of that you’re curious about? Research this and provide evidence (pro and con) to your group as to what impacts the “booster” or diet has on cellular respiration. Why do you think there is such a large market for metabolic boosters? Should the FDA or other government agencies step in and regulate this market?
Cypress Stress Food & Inflammation Psychoneuro Immunology and Nutrition Discussion

The Four Distinguished Types of Control Impact of Control on Motivation Paper

write my term paper The Four Distinguished Types of Control Impact of Control on Motivation Paper.

Here’s a short article from Harvard Business Review on motivation. https://hbr.org/2011/10/four-motivation-mistakes-most (Links to an external site.)This article discusses alternatives to money and promotions. If the manager is listening more and talking less then then she or he is probably giving attention to the subordinates (one-on-one conversations, lunch, coffee break, etc.). During that discussion, if the manager is asking about new ideas/ideas for improvement and allowing the subordinate to follow through on those projects/ideas, then the subordinate is probably getting more of a sense of autonomy and fulfillment and feeling valued. Small gestures from the boss, such as verbal praise, a certificate recognizing hard work in a meeting, or even a $5 gift card to Starbucks can go a long way in making subordinates feel appreciated. However, changing it up and surprising folks will work better than just giving a poinsettia plant every holiday season. And, positive organizational behavior is a big trend and you’ll be reading this chapter soon. Historically management focuses only on the problems. A good leader will bring up the problems but will also take the time to recognize any small improvements. Helping subordinates to perceive the glass to be half full instead of half empty will go a long way in helping improve morale. Build people up and take the time to discuss the positives of the organization. https://hbr.org/2019/03/4-reasons-good-employees-lose-their-motivation (Links to an external site.)This short article also has some great points and relates to the material in the text. For example, trap 4 relates to expectancy theory in the text. Try to figure out if there’s anything blocking someone’s performance, and try to help them with the issue while making an effort to make sure that outcomes relate to personal goals/values. Take a moment to find an article on motivation and summarize points of interest from the article in a few sentences. Some places to search include the news, HBR, Fast Company, WSJ, or academic articles (Google Search/library website search). Make sure to reply at least 100 words or more
The Four Distinguished Types of Control Impact of Control on Motivation Paper

An Introduction To Royal Dutch Shell Business Essay

An Introduction To Royal Dutch Shell Business Essay. The Royal Dutch Shell is a worldwide group of energy and petrochemical company which helps meet need of the world’s growing demand for energy in environmentally, economically and socially responsible ways. Shell is engaged in the principal activities of oil and natural gas industry. The “Shell Brand” name has enjoyed a 100 year history in this part of the world till date. It is committed to dedicate all its energies, resources and time to bring about higher value and satisfaction to its customers, employees and shareholders. The assessment of needs and wants of customers is an ongoing process which has helped in the continual development of new products and services. The Royal Dutch Shell is serving the people at high standard by going according to customers wishes. This paper discusses the Royal Dutch Shell Plc looking into its operations, the company background, and history. It aims at identifying the SWOT analysis of the company, the competitors, their products and services looking into their marketing and expansion strategy and the financial analysis of the company. 2.0 History of Royal Dutch Shell Royal Dutch Shell PHYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_limited_company”lc which is commonly known as Shell, is a multinational petroleum company created in February 1907 when Shell Transport and Trading Company Ltd of the United Kingdom merged their operation with the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company. The term of the merger gave sixty percent of the group to the Dutch arms and Forty percent to the British. The reasons of the merger then were stimulated by the need to compete globally with other competitors. Shell is registered in the United Kingdom with its corporate headquarters in The Hague, its tax residence is in Netherlands, and its primary listings on the London Stock Exchange and Euronext Amsterdam (only “A” shares are part of the AEX index). Royal Dutch Shell Plc is a parent company which owns directly or indirectly investments in numerous companies which constitutes a group. Royal Dutch Shell plc is a group of energy and petrochemical companies with about 102,000 employees in more than 100 region of a country. It is involved in marketing and shipping of oil products and chemicals, natural gas and electricity, gas and oil exploration and production. Royal Dutch Shell revenue increased by $15 Billion than Exxon Mobil which resulted, Shell to be listed as the world’s largest corporation for 2009 by Fortune and world’s second largest corporation by