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Blood concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Determination of triglyceride, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum using enzymatic reactions and spectrophotometry. Key words: Exercise, Coronary heart disease, Lipoprotein lipase, LDL-cholesterol. Abstract The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in a human serum sample were determined using a standard sample of known concentration and an unknown sample to verify the accuracy of the method. A series of enzymatic reactions were used combined with spectrophotometry. The sample was found to have a ‘desirable’ level of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and a reasonably high HDL-cholesterol concentration. These results are healthy and indicate a low risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis due to lipid factors. Diet and exercise in particular may explain the concentrations. Introduction Fat is needed as it provides a fuel source for energy and is important in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Fats are also important for cell membrane structure, hormone synthesis, insulation and the protection of vital organs. Christian and Greger (1994). Dietary lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. Triglycerides are produced internally from carbohydrates. The levels of triglycerides in human serum can be used to diagnose and treat diseases involving lipid metabolism or various endocrine disorders. Hypercholesterolemia in particular, has been associated with coronary heart disease. McGill et al (2001). Therefore, it is important to check and monitor blood cholesterol levels. High levels of LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol have been associated with atherosclerosis in a number of clinical trials. Ingelsson et al (2007). Whereas high levels of serum HDL-cholesterol levels offer protection from heart disease. (AHA Commitee Report 1982). The concentration of HDL-cholesterol is influenced by heredity, gender, exercise and diet. Saturated fats increase LDL-cholesterol and unsaturated fats increase HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, it is important not only to monitor the total cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations in the blood, but also to analyse the types of fats to see whether they are beneficial or detrimental to health. The recommendation is for adults over 20 to have their fasting lipoprotein profile measured every 5 years so that treatment can then take place if necessary. Method A fasting venous sample was collected and centrifuged to give a serum sample. Three tests were conducted to measure the triglyceride concentration, the total cholesterol and the HDL-cholesterol concentration in the serum sample. A series of enzymatic reactions (appendix A) were used to prepare the serum for testing both the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. A pipette was used to add the different solutions to the cuvettes, see appendix B for the solutions and quantities. A red colour was produced from the reactions and a spectrophotometer was then used to analyse the absorbance of the samples. These were measured against a standard of known concentration, used as a control from which the sample concentration could be calculated and an unknown sample which was used to ensure the method was conducted accurately. The HDL-cholesterol concentration was found by firstly precipitating the serum sample (appendix B) to remove the LDL, VLDL and chylomicrons and then centrifuging. Spectrophotometry was also used to analyse the sample, an unknown and a standard so that the concentration of HDL-cholesterol could be calculated. The LDL-cholesterol concentration was calculated from the results. For reliability the absorbencies for all the experiments were repeated three times. See appendix B for a full method of all techniques used. Results See appendix C for the raw data. Triglyceride Concentration Average Absorbency (arbitrary units) Concentration of triglyceride (mg/dl) Sample 0.132 88.24 Unknown 0.121 90.06 Total Cholesterol Concentration Average Absorbency (arbitrary units) Concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dl) Sample 0.187 125.21 Unknown 0.230 154.01 HDL-cholesterol concentration Average Absorbency (arbitrary units) Concentration of HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) Sample 0.236 57.64 Unknown -0.007* -1.64* LDL-cholesterol concentration of sample: 49.92mg/dl *After repeat, please see appendix C for original data. Appendix B details the equations used to calculate the concentrations from the average absorbencies. The graph shows the concentrations of triglyceride in the sample and unknown solutions. The line at 150mg/dl represents the threshold for ‘borderline high’ and the line at 200mg/dl for ‘high’ on the recommendations for lipid profile measurements. This shows more clearly how both results are significantly below this point and therefore suggest good health. The above graph demonstrates the recommendations for the total cholesterol in the serum samples. The ‘borderline high’ is the line at 200mg/dl and the ‘high’ at 240mg/dl. Both the sample and unknown are significantly below 200mg/dl. The result for the HDL-cholesterol for the sample was between the recommendations for ‘low’ and ‘high’ concentrations. However as the graph shows, the result is nearer to the ‘high’ level which is healthy. The unknown sample produced a negative result