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Birthed in the Same Year Essay

Introduction In the early 1920s, American people were struggling to come into terms with various gender, cultural, and social norms that hindered success of some of members of the society. For instance, during this time, American women were fighting for their own sovereignty from male domineering. The climax for this fight was reached in 1926 when women were eventually accorded suffrage rights. Later, absorption of women in formal employment tremendously increased so that, by the end of the Second World War, an incredibly large number of American women population could access formal employment functioning in the jobs competitively as their male counterparts. The achievement means that early 1920s marked the beginning of the era in which women ceased to be predominantly accustomed to domestic chores as dictated by societal norms defining gender roles in earlier years. Literature works function to reflect changes in society by challenging and ridiculing certain societal norms, which the author of such works feels that they impair the collective development of the society. This paper scrutinises Virginia Woolfe’s literary work To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand by Salvador Dali in the effort to dig out common themes that are reflective of the 1927 contemporary societal approaches to gender, culture, historical events, and representation of different types of people. Comparative Analysis of Themes Gender The novel To the Lighthouse by Woolfe constitutes three main parts namely the window, time pass, and the lighthouse. The novel’s part one setting is based in a summer home belonging to Ramsay located in isle of Skype in Hebrides. The piece starts by James being guaranteed by his mother, Mrs. Ramsay that, come the following day, the two would tour the lighthouse. However, Mr. Ramsay is opposed to this decision by claiming that the weather would not be clear. Hence, the trip was impossible. This very incident draws much controversy between Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay. Indeed, in the following chapters, the discussion of the relationship between the two is discussed in the context of the tension created by the controversy. The controversy presents opposing and emerging new approaches to families on who would be the decision maker in the 1920’s. Similarly, the painting figure of Dali is surrounded by women images. These metaphors are an illustration of the contemplation that runs across the brains of the device. From the proportionality of the painting, it is evident that the apparatus assumes the largest surface area of the painting while the female images take the lesser space, yet the similes are many. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguably, this strategy sends sound message that the apparatus is domineering and in control over the female images that surround it. The centrality of the apparatus in the painting also shows how effective its voice of command is on the surrounding images. In this sense, the painting portrays gender themes characterising the early1920’s American society in which men took central roles in the society with women being given minimal chances to make decisions. Directly congruent to the manner in which the female images surround the main apparatus of the painting, women in this period were supposed to obey and respect the decisions and opinions of men, whether they were wrong or right notwithstanding. The fact that the creature is surrounded by many female images and that the images represent what is running in the minds of the apparatus implies that the creature was erotic. This argument perhaps justifies the polygamy nature of the early 19th century society. Arguably, the argument also means that the creature is pleased by having many females around it. In this sense, the apparatus may be interpreted as believing that women are objects of pleasing it, which perhaps measures up to the early 19th century perception of held against women. They were supposed to remain at home and be involved in the familial chores. This life was highly dependent on the mercies of men who were accepted as the sole breadwinners. The presentation of dominance of one gender in the early 19th century societies is also evident in To the Lighthouse. Mr. Ramsay does not consider the decisions of his wife to take a trip to the lighthouse with her children as right. He immensely opposes it. Both live within the same place. However, it seems that Mrs. Ramsay does not understand the fact that bad weather could impede the success of their journey due to lack of clarity. Does this mean that women are less endowed with the ability to evaluate the implication of their decisions? While the above query would be dismissed in the cotemporary modern society, in Virginia Woolfe and Salvador Dali’s time, it was a subject of controversy. This case is evidenced by the fact the relationship of Mr. Ramsay and Mrs. Mr. Ramsay cites very good reason on why it would be impossible to visit the lighthouse. However, it is arguable