Forbes. The company also has interests in renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar and hydrogen. Shell has helped improved the world’s growing demand for energy in economically, environmentally and socially responsible ways. Their strategy and priorities for the future are “profitable downstream and more upstream while their core values of integrity, respect for people and honesty form the basis of the Shell General Business Principles. The company operates on a five business segments which are namely: The Exploration and production business searches for and recovers oil and natural gas globally. The gas and power business liquefies natural gas and transports it to customers. Its gas to liquids (GTL) process turns natural gas into cleaner- burning synthetic fuel and other various products. The oil sands business extracts bitumen and converts it to synthetic crude oils which can be turned into a wide range of other products. The oil products business makes moves and sells a range of different petroleum- based products globally for domestic, transport and industrial use. The chemical business produces petrochemicals for the industries and customers. 3.0 Board of Directors in the Royal Dutch Shell plc Shell has an Executive Committee that operates under the leadership of the Chief Executive Officer who is responsible for Royal Dutch Shell’s overall business and affairs. The Executive Committee comprises of Peter Voser who is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Royal Dutch Shell plc (RDS), before his appointment as CEO with effect from July 1, 2009, he was the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and Executive Director of RDS since 2004 and from October 2004 up to July 2005 was CFO of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies; others include Simon Henry who became Chief Financial Officer on May 1, 2009, and was appointed an Executive Director with effect from May 20, 2009; Malcolm Brinded became Executive Director of the Upstream International business with effect from July 1, 2009; Marvin E. Odum became Director of the Upstream Americas business with effect from July 1, 2009. He continues as President of Shell Oil Company (SOC); Matthias Bichsel became Director of the ProjectsAn Introduction To Royal Dutch Shell Business Essay

The Development History Of Tourism

Tourism industry is one of the largest industries worldwide. It has become a growing industry in recent years. Many countries in the world are blessed with natural beauty while many have developed infrastructure on their own. In fact many countries are getting major portion of their revenues from the tourism industry, so it is considerable as a main source of income for those and it creates income through the consumption of products and services by tourists. It wields economic importance, with hundreds of millions of travelers around the world each year, although it has a responsible in environment, it may lead to habitat destruction, waste and pollution. Global tourism industry came through the stages of time and it has improved for decades, and it has a massive impact on economy, environment and society. According to (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009), tourism is a shape of pastime performed over a period for enjoyment, and it can define when people move from place to another place. The World Tourism Organization (1999) defined that tourism is also collection of activities, services in terms of leisure, including transportation, accommodation, and others up to a year. The development history of tourism In the nineteenth century Global tourism industry has a large been improving since the nineteen century, when the earliest travellers were walking or riding domesticated animals. The invention of technology has provided new modes of transportation and increased individuals’ opportunities to travel. Because of roads are improved and governments stabilised, interest in travelling rose for studying, sightseeing and religion purposes. More than 100 years ago the introduction of turnpike roads, roads on which a tolls were charged, allowed to buses hold up to 14 travellers for 40 miles distance over 24 hours. For example, a trip from London to Bath was account for about 72 hours, whereas the 400 miles to Edinburgh took completely 10 days (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009). Between the middle of twentieth and twenty first century Since the World War II, travellers have grown up and let them to move abroad, despite the fact that the ability to do that was restricted by political conditions and insufficient funds. Furthermore, travel business changed due to the advance in airplane technology which led to grow commercial flight industry (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009).Modern technology played an important role on transforming people for living, working and tourism. As a consequence, it gave more spare time, intensified communications and originated many effective approaches of conveying (WTO. 1999). The influence of computers and the internet has shown on tourism as customers can now search about holiday destinations, travel companies comparison and booking online (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009). The economic impact of tourism According to (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009), while tourism industry may cause many economic pros, there are also some advantages for those nations. “Global tourism is an $8 trillion industry”. This means one of largest important industries in the world is tourism industry, it therefore has great importance for several countries attempt to obtain a share of this $8 trillion. 