after being repeated which is an impossible result. This is examined further in the discussion. The LDL-cholesterol concentration is calculated from the HDL-cholesterol subtracted from the total cholesterol. The recommendation for this was above 130mg/dl for ‘borderline high’ and above 160mg/dl for ‘high’. The sample concentration was considerably below these values. Discussion There are lipid profile recommendations for good health regarding the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in human serum samples. (Appendix D) The result for the sample triglyceride concentration was 88.24mg/dl. This is significantly below the levels that would be considered potentially threatening to health. The participant was a young healthy female who exercised regularly and had a balanced diet. Research has found that exercise can decrease serum triglyceride levels. Couillard et al (2001) If the levels of triglyceride in the blood are too high it is detected by the liver. This can be due to either a high intake of dietary fat or carbohydrates, which increase the blood glucose concentration. If either of these are too high the liver will release insulin from beta cells. This promotes the formation of triglycerides from carbohydrates, increasing the concentration of triglyceride in the blood and the storage of triglycerides as adipose tissue. Large quantities of adipose tissue are detrimental to health which is why it is particularly important to monitor triglyceride concentration. (Martini, 2001) The total cholesterol in the sample was 125.21mg/dl and the HDL-cholesterol was 57.64mg/dl. Evidence has shown that exercise decreases total cholesterol whilst increasing the HDL-cholesterol concentration. This is not completely due to weight loss from exercising, as lowered total cholesterol and triglycerides with increased levels of HDL-cholesterol have also been found in participants whose weight remained constant in studies. Huttunen et al (1979). Therefore other reasons for these results have been suggested. It is possible that the contracting, skeletal muscle takes up triglycerides. Also, exercise has been shown to influence the activity of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. A part of HDL-cholesterol is derived from the catabolism of VLDL-cholesterol by this enzyme. This could account for the decrease in triglyceride and increase in HDL-cholesterol due to exercise. Huttunen et al (1979) The result for the total cholesterol was ‘desirable’. The HDL-cholesterol concentration was reasonably high which is favourable. Finally, the LDL-concentration was also ‘desirable’ at only 49.92mg/dl as the recommendations for ‘desirable’ are less than 130mg/dl. This is demonstrated more clearly by the graph in the results section that shows that the sample concentration was significantly below the risk level. All these results were consistent with the participant being a healthy individual with a low risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis from lipid factors. They show that the participant had a low total cholesterol and triglyceride serum concentration. This was likely to be because the participant was a young, healthy individual with a balanced diet and regular participation in sport. As shown above, exercise can decrease cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The participant also had a high level of HDL-cholesterol which is beneficial to the body. The unknown sample was used to indicate whether the method was conducted accurately and producing precise results. The results for the unknown samples should have been 95.6mg/dl for the triglyceride concentration, 158mg/dl for the concentration of total cholesterol and 2.37mg/dl for the HDL-cholesterol concentration. This means that there was a percentage error of 5.79% for the triglyceride result and of 2.53% for the total cholesterol result. The result for the HDL-cholesterol came out as a negative value, which is an impossible value. However the actual concentration of the unknown sample was a very low number, therefore taking into account a percentage error of approximately 10% this may explain the negative result. This means that all the results for the sample serum concentrations may also be incorrect by approximately 10%. There are many possible reasons for the slight inaccuracy of the results. It is possible the solutions in the cuvettes were not mixed thoroughly enough so the reaction did not fully occur. Another reason could be that although care was taken the cuvettes may have been contaminated, affecting the amount of light being absorbed. Also most of the enzymatic reactions had to have a period of incubation for the reaction to occur. It is possible when the absorbance values were recorded that the reactions were not fully completed, which would have affected the results. Conclusion In conclusion, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in the blood are important factors in indicating high risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is important to monitor these levels and compare them to the recommended concentrations. Diet and exercise can both be used to decrease levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, whilst increasing HDL-cholesterol. Therefore, it is important to have a healthy balanced diet and to regularly exercise to minimise the risk factor, from lipid levels, of heart disease. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
MacMurray College Data Mining and Ensemble Methods Discussion.