that Mrs. Ramsey treats the opposition of her decision as perhaps being based on the deep-seated cultural norms that men should dominate over women and that they are the overall decision makers in families. This argument is perhaps more evident in part one through consideration of the dominant believe that some jobs were only a reserve of men. Consequently, women were less suited to such jobs. In the novel, Briscoe, among other colleagues and friends to Ramsey, joins their house. Briscoe is a young woman painter who is just starting her career. She is plagued by the Tansley’s ideologies that women cannot write or even paint. This belief is a significant indicator of the perception of males domineering in some fields since Tansley is an adorable admirer of the philosophical treatises of the Mr. Ramsay. We will write a custom Essay on Birthed in the Same Year specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He was greatly impacted by Mr. Ramsay decisions not to take the trip because the weather would not be clear. While it is common knowledge that bad weather resulting in loss of vision clarity may impair navigation and sailing, from the presentation of Mrs. Ramsay, it is not common sense among women. This argument perhaps shows that women cannot make good decisions. They often put their lives in danger if men do not question their decisions. Reflection of gender themes in the two works speak volumes of both authors’ attempt to explore gender oppression ideals held by the early 19th century society. In the To the Lighthouse, women appear unable to make substantive decisions. The right denied reminiscences the period preceding 1926 when woman were deprived of suffrage rights. They would not be able to elect leaders who would be of help to the society just as Mrs. Ramsay would not understand that bad weather could be hazardous and often lead to the curtailing of her trip to the lighthouse midway. Female gender found itself in a bad situation in the early 19th century by consideration of presentation of women as objects for satisfying erotic desires of the central creature (apparatus) in Dali’s painting. Historic Events Any literature work is based on the experiences of people as humanity moves from one generation to another. This argument also applies to Virginia Woolfe’s literary work To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand by Salvador Dali. For instance, the struggle for cognition of women as equal to men in social domains is a significant theme that recurs in both works. At the time of Dali’s painting, it is evident that gender perceptions have enormously changed as evidenced by the posed female image placed on the right of the painting to “contrast the geometric simplicity of the centre image” (Moorhous 45). The existence of a female image, which is disjointed from other images that surround the main apparatus, shows that women have by far extent overcome the historical perceptions of erosion of their independence. In To the Lighthouse, the theme of historical events is developed through categorisation of characters such as Mr. Tansley who still believes that, consistent with traditions, women still cannot perform certain tasks, which are reserved for men such as writing and painting. The analogy of this historical change is striking in the two works, which also happen to be written in 1927 since Dali’s painting also portrays an evolved 1927 woman ready to face competition with the apparatus. Dali created his painting upon his return from war. As a historical event shaping human race from generation to generation, war often results to loss of life and other massive damages to societal fabrics. The degree of such loss is exemplified by the donkey creature in the painting, which is bounded by a mass of flies eating its tummy. This technique means that the donkey is undergoing the decomposition process, meaning that it is already dead. Representation of People In both To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand, people are presented as resistant to change even in the light of the new dawn. For instance, in the painting by Dali, although women’s struggle during the 1920s yielded incredible fruits in appreciation of the significance of ensuring that they had equal rights with men, some women still clinched on the status quo. Not sure if you can write a paper on Birthed in the Same Year by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Women who surrounded the apparatus exemplify this case yet a new breed of women was freely exercising its own rights as guaranteed to it through legislative enactments of 1920’s. The historical experience of people is explored through the presentation of theme of war and its aftermaths. The section also digs into the perspectives of passing of time, existence of time absence in people’s lives, and the realities of death. In the ten-year historical timeline, the four years of suffering of humanity articulated to the First World War comes and finally ends. Within the same ten years, Mrs. Ramsay also dies while Prue also succumbs to complications she encountered as she gave