9.9 per cent of global GDP (gross domestic product) was global tourism industry. Moreover, it was predicted that it would bring about 240 million jobs worldwide, representing almost 8.5% of total occupations. The world organisation tourism reported that in January 2007, international tourist arrivals reached to 842 million in 2006, compared to 553 million in 1994, and they are expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2020, while receipts was $354 billion in 1994 and it almost doubled by 2006, that means there a considerable rise just over a period of 10 years for both arrivals and receipts, (WOT.2007). World’s Top 10 Tourism Earners, 2005 Based On Tourism Receipts ($ US Billions) France 76.0 United States $81.7 Spain 55.6 Spain $47.9 United States 49.4 France $42.2 China 46.8 Italy $35.4 Italy 36.5 United Kingdom $30.7 United Kingdom 30.0 China $29.3 Mexico 21.9 Germany $29.2 Germany 21.5 Turkey $13.2 Turkey 20.3 Austria $15.5 Austria 19.9 Greece $13.7 Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO.2007). Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO.2007). While there several factors that encourage human to travel abroad, the most significant one is cost compared to their income. Since growth demand led the prices to decline, also transport and accommodation costs falling for every extra person reserved. In other words, there is a strong relationship between price, cost and demand. As a result, it can lead to competition of tourism industry between nations. In recent years, many countries or cities have become depend on flow of tourists or nearly completely dependent on tourism such as Dubai receives a large proportion of revenue from the tourism, with approximately p of its revenue. They are known as destinations or receiving areas, and the areas which tourists move to these destinations are known as produced areas. The destination, however, can be a specific resort, town or even a huge area of global. The destinations are financed by transforming tourists` money, this means these areas will undoubtedly make a profit, and the reverse is true for those generating areas. Furthermore, there are many aspects can be affected by the flow of tourists from produced to receiving areas such as income, employment and investment and development (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009). The environmental impact of tourism According to (Wall, G and Mathieson, A.2006), the history of tourism undoubtedly point out that the tourism was birth and progressed by contributing of environmental factors. The Places which are blessed with natural beauty and pleasant landscape and skyscraper features have had a major impact on particular locations or regions. However, tourism can have a negative impact on environment such as excessive building like roads and hotels, destroys natural habitats. It can also create pollution and waste, as a result, the city or region no doubt will be polluted by smog around it. Furthermore, it puts pressure on local resources such as food , water and energy supplies. (Holloway, J, C. Humphreys, C and Davidson, R. 2009) said that the use of transportation particularly by airplanes are double fuel-efficient than they were 30 years ago. Air travel was account for 9% of global warming in 2004. In Britain, for example, the figure of travellers inside and outside of the UK would increase from 180 million in 2003 to half a billion by 2030, whereas the responsibility of flying aircraft will be almost 67% of all the UK’s greenhouse emissions in 2050. A large proportion of the oil purchased in the world is just for leisure uses. In addition, all transportation forms of road, sea and air can annoy on the quiet resort by increasing noise levels, whether in rural districts or in living areas. Both local people and tourists especially who are near of busy airports greatly would be in worry by making anxious from airplanes taking off and landing. The cultural and social impact of tourism Sociocultural impacts are consequences of specific types of relationships that happen between tourists and hosts due to their coming into contact. Tourists can experience different customs and cultural such as sight-seeing, sunbathing and testing new cuisine. It would open our minds as well as it can broaden our horizons. However, when foreign people come to the tourist city they surely will affect on local people. Therefore, the local people will forget their own culture. Another drawback for tourism industry is raising prices, even though citizen’s salaries are constant the prices rise when the city receives the tourists especially in restaurants, transportation, and fundamental requirements. Furthermore, the government would focus on tourism .Thus it will ignore facilities and needs of local region. In addition to this, crimes rate usually increase in tourist cities. Moreover, local traditions may be lost like traditional jobs and skills would die out such as farming and fishing (Wall, G and Mathieson, A.2006). When using of culture as a tourist attraction can lead to risen support for traditional cultures and would display identity of ethnic .What is