I’m working on a information technology presentation and need support to help me learn.

1. There are many different approaches in Data Mining. Explain and provide an example of the “Statistical Procedure Based Approach” in Data Mining?Explain why and how you see things differently.Ask a probing or clarifying question.Share an insight from having read your classmates’ postings.Offer and support an opinion.Validate an idea with your own experienceDiscussion Length (word count): At least 150 wordsReferences: At least one peer-reviewed, scholarly journal references.Answer these following questions (No word count requirement but the question needs to be answered) use at least one reference in apa formattingClassification: Alternative Techniques AssignmentDefine and provide an example of Rule Coverage and Accuracy.What are the Characteristics of Rule-Based Classifier?What do the steps to building a rule set consist in a Direct Method: RIPPER?Describe what is used to separate data in Support Vector Machines.List and describe the two classifiers of Ensemble Methods.
MacMurray College Data Mining and Ensemble Methods Discussion

Unique selling proposition for community pharmacies

Despite community pharmacies crucial job of advising customers, and providing medication and healthcare products, they are coming under increased pressure from larger retail pharmacy chains (Schmidt and Pioch, 2005). However, it is not only pressure from large retail pharmacies that is affecting them, some of the pressure also comes from supermarket chains that have their own in store pharmacists. The real issue that community pharmacists face is developing a unique selling proposition that meets the needs and requirements of the pharmacies current and future clientele while at the same time developing relationships with them, and therefore strengthening their loyalty with the store (Schmidt and Pioch, 2005). This unique selling proposition can be communicated by the pharmacy to the public through branding. Kapferer (2008) states that there is more to branding than just naming a product or service and letting the public see that it has been stamped with the logo and imprint of a certain organisation. Instead he insists that branding involves long-term association, a large amount of commitment as well as good resources and skills. Wood (2000) states that it is essential that the management of brands is carried out strategically because when a consumer is making a purchase decision a brand is regularly the main reason for differentiation between competitive offerings, therefore the branding of a product is crucial to the success of a company. Kapferer (2008) believes that brands make the choice for the consumer easier, the leading brand on the market is obviously well known, used, and purchased by a lot of people therefore it is presumed that the product is very good if not the best on the market, this reduces the likelihood of customers choosing alternative brands. Kara et al. (2009) shares this belief by stating that brands can give confidence to customers when making purchase decisions; purchasing a well known brand implies a lower risk to the customer. Brands are developed in ways to promote positive images, values and prestige, if a customer uses a certain brand it is saying something about what kind of lifestyle they have and can generate a positive identity for them (Ginden, 1993, Cited in Rooney, 1995). Woods (2000) adds that a brands image is customized to meet a target markets need and wants by using the four P’s of marketing (product, place, price, and promotion). Consequently, the success of the use of this method depends on the customer’s loyalty to the brand. In addition, the value of a brand is also depending on loyalty; if customers are loyal to your brand then this will guarantee future sales and therefore future cash flows (Wood, 2000). From Woods’ (2000) belief of using the four P’s of marketing to position your brand he points out that each element of the marketing mix is important when sending out your brands message. For example the price of a brand says a lot about the prestige associated with it. However, Jenkinson (1995, p.116) believes that “real brand quality comes from an emotional bond created by trust, dialogue, frequency, ease of use and a sense of value and added satisfaction. Loyalty is the reflection of a customer’s subconscious emotional and psychological need to find a constant source of value, satisfaction and identity”. To create a brand image the customers must first of all be made aware that the brand exists and once you have distinguished your particular brand from the others, it is easier to develop its image (Rooney, 1995). If we wish to examine how successful a particular brand is it is important to look at its brand equity. “Brand equity is the current financial value of the flow of future profits attached to the brand itself” (Kapferer, 2008, p.143). Kapferer (2008) states that brands have developed their financial value because they have created a lasting impression in the minds and hearts of influential characters as well as customers. Spence and Essoussi (2010) proposes that differences in consumers’ knowledge of a certain brand changes their responses to marketing activities, for example; a strong brand is one in which customers respond more favourably to marketing activities when the brand is identified, compared