birth. Andre also dies during the wanton years. Tantamount to the first part, the roles of women in society are also addressed in the second part. The author argues that, following the death of Mrs. Ramsay, Mr. Ramsay has no one to comfort coupled with praising him in the days of fear and anguish relating to longevity of his much-adored philosophical work. In the last part of the novel To the Lighthouse, following the events that took place in part one, some of Ramsay’s friends go back to their summer homes ten years later. Although Ramsay was opposed to taking the journey to the lighthouse in the first part, he finally accepts the idea and requests his daughter and son, James and Cam respectively, to accompany him. Nevertheless, the two siblings protest for been forced to accompany their father but remain silent due to the immense fear they have for their farther. James manages to ensure that the boat sails smoothly. In this journey, one comes to learn that men as presented in the first part were chauvinistic and harsh towards not only their wives but also their children. James evidences this assertion when the author informs that, during the journey; James anticipated harsh words from his father. However, instead, in the entire journey, he received words of praise, something that provided “a rare moment of empathy between father and son” (Woolfe 56). It is also during this journey that Cam’s negative attitude towards her farther was altered from “resentment to eventual admiration” (Woolfe 43). Arguably, their journey also presents a change of events and acceptance of the fact that women can equally perform the tasks, which were traditionally perceived as men’s discipline because it is during the journey that Lily manages to complete her painting, which was otherwise only mentally painted throughout the novel. In the two works, people are presented as unable to preserve their own experiences as they descend from one generation to another. This argument is perhaps also valid in the modern day. Dali’s painting still holds and carries the same message as its creator intended as it stands at the Salvador museum. Comparatively, Mr. Ramsay deploys valid mechanisms of ensuring that life remains amply significant. In this effort, Mr. Ramsay is driven by his philosophical approaches to growth of people’s thoughts to ensure that their affiliations to various perceived norms remain relevant. On the other hand, Mrs. Ramsay is incredibly guided by her experiences of her social interactions to attaching meaning to her life experiences. This comparison presents two people who seem to belong to different generations although living in the same era. One generation represented by Mr. Ramsay is guided by the developments of the power of human thought to construct and attach meaning to life while the other, represented by Mrs. Ramsay, is still deeply ingrained in the traditional approaches to life experiences. Culture Culture is an important aspect of people’s life. The use of the term culture incorporates the artefact, which defines people’s way of life. In a broader context, culture defines also the deeply seated perceptions that are passed from one person to another within a society. Culture defines what all members subscribing to the ideologies of a given society ought to do and what they ought not to do. However, such ideologies are widely criticised by both To the Lighthouse and Apparatus and Hand. In the Apparatus and Hand, one sees liberated woman who violate the culture of overdependence on the gigantic and superior figures in society, men. Currently, the work is located in the Salvador museum at St. Petersburg in the state of Florida. The painting displays a well thought cultural geometric figure, which has a protruding red hand from its head. The figure is made of triangles and cones. As Moorhous informs, “Ghostly images of nude female figures and torsos superimposed on a blue watery dreamscape surround the structure” (17). The interpretation themes and the intended message conveyed by the painting may be attributed to themes of historic war bearing in mind that Dali did the painting upon his coming back home from a nine-month long war during, which he was deployed for a military duty. Dali lived in the Freudian period. Therefore, his painting was highly inspired by Freud’s line of thought. In To the Lighthouse, women have refused to subscribe to the culture that subverts their place and roles in society. For instance, Lily Briscoe does not desire at all to engage in matrimony. Rather, she is committed in engaging in the formal work much similar to people like Mr. Bankes and Mr. Ramsay. Her independency from the cultural practices, which see women as inferior in society is made clear by her presentation as an independent woman who disregards chauvinistic perceptions held by Mr. Tansley that women are incapable of painting. This idea coupled with the idea of refusing to give in her life to any man makes her unconventional woman in the context of the 1920’s American culture. A similar approach to cultural norms is also exhibited and echoed by Cam, Rose, and Nancy who