more, direct contact between residents and tourists probably would remove negative stereotypes, as a result, it will increase social opportunities. Another benefit of sociocultural impact of tourism is that encourage competition for tourist business and improve standard of living for hosts and income undoubtedly will rise for those as well (WTO. 1999). Conclusion The historic of tourism has a great importance throughout the world for ages, despite the fact that the drawbacks which faced global tourism industry. Tourism provided numerous benefits for destinations, hosts communities and travellers, although its few negative effects. It has become link between them and it made the world as one village. The predictions of global tourism after it entered a new millennium look set to continue growing up and greater importance in the world economy, even though it faces several challenges. The Brainy Quote was definition the immigration and said that ‘The act of immigrating; the passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence’. That means is anyone who left his country and went to another country to live there and find a job. Immigration is one of the ways to develop and change a lot of culture in any country in the world. Since World War II several changes have occurred in the United Kingdom, and immigration has been one of the major events. Many newcomers have come from all parts of the world; the majority came from Ireland, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Germany, Africa and the West Indies. Because World War II destroyed many cities in Britain, the British government allowed people to live and work in Britain without a visa. Post-war immigrants have affected the English way of life. In addition, they have changed other parts of popular culture (Panikos, 1999). The impact of immigration on the economy can be seen in many ways. The British economy grew after World War II because many immigrants found themselves in new employment. Britain needed these immigrants to work in the factories and replace the men who died in World War II (House of Lords, 2008). The next section looks at the impact of migration after World War II in Britain, and focuses on the economic prospects and cultural effects of it. The post-war period from 1945 to 1970 was important for immigration into Britain .At the same time many British people were migrating to neighbouring countries such as Australia and Canada. Many blacks from the West Indies came to live in the United Kingdom. More than 400 people arrived in 1948; they were the first major group of Caribbean immigrants. Moreover, by 1970 more than 60,000 immigrants had come from India, the majority of whom settled in London, Liverpool and Cardiff and got different kinds of job (Panikos, 1999). In addition, many people from Pakistan, Ireland and Bangladesh found work and new homes in different cities, for instance Manchester, Bradford and Leicester. By the late 1970s, non-white people had become a familiar sight in most big cities like London and Nottingham. The early WWII decades during which the majority of people from the West Indies who made their way to Britain gained a pretty image of the country played an important role in the decision of many African-Caribbeans to come to the UK (Gourvish and O’Day, 1992). ‘Since 1945 important developments have occurred in the occupational structure of black and Asian immigrant groups notwithstanding their continued and pronounced working-class character’ (Gourvish and O’Day, 1992, p. 215). The first group of blacks to get a job consisted of about 120 men and 20 women. They worked with the London transport service, on buses and the underground railway system. At the same time many Irish people moved to Great Britain, the majority of them staying in inner city areas. Some people, for instance Germans, did not concentrate their numbers in poor areas, but moved out to the suburbs (Panikos, 1999). The Home Office paper’s technical annex defines immigrants as ‘foreign born population and UK born dependent children …’ It continues by saying that, ‘under this assumption, immigrants account for 8.4 per cent of the UK population’. This is a category of about five million people. Muslim immigrants have grown remarkably since the newcomers first came after WWII .In addition, the number of Muslim buildings in Britain, according to 2008 figures is 1,500 mosques and Islamic centres, the most important Islamic centre being in Mayfair in London. Furthermore, the number of Muslims in Britain was nearly one million by some estimates in 2008 (Islammemo.cc). However, since the end of WWII Britain’s economic system has grown. The immigration in Britain has had significant economic effects on public services, for example on education and health. In the period between 1950 and 1973 general revenue rose significantly. Moreover, in the same period the income of a man per hour in the manufacturing industry rose more than 200 per cent. Although, following World War II, the UK had few workers and needed more to fill its many new factories, there were also a new health service that was an incentive for people to work there. Factory owners searched for new workers from countries such as Poland and Italy; however, they did not find what they wanted because other European countries were short of workers too. In the period between 1945 and 1947 more than 340,000 European newcomers came to the