to when it is not. Therefore, to build a successful brand the management must create and develop a positive brand identity (Spence and Essoussi, 2010). In 1993, Wentz and Suchard pointed out that firms were applying branding to more unfamiliar settings where the role of branding is becoming more popular (Cited in Rooney, 1995). This is obvious in the area of pharmacy branding, Schmidt and Pioch acknowledged in 2005 that independent pharmacies constitute more than half of the pharmacy retail market in the UK. Extreme polarisation is seen in the market: it is greatly concentrated on one side, with the highly branded Boots, Lloyds and other big names at the forefront of the market, and on the other side divided into a great number of small and medium sized enterprises (Schmidt and Pioch, 2005). See Figure 1 for a detailed view of the market concentration. (Figure 1: Source: Schmidt and Pioch, 2005) A study by Clark and White (2009) examined the attitudes of members of the Australian retail pharmacy industry) to potential entry by one or more powerful competitors. This study showed that the retail pharmacy market in Australia is similar to that in the UK (see figure 1). However, unlike the UK market the Australian pharmacy guild has an agreement with their government which ensures that retail pharmacies are the only channel for distribution of prescription drugs (Clark and White, 2009). They state that in Australia “approximately 45 per cent of pharmacies are members of a branded chain or banner group” whereas approximately 80% of their grocery industry is held by only 3 companies- making it the most highly concentrated industry in the developed world (Clarke and White, 2009, p.281). Factors like these cause many small businesses to close and discourage new pharmacies from opening. Clark and White (2009) add that the Australian supermarket industry has pressured the government to open the supply of prescription pharmaceuticals to them but have so far not been successful. This would lead to supermarket chains becoming powerful players in the distribution of medicines, similar to the UK market. “A dominant brand is an entry barrier to competitors because it acts as a reference in its category” (Kapferer, 2008, p.24). In other words the dominating and leading brand sets the standards for new competitors on the market. Schmidt and Pioch (2005) found that small to medium sizes retail pharmacies were not making use of branding and add that branding, when thought of in respect to retail, can take many different forms, for example, store brands, store sub-brands, and use of national brands. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that supermarkets in store pharmacies are becoming more successful. In 2007, sales of own-brands accounted for 49% of grocery sales in the UK and over 20% in the USA (marketing, 2007). Distributors’ brands, in the past, were thought of as ‘non-brands’, and these seamed to attract only price sensitive customers (Kapferer, 2008). However, retailer own-brands are now ranked as top brands in many categories (Huang and Huddleston, 2009). Huang and Huddleston (2009) suggest that the change we see today in relation to own brands comes from the fact that retailers are now keen to develop and market their own-brands rather than just passively distributing the main national brands. Researchers seem to agree on an emerging pattern when referring to own-brands and even though the old variety of low price, low quality retailer own-brands do still exist, the new general trend has been to go form low price, low- to high-quality products (Huang and Huddleston, 2009). In the current era own brands now vary their range to attempt to cover different price levels from low to high compared to national brands, they also make use of new emerging needs known as ‘trends’ for example Tesco Fair Trade, Tesco Organic, and Tesco Healthy Eating (Kapferer, 2008). According to Huang and Huddleston’s (2009) positioning of retailer own-brands graph (see figure 2) there are 3 types of retailer own brands. ImageFigure 1Positioning of retailer own-brands (Figure 2: Source: Huang and Huddleston, 2009) According to Corstjens and Corstjens (1995) generics give consumers the lowest possible price by cutting out all expenses on advertising, packaging, and marketing. Corstjens and Corstjens (1995) state that the majority of generic goods are basic, functional products and often have a commodity-style presentation with minimalist black and white packaging. Generics do not compete with national brands; instead they are available as product alternatives for them, and usually have lower quality and inferior image compared to national brands (Laaksonen and Reynolds, 1994). Mimic brands are the largest group on the market; these were made to directly compete with national brands on the market by mimicking them (Huang and Huddleston, 2009). Mimic brands aim to have an acceptable quality while at the same time being cheaper than national brands, they often have similar packaging and are available mainly to offer alternatives to the more expensive national brands (Burt and Davis, 1999). There have been many occasions in the past were the manufactures of national brands have taken legal action against the mimic brand manufacturers because the product was so similar to the national brand (Huang and Huddleston, 2009). The third types are retailer own-brands. The