believe that their mothers’ perception that women are limited to domestic work is overtaken by events. Women who are at home with the culture of curving their lives are presented as open to disaster in the future. For instance, while Prue succumbs to childbirth complications, Mrs. Ramsay’s demise comes at a much early age in relation to people’s anticipations. Minta also suffers her marriage when her husband abandons her for another woman who does not comply with conventional culture subverting the place of women in the society. Conclusion In the early1920’s, the American society was undergoing intensive progressive changes. It was in this time that the First World War was experienced where women succeeded in the fights for their rights including suffrage rights and incorporation in the formal employment similar to their male counterparts. This means there were changes in the culture of the Americans. People began to be guided by the new insights of equality of all human beings irrespective of their gender or any other demographic factor. The above issues stand out well in the two texts that have been discussed in the paper. Despite the time gap, any literature or history fanatic who is interested in getting a clear picture of issues as they unfolded in the 1920s will find the two works helpful. Any work of literature serves the principle function of recording historical experiences of a society coupled with offering criticism to some of the norms that an author feels are largely misplaced. Therefore, the study argues that both To the Lighthouse, written by Virginia Woolfe, and Apparatus and Hand, written by Salvador Dali, depict themes such as recording of historical events, gender role subversion, cultural changes, and representation of people in various ways. Works Cited Moorhous, Paul. Dali. New York, NY: PRC Publishing, 1990. Print. Woolfe, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. New York, NY: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990. Print.
Inflation has been a thorn in the side of the government for quite a while a while now. The rising prices of essential commodities especially food commodities, has affected the common man especially the poor. Knowing the fact that 32% of the total population still lives below poverty line in the country, makes this a graver problem. The paper tries to do analysis of monetary factors affecting the rate of inflation. It tries to explore various options in front of Reserve Bank of India as the central monetary authority. The paper also tries to arrive at best solution from various options and gives out their supportive and opposing arguments. The paper also provides suggestions in tackling the problem in a similar scenario in the future. Keywords: Table of Contents Topic Page No. Title Page 1 Acknowledgement 2 Abstract 3 Table of Content 4 Introduction 5 Problem Statement 6 Purpose of Study 6 Methodology 7 Review of Literature 8 Inflation- Emperor of Economic maladies 8 Causes of Inflation 8 Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 9 Inflation and Monetary Policies 10 Rate of Inflation in India 12 Measure of Inflation in India 13 Conclusion 16 References 17 Appendix 18 Introduction Inflation is one of the most prominent and misinterpreted economic phenomenon. It is a sustained increase in prices of all goods across the board. Due to this reason, it erodes the cost purchasing power in the economy and raises the cost of living. It is a phenomenon that has been faced by countries all over the world and is constantly evolving over the course of history. Central Banks, financial institutions, and analysts track the level of inflation due to its criticality in day to day life of every person. More importantly, the poor are the most vulnerable to inflation in the society. As, JM Keynes said, “Inflation is the form of taxation which the public find hardest to evade”; it has received a wide attention from media recently. India’s growth story depends critically on inflation in the country. India has faced two periods i.e. 2006-08 and 2009-11 of severe inflationary pressures. These periods have caused a severe burden on the purchasing power of a normal citizen in the country. RBI has tried to tackle this situation by increasing the increasing the repo rate and reverse repo rates nine time by 25 basis points (bps) from April 2010 to May 2011; whereas in May 2011, the hike of both rates was by 50 bps. This has severely affected the growth of the economy and India’s GDP results have taken a beating. But in order to maintain a sustainable level of inflationary rate, growth in the short run needs to be compromised. Hence maintaining the balance between an optimal inflation rate and persistent growth is a very delicate policy. Problem Statement To study and analyse the impact of various monetary policy options available to the Reserve Bank of India to contain the inflationary trends in India. Purpose of the Study India’s identity as an emerging economic giant depends largely on the manner in which it tackles the inflation in the country. In the short term, growth may be compromised to