UK. After that, employers began looking in different countries where English was spoken and where people had worked in Britain in the previous period, for example Commonwealth countries and the colonies (UK Immigration Law). Britain controlled many countries, for instance India, the Caribbean, and some countries in Africa until they became independent. A lot of men and women worked in factories to produce equipment and some of them were soldiers. When the soldiers fought in Africa, the Far East and Europe, they received a higher salary than in other countries .That was one of the reasons why people chose to stay and work in Britain. The situation did not last long. In 1962 the Commonwealth Immigration Law was issued to make immigration more difficult, possibly because Britain by then had enough workers (Gourvish and O’Day, 1992). In addition, many Asian trades were opening up in areas with a high concentration of newcomers, generally in city centres, to help develop the city. Moreover, the large number of newcomers after World War II was important in causing house prices to rise steeply, which has been a huge problem over the last 20 years. The House of Lords (2008, p. 18) stated: Labour Force Survey data for 2006 suggest that the three most popular sectors for foreign-born workers in the UK are public administration, education and health (32%), distribution, hotels and restaurants (21%) and banking, finance and insurance (20%). Among A8 immigrants, the top sectors are distribution, hotels and restaurants (24%), manufacturing (21%) and construction (14%). (ONS, p. 50) In some sectors and regions, the share of immigrants is much higher. On the other hand, Britain has been affected by some of the culture of its immigrants. For example, the post-war arrivals brought their own style of dress. All groups from various countries bring their cultures with them. The Indians brought their food and clothes; the Caribbeans brought their festivals and carnivals; and the Muslims brought the Islamic religion. An important point is that Britain is one of the few countries in the world in which people are allowed to do this, meaning that it is a free country. This was the most important reason why newcomers came to live in Great Britain. More clearly, the impact of immigrants and their generations after World War II became more pronounced than it was before the war, especially in terms of popular music, sport and media. In addition, the Germans have been credited with the spread of classical music throughout the nineteenth century. A lot of immigrants live in rural towns so that they can practise their religion and build churches and temples. Religion has played an important role in differentiating between one category and another. For example, the Asian community has more than one religion, the most important of them being Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism (Panikos, 1999). To sum up, newcomers after World War II have supported progress and helped to rebuild the infrastructure and public services in the United Kingdom. Moreover, immigration has made a significant improvement to the economic system in Britain since 1945, particularly between 1950 and 1970. Immigrants who live in rural areas have nevertheless helped to develop the cities, because they work and bring their trades with them. In addition, factories saw an increase in the number of workers and raised people’s income as well. Britain has been affected by the culture of immigrants from different countries. However, the most impact has been the religious one, because each group has brought their religion with them. Give a brief outline of the pattern of immigration to Britain since WWII and discuss is impact on British economy and culture. Support your views with clear relevant examples Since the Second World War the immigration has been one of the solutions to reconstruct and improve the United Kingdom from the weak economic situation and devastation that happened in that time . In that period of time the Second World War breakdown most of Britain cities, especially the infrastructure and caused many damages to the ecosystem and even to citizens emotions. It is definitely that the United Kingdom won the Second World War, however the country found itself in a bad economic situation. Moreover they took their in cheap workers from its colonies to help reconstruct the country. Although, the Oxford Dictionary defines immigration as “To move to live permanently in a foreign country”. These people have to work and act within community to give a basic quality of life. That played a important role in developing the UK. Basically the cities were rebuilt and became better than they were before the war. However, in this assignment, the economic situation will be examined. Then how Britain dealt with this devastation and what were the advantages of immigration will be included. Finally, I will look at how immigration has impact on the British community. The Second World War made many British citizens migrated to different countries in the world such as USA and Australia , however that was offset by a massive number of Immigrants who came to the United Kingdom. The Afro-Caribbean from the West India was the first group who migrated to the UK . In addition, there were many people migrated to Britain that escape religious persecution and civil war (Foreign

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