most common of retailer own-brands, are premium own-brands (Huang and Huddleston, 2009). According to Huang and Huddleston (2009) the introduction of premium own-brands was aimed to provide customers with a high value-added product with a modern design and sometimes even better quality than leading national brands. Often premium own-brands are not priced lower that national brands (Laaksonen and Reynolds, 1994). Huang and Huddleston (2009) state that in the UK the use of these premium own-brands is increasing rapidly, they are earning widespread acceptance and they can now compete with leading national brands which gives the consumers a range of brands to choose from. Davies (1998) states that when the store brand name is based on quality appeal then it will be easier to market the own-brand as a premium product (Cited in Schmidt and Pioch, 2005); an example of this is the branding of Marks and Spencer’s own-brand products. However, Rao and Monroe (1989) provided a model form a study relating price, perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, and willingness to buy. In this model they confirmed that price has both objective external properties and subjective internal representations that are derived from the perception of price: higher prices lead to a higher perceived quality and to greater willingness to buy (Cited in Kara et al. 2009). Therefore consumers may be wary about the quality of a product if the price is too low. According to Kim and Sung (2009) when customers are purchasing a drug such as a pain reliever they often question whether they should choose a generic or a brand name drug. They say that if pharmacists were asked about the differences between generic and brand drugs they might say there is little difference, except for the name and price. This is because, according to the US Food and Drug Administration ‘a generic drug is identical or bioequivalent to a brand name drug in dosage form, safety strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use’ (Cited in Kim and Sung, 2009). Therefore when purchasing branded drugs like these the consumer is clearly only choosing the brand name because of their loyalty to the brand or perception of quality they have built around the brand. Geuens (2004) also believes that store brand and private labels are becoming increasingly popular and there is continued decreasing differentiation between competitive offers these days, therefore having a strong brand name can make a huge difference in customer purchase decisions. In consumer behaviour research, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the construct ‘brand personality’; this refers to the set of human characteristics associated with a brand (Aaker, 1997). Halliday (1996) says that practitioners view brand personality as a key way to differentiate a brand in a product category (Cited in Aaker, 1997). Research has shown that brand personality can even be applied to medicines; doctors and specialists can attribute human personality traits to different medicines. Kapferer (2008) found that some of the personality traits the experts attributed to drugs were linked with prescription levels. Kapferer (2008) states that; a product (an active ingredient) cannot be given personality traits whereas a brand can. Therefore, brands of drugs do have a mental existence and influence in the minds of the prescribers (Kapferer, 2008). The study also found that although experts recognised that products themselves are identical and that brands of these products are the same in the functional benefits they deliver the experts still prescribed one brand three times more frequently than the other (Kapferer, 2008). This shows that even in professional sectors, brands are a psychological reality, which are present even in the minds of rational decision makers (Kapferer, 2008). Another factor to consider when examining a company’s branding is its corporate social responsibility. This is a growing concern among firms due to the populations increased interest in eco-friendly goods. Ethics show that buyers are expecting, more and more, responsible behaviours from their brands (Kapferer, 2008). Companies are showing willingness to demonstrate socially responsible behaviour, as this may have an effect on the socio-economic context in which they operate, as well as on their own performance (Morsing and Perrini, 2009). Of course it matters greatly whether multi-national companies have good ethical business practices and strong social responsibility however it is also an issue for small business to address. There are many ways SMEs can engage in corporate social responsibility: “formal engagement, networking within and across sectors, volunteerism and giving to charity provide an extremely fruitful opportunity to invest in social capital, cultivating close relationships within the social and business environment” (Morsing and Perrini, 2009, p.3). Customers may choose to shop in larger stores in comparison to small chains to take advantage of their loyalty/ Club cards. Loyalty cards are even more valuable to shoppers since the economic downturn. According to Colloqy (a US loyalty marketing research and education firm) retail pharmacy sales have increased 1.5% last year (according to data published in 2009) despite the fact that sales were declining in most retail sectors. Experts in the US suggest that this industry is strong