get out of this quagmire but there is a need to minimise this period of slowdown in growth. This study looks to gives solutions and suggestions to combat the situation and helps me in understanding the circulation of money and its efficacy in fighting inflation. Methodology The research project shall two stages. In the first stage, secondary data will be collected associated with the research. The secondary data in this research will be the recent rates of inflation and policy measures undertaken by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and other numbers from other statistical databanks. Further, the research will also study the various research papers that have explained the successful implementation of different monetary methods in other countries and try to draw up on their findings. Literature Review Inflation- Emperor of Economic Malaise Whenever demand for a good is more than the supply for the good the price for that good increases. But if prices of commodities across all sectors increase then this situation is called inflation. In this situation there is very little that a government or a central bank can do because of its huge scope. Inflation is a phenomenon of persistent rise in prices of commodities and factors of production. It is not the increase in price of a single good but a significant and a sustained rise in general price levels. Inflation however is not the increase in prices of all commodities rather it is a rise in prices of certain goods and services in such a way the overall prices increases. Inflation reduces the valuation of money where a certain amount of money would now buy smaller amount of a good than it did before the phenomenon. Macro-economically speaking Inflation arises due to a gap in aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Kaushik Basu (2011) has said that Inflation has been ancient phenomenon by stating that it has been experienced by humankind since the time of the end of barter system and the use of mediums of exchange like paper money, precious metals or any other source of exchange. Causes of Inflation There are two major causes of inflation Demand Pull Inflation: When price levels increase due to excess of spending i.e. aggregate demand. This means that people have too much money to spend for a few amounts of good. It occurs when the economy spends beyond the production capability and hence aggregate demand increases which causes rise in prices of various products. Cost-Push Inflation: Cost-push inflation arises due to increase in cost of production at each price level. This is majorly contributed to increase in direct costs of production which reduces the aggregate supply. A decrease in aggregate supply as compared to a constant aggregate demand usually leads not only to higher price level. This situation can be compounded by fall in total level of output also and is termed as stagflation. Prasanna and Gopakumar (2011) state the importance of control of inflationary pressures by saying that macroeconomic stability and necessary infrastructure are prerequisites of continual growth. Macroeconomic stability can hence be achieved through affective control of inflation. A study of results of various countries proves that there exists an inverse relationship between inflation and long-term growth. Countries with high inflation rates have performed much inferior as compared to countries with low or moderate rates of inflation. Kaushik Basu (2011) in his paper Understanding Inflation and controlling it explains the enormity of the problem of Inflation and says that aggregate demand in the economy is affected by various agents and each agent can undo the actions of the other. He also names Inflation as the “Emperor of Economic Maladies” He also mentions that the current situation which the country is facing is not the worst that India has faced. And says that the country faced it worst situation of inflation during the period of November 1973 to December 1974 where inflation rate never dropped below 20% and was above 30% from June-Sep 1974. Amol Agrawal (2011) does a comparative analysis of the two recent inflationary periods suffered by the country and mentions that factors influencing inflation in 2009-11 are different than the factors influencing 2006-08, where in the former it is a combination of supply and demand shocks whereas the latter was due to the slowdown caused by the global financial crisis. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Central Office was shifted to Mumbai from Kolkata in 1937 where it is currently located. RBI is responsible for several functions as a central bank and has evolved and gained autonomy gradually through adaptations and changes. Along with the basic functions of a central bank i.e. the sole authority of issuing bank notes of all denominations it has functions of managing exchange rates, regulating financial system and the banker of other banks. It is also the main policy maker of monetary policies in India. In 1998, the RBI formally adopted objectives of monetary policies which are stated as: To maintain a stable inflation. To support appropriate liquidity to support higher economic growth. To ensure smooth relations with exchange market. To maintain stable interest rates. However there is no directive about the price stability. This it can be attributed to the fact that the monetary policy of RBI has evolved over time and has tried to maintain a balance between price stability and growth through adequate credit facility. Inflation and Monetary Policies Frederic Mishkin (2010) outlines nine basic principles of the science of monetary policy which are: Inflation is always a monetary phenomenon: Various researches conducted by monetarist like Friedman and others have categorically proved that money supply is a key determinant of macro-economic activity particularly inflation. It has been agreed that an overly expansive monetary policy is the fundamental source of inflation. Price stability has important benefits: High inflation reduces the value of money as a medium of exchange. This leads to uncertainty about current and future price levels making it difficult to make proper decisions. This situation leads to volatility in the economy and high costs of inflation causes to increase in the improper deployment of resources in the country. No long-run trade-off between unemployment and inflation: Phillips Curve suggests that in short term there is a definitive inverse relation between the rate of unemployment and the rate of inflation in an economy. But in the long-run there is no such trade-off. In the long-run the economy gravitated towards a natural and a stable rate of unemployment without any correlation with rate of inflation. The Crucial Role of Expectations: In the long run the expectation of the inflation plays a crucial role. The rationale behind its importance is that economic activities depend a lot on the future monetary policies and market conditions hence actions of policymakers play a crucial role in overall market sentiments and consequently to the setting the policies. Patra and Ray (2010) as a part of IMF working paper mention that correct inflation expectation can also play a central role in setting and conducting the monetary policy for the country. Over a fixed time period, if inflation expectation remains anchored the effectiveness of the monetary policy increases over the time and its accuracy also reflects the credibility of the monetary authority. Taylor Principle: Taylor principle implies that nominal short-term interest rates should be set in such a way that it responds to deviation of actual inflation rates from target inflation rates and of actual GDP from potential GDP. This means that inflation will only remain under control of real interest rates rise in response to the hike in inflation. The time-inconsistency problem: If the policies are based on short-term goals i.e. decisions are made based on day-by-day basis or discretionary basis than it can lead to even worse situation. Monetary Policy makers may find it difficult to maintain their strategy over an optimal period of time; this would make it time-inconsistent. Independence of central bank: This is the most fundamental aspect for a central bank in any country. A central bank is the best placed institution to tackle the technical issue of inflation. By allowing the central banks to operate independently allows them to implement their aims without being concerned about the short term pressures and other external pressures. Bank of England’s independence in setting monetary policies in 1997 and resultant decline of breakeven inflation is a striking example at best. Strong nominal anchor: A long run commitment to price stability through setting up a nominal anchor helps in coping with the problem of time-inconsistencies. It shows the clear focus of the central bank for its near future and helps it to desist from the temptation of short-term expansionary gains. It also makes the government much more responsible and promotes price stability and the likelihood of inflation scares. Financial frictions and the Business Cycle: Financial disruptions due to business cycle of boom and depression could be very damaging to the economy and this view was further consolidated after the depression of 2007-09. The most severe business cycle downturns are typically the outcomes of financial instability hence shocks to financial system adversely affects financial stability and hence inflation. Rate of Inflation in India Kaushik Basu (2012) illustrates the recent trends of inflation rate throw a challenging dilemma to the policy makers. The all commodity inflation rate has hovered around 10% whereas the food inflation has even crossed the 20% mark for Dec-09 and Feb-10. (Refer to the Table 1 in Appendices) With still 32% of the population living below the poverty line this steep increase is unacceptable for the country. Source: The Rise of the Indian Economy: Fiscal, Monetary and other Policy Challenges by Kaushik Basu (2012) Measure of Inflation in India There can be various measures for measurement of inflation in a country. In most countries CPI (Consumer Price index) is the most widely used measure of inflation. The