and will see continued growth due to the ageing of the population and the increase of chronic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure Blank, 2009). Reward and loyalty cards are becoming increasingly popular in all types of retail environments. Customers can collect ‘points’ from purchasing goods or services from pharmacies (Boots advantage card), Supermarkets (Tesco club card), airlines (Virgin Atlantic airlines flying club), as well as hotels, clothing stores, hardware stores etc. Blank (2009) states that, in the US, membership of drug chains in retail reward programs now account for the largest share of all US loyalty programs and that these schemes expand the sales of both pharmacy orders and in-store products. Liesse (1990) states that; brands that constantly advertise and regularly change and update their product will excel in their industries and; companies that believe in outstanding advertising are those who build leadership brands (Cited in Rooney, 1995). A study carried out by Kim and Sung (2009) about purchase-decision involvement stated that if brand names carry a great weight for consumers looking at a certain product category then they will make their purchase decision based mainly on brand names and in this case product-decision involvement would be high because of the importance of the brand. They also stated that when a customer is loyal to a brand and purchases the brand regularly the person’s product-decision involvement will still be high because of the perceived strong difference between brands within a product category (Kim and Sung, 2009). In contrast to this the state that “if brand names do not meaningfully differentiate (in terms of value- expressive motives) from other competing brands within a product category (for example, some popular over-the-counter drugs), consumers will make purchase decisions based on the utilitarian and functional features of the product, regardless of brand names (Kim and Sung, 2009 p.511). Their research suggested that purchase- decision involvement should be measured in terms of four different involvement constructs: cognitive Vs affective involvement and product Vs brand involvement. The cognitive Vs affective involvement is similar to the think product Vs Feel products in the FCB (Foote, Cone, and Belding) grid for analysing consumer product relationships (Vaughn, 1980). Kara et al. (2009) suggest that the purchase and use of a product may evoke feeling, emotions, or provide a means for a person’s self expression and identity formation. Kim and Sung (2009) describe the product Vs brand involvement as ‘utilitarian Vs value -expressive’ (Kim and Sung, 2009). They use the following example to further explain what is meant by this type of involvement: a customer may be involved in their MP3 player purchase decision out of many types and features (storage, sound, design) of the products in the market, and he may also be involved in his brand decision out of many different brands (Apple, Sony, etc.) (Kim and Sung, 2009). Their study emphasises that if marketers know the varying level and kind of involvement their customers have with their brands and how (cognitively or affectively) their customers are involved with what product attributes (product functionality or brand) then they could develop optimal and effective marketing strategies (Kim and Sung, 2005). Figure 2 shows the affective-cognitive purchase-decision involvement plot. (Figure 2: Source: Kim and Sung, 2009) The Cognitive-Affective purchase- decision involvement is a tool which allows researchers and practitioners to compare certain areas of involvement not only within a product category but also across product categories (Kim and Sung, 2009). However, Schmidt and Pioch (2005) found that when pharmacists are selling medicines they are guided by the ethics of not overcharging their clients who are looked at as patients rather than consumers. In their study they found that pharmacists are more focused on improving and maintaining the services they offer as therapeutic experts than maintaining a good retail environment. The respondents to their study agreed that they were healthcare providers first and foremost, and the retail side of thing come in with a poor second. Pharmacists see themselves as service providers with a retail element, rather than as retailers with a service element, which might be a more fitting description of the competing brands of the multiples where typically the pharmacy is the smaller section within a much larger commercially oriented retail shop (Schmidt and Pioch, 2005). Similarly, Brower (2009) states that one of the biggest sources of conflict between pharmacists and store managers is a misunderstanding about their respective roles and goals. Store managers may not understand the very strict rules governing the pharmacy department and pharmacist practice. On one hand, store managers often do not recognise customers as patients and on the other, pharmacists do not recognise each patient as a store customer (Brower, 2009). Brower (2009) states that the lack of business education and experience often leaves pharmacists unprepared to meet non-patient-orientated tasks like preparing a budget or managing employee relations and suggests that pharmacists should complete a management course while store managers in turn should understand the legalities involved with operating a pharmacy.

Valencia Community College Philosophy Allegory of the Cave Plato Discussion

best essay writers Valencia Community College Philosophy Allegory of the Cave Plato Discussion.

PurposeThe Reading Assignment contains (usually) two questions pertaining to short sections of (usually) primary sources. Primary sources are the original writings of important philosophers, not textbook accounts, summaries, or expert explanations of original writings. (Expert explanations, textbook accounts, etc. are called ‘secondary sources.’) The primary sources are (usually) provided as links to free online sources. Detailed instructions identify the exact passages to read.Please note that this is NOT a research assignment. You should NOT search for additional information on the text(s) or its author(s) or try to find ‘the right answers’ to the Reading Assignment Questions. Rather, you should ‘struggle’ with the text(s) and make sure to answer all parts of the questions completely and thoroughly to the best of your understanding. Your Reading Assignment submission will be checked for plagiarism. See syllabus for plagiarism policy and academic integrity guidelines.The Reading Assignment is due by the due date specified in the course calendar. Late submissions (as marked by Canvas) will result in ‘0’ points for the Reading Assignment. Please make sure to carefully follow the directions provided and adhere to the deadline specified in the course calendar.DirectionsPlease read (at least a portion of) Book VII of Plato’s Republic. Click on the link below, select ‘Read this book online: HTML,’ scroll down to the table of contents, click on the link for Book VII, and read to (at least) the end of the paragraph starting with “This entire allegory, I said …” This passage contains the famous Allegory of the Cave.Plato: Republic (Links to an external site.)After careful reflection, please answer the following questions:In Plato’s allegory of the cave, the prisoners mistake the shadows for reality. What is this meant to illustrate? Please be sure to be specific, and carefully explain your reasoning.What kind of approach to teaching and learning do you see emerging from the allegory of the cave? How does learning take place? What is the role of the teacher? Please be sure to be specific, and carefully explain your reasoning.Your response to each question should be about 300 – 400 words in length, but please feel free to be as detailed as you wish. Your responses must be written in full sentences, logically structured, using proper grammar and spelling, and appropriate style. It is recommended that you write out your answers using a word processing program and copy and paste the completed response. This will avoid loss of work in case of internet outage, etc. Always keep a backup copy of all written work.Due DateThe due date for your Reading Assignment is specified in the course calendar.EvaluationYour Reading Assignment will be evaluated on the basis of the Reading Assignment Rubric.ValueThis Reading Assignment is worth 20 points toward your total score for this course. Please see syllabus for details.RubricReading Assignment RubricReading Assignment RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnswer Question 18 to >7.0 ptsAccomplishedAll aspects of question are answered. Answer is comprehensive, thorough, and fully supported by sound reasoning.7 to >4.0 ptsSolidSome aspects of question remain unanswered, and/or answer lacks detail and/or is not fully supported by sound reasoning.4 to >0.0 ptsDevelopingMost or all aspects of question remain unanswered, and/or answer is extremely brief and/or not supported by sound reasoning.0 ptsNo submission8 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnswer Question 18 to >7.0 ptsAccomplishedAll aspects of question are answered. Answer is comprehensive, thorough, and fully supported by sound reasoning.7 to >4.0 ptsSolidSome aspects of question remain unanswered, and/or answer lacks detail and/or is not fully supported by sound reasoning.4 to >0.0 ptsDevelopingMost or all aspects of question remain unanswered, and/or answer is extremely brief