overall CPI represents the cost of a representative basket of goods and services consumed by a rural/urban household. In some countries, PPI (Producer Price Index) is also used as a measure of inflation. The uniqueness of PPI is that it calculate price rise from the perspective of the producer or the seller. The difference between PPI and CPI may arise due to government subsidies, sales and excise taxes, and distribution costs. Ila Patnaik (2011) et al mentions in their article that India is one of the few countries in the world where the WPI is considered as the headline inflation measure by the central bank. This can be attributed to three reasons: Holistic coverage of the country Timeliness of release Availability in disaggregated format They argue that WPI even though being a valuable source of data, should be de-emphasized in the inflation measurement, because essentially it is not calculating the price that a customer is paying for the good. Deepak Mohanty (2010) mention that India currently has five different primary measures of inflation: The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) The Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW) The CPI for Agricultural Labourers (CPI-AL) The CPI for Rural Labourers (CPI-RL) The CPI for Urban non-manual employees (CPI-UNME) D Subbarao (2010) in his lecture mentioned that the multiplicity of inflation indices is a problem and on-going efforts have been made to reduce the number of consumer price index, which shall give a much more wholesome view of the inflation rates. Also this system does not consider the service sector which now currently contributes majority of the country’s GDP. Deepak Mohanty (2010) pitches for a more inclusive CPI in the country. He says that CPI measures the level of expenditure that the consumers spend on buying selected goods and services at retail prices, hence a broad based CPI for the country as a whole which includes both the manufacturing and services sector and provides greater relevance to future monetary policy formulation. He mentions that RBI is currently considering the use of CPI (Urban) and CPI (Rural) indices that would give a more wholesome result. He also suggests the use of GDP deflator to measure inflation accurately in the country. GDP deflator is a broader measurement as compared to CPI and WPI. It is calculated from national accounts as the ratio of the estimates at the current prices to the estimates at constant prices. It is seldom used because of delay in publication of national accounts which are available on a quarterly basis with a lag of around two months. Cristadoro and Giovanni Veronese (2011) give a more critical assessment of RBI’s policies and say that major difference between RBI’s strategy and other emerging economies is insistence on various objectives without a formal statement concerning their ordering. They attribute the current problem of inflation in the country to the lack of clear objective for the monetary policy by the RBI and its insistence to adapt anti-inflationary steps according to the prevailing economic conditions. They call for a more emphatic strategy from the RBI recognizing its commitment to price stability as a priority which is independent from the evolution of the economy. This will not only set a perfect guideline for future course of action but will also help in an accurate Taylor Rule calculation. Cristadoro also give a calibrated Taylor Rule for India and other emerging economies to deal with price shocks through the monetary policies. It has the advantage of being simpler and less complex than calculating from the normal Taylor rule. Vineeth Mohandas (2012) observes that Reserve Bank of India has been ‘recession averse’ i.e. its strategies are focused on averting the situation of economic slowdown rather than inflation which is natural for an emerging economy like India. Masson et al (1997) pitched for Inflation targeting as a suitable monetary policy to reduce inflation and say that countries like New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Australia, and Spain have implemented monetary policies focusing on reducing inflation as the primary motive and have been able to reduce the rate of inflation in their respective countries. Rakesh Mohan (2008) points out that inflation targeting may not be the best solution for India as while achieving low inflation as a central aim of monetary policy and also maintain the high and continual growth is sometimes counterproductive to each other. Apart from the legitimate concern for maintaining high growth as the vital objective for a growing economy, inflation targeting is not the most suitable solution for India. Abbas et al (2012) also come to a conclusion that Inflation targeting is not a big success in emerging economies including India because of variety of reasons. These factors range from lack of any pre-conditions and weak relationship between the variables and the their adverse shock to the important variables in the Taylor equation i.e. Real GDP, Inflation, Exchange Rate, short term interest rates. Conclusion The study of previous literature