and/or not supported by sound reasoning.0 ptsNo Submission8 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLanguageUse of Standard, Written English4 to >3.0 ptsAccomplishedAnswers are logically structured and presented in complete sentences in proper written English. No or very few grammar or spelling errors are present.3 to >2.0 ptsSolidAnswers are not completely logically structured or presented in sentence fragments and/or contain some grammar and/or spelling errors.2 to >0.0 ptsDevelopingAnswers lack logical structure and are presented in sentence fragments and/or contain substantial grammar and/or spelling errors.0 ptsNo Submission4 ptsTotal Points: 20
Valencia Community College Philosophy Allegory of the Cave Plato Discussion

Three Abbreviated Research Plans Proposal

Introduction Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research methods have been used in various studies by different scholars. Therefore, this paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of each of the research methods. Besides, this paper provides an abbreviation for each of the research approach. Finally, it includes an introduction, a purpose statement, research questions and a research plan. Quantitative Research Methods: Strengths and Limitations Quantitative research methods have been used in different types of research studies by different researchers (McLaren, 2012; Symonds

TSU Tests to Compare Two Means & Sample for Variances Null Hypothesis Worksheet

TSU Tests to Compare Two Means & Sample for Variances Null Hypothesis Worksheet.

I’m working on a statistics case study and need support to help me understand better.

This assignment is intended to test your knowledge of how to appropriately compare two means. The data file (attached file: data_file.xlsx) has 50 randomly selected student debt amounts from 2018and 50 randomly selected student debt amounts from 2013.The data fields included are as follows:Debt in 2018 (dollars)Debt in 2013 (dollars)A university representative wants to know whether the sample data provide enough evidence to believe there is a difference between the debt amounts in the two years. The null and alternative hypotheses are shown below.Null Hypothesis: Mean Student Debt in 2018 is equal to Mean Student Debt in 2013Alternative Hypothesis: Mean Student Debt in 2018 is not equal to Mean Student Debt in 2013Complete the following tasks:1.Run an F-test for two sample variances using an alpha level of 0.05 and answer the following questions:Which of the two years has the higher mean? What are the values?Which of the two years has the higher variance? What are the values?Based on the statistical output, would you conclude that variances are equal or not equal? Provide an appropriate/authoritative explanation leveraging the statistical output.2.Run an appropriate t-test (assuming either equal or unequal variances based on your conclusion in 1c above) using an alpha level of 0.05and answer the following questions:Is this a one-tailed or two-tailed test? Provide an appropriate/authoritative explanation that fully explains the choice.Based on the statistical output, would you conclude that means are equal or not equal? Provide an appropriate/authoritative explanation leveraging the statistical output.Using everyday language that could be understood by parents and students, what does the analysis say about student debt in 2018versus 2013? Provide an appropriate/authoritative explanation leveraging the statistical output (e.g., use confidence level, rationale, etc.)Make sure that you run all the required analyses using the Data Analysis Toolpak in Excel and SUBMIT the Data Analysis Output along with the Data file in a Single Excel workbook that shows all your output. You should also submit a separate Word document that fully, and professionally, responds to each question.Run all required analyses and submit them along with the data file in a single Excel workbook that shows all your output and provide responses to all of the questions in a Word document.Resources
TSU Tests to Compare Two Means & Sample for Variances Null Hypothesis Worksheet