on Inflation and the subsequent monetary policies shows that each method has its merits and demerits. A single method in itself will not give the desired results. The RBI has done a commendable job till now in controlling the inflationary pressure in the country, but it needs to evolve continuously to sustain a persistent growth of the economy. RBI first of all needs to shift from the multiple indices of measuring inflation to lesser or if possible single measure of Inflation measurement. RBI also needs to set a fixed nominal anchor within whose range it will formulate its monetary policies. RBI also needs to formally state its objective of staying close to a certain inflation number to reinstate its commitment to financial and price stability. RBI is the prima facie authority (along with the Government of India), plays a crucial role in formulating the monetary policies. It can shape the future of the economic stability of the nation and propel the country towards a flourishing phase it is destined to. References T.R. Jain, Mukesh Trehan, Rajinder Uppal, Ranju Trehan; Indian Economy; VK Publications Robert J. Carbaugh; Contemporary Economics: An Applications Approach; M.E. Sharpe Sampat Mukherjee; Modern Economic Theory; New Age International Kaushik Basu (2011); Understanding Inflation and Controlling it Prasanna V Salian, Gopakumar K. (2011); Inflation and Economic Growth in India- An Empirical Analysis Amol Agrawal (2011); Inflation and Monetary Policy: 2006-08 vs. 2009-11 RBI, Annual Report, Various Issues, http://www.rbi.org.in Raghbendra Jha (2008); Inflation targeting in India Fredric S. Mishkin (2010); Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons from the Crisis Kaushik Basu (2012); The Rise of the Indian Economy: Fiscal, Monetary and Other Policy Challenges Ila Patnaik, Ajay Shah, Giovanni Veronese (2011); How should Inflation be measured in India? Deepak Mohanty (2010); Measures of inflation in India- issues and perspectives Subbarao, D (2010): Financial Crisis – Some Old Questions and Maybe Some New Answers; Tenth C D Deshmukh Memorial Lecture delivered at Council for Social Development, Southern Regional Centre, Hyderabad. Riccardo Cristadoro and Giovanni Veronese (2011); Monetary policy in India: is something amiss? Vineeth Mohandas; Inflation targeting and India: Can monetary policy in India Follow inflation targeting and are the monetary policy reaction functions asymmetric? Paul R. Masson, Miguel A. Savastano, Sunil Sharma (1997); The scope for inflation targeting in developing countries Rakesh Mohan (2006); Monetary Policy Transmission in India Rizvi Syed Kumail Abbas, Naqvi Bushra, Mirza Nawazish (2012); Inflation targeting as a plausible monetary framework for India
The Concepts Of Equality And Inclusion. In my essay my intention is for the reader to gain an insight to the effectiveness of legislation and currents Scottish Government policy through various factors. These factors being prejudice, discrimination, poverty, stereotyping, and promoting social justice and inclusion. I have also looked into diversity and how the above factors can influence in an early year setting. With having an insight to multiple identities, I have considered its application to policy and practice in the early years settings. Siraj Blatchford, (2006) describes multiple identities, as Identity formation is a complex process that is never completed. She believed individuals experience of gender, class, and other formative categories will form ones identity. Identity can be described as a kaleidoscope, suggesting children are all individuals and differences in people. Parents views, media images, and the childs own perceptions based on their experiences and the values they have been shown can shape their identity. Children may have had a strong role model in their life absent and have a negative perception of people. Siraj Blatchford, (1998) stresses the importance to avoid stereotyping and the role an early years staff need to be vigilant of this and to take an active role in planning for, that avoid stereotyping supporting and developing individual childrens identities as masterful learners of a broad and balance curriculum. Children at my placement had the opportunity to express their own identity through their own planning. This is evident in Task 1 (Appendix-A:1). Standard 11 from the National Care Standards (2005), Each child or young person has access to a sufficient and suitable range of resources. Point 1 of Standard 11 indicates this should be apparent with providing multi-cultural materials. Legislation such as the Equality Act (2010) provides todays society a law that protects individuals from unfair treatment and promotes a fair and more equal society. Early year practitioners need to be aware of this act. This will then strengthen their knowledge and help towards preventing discrimination and inequality. Early years practitioners are also protected by the legislation. Whilst on placement I researched what resources they had to meet all individual and multiple identities. This is evident in Task 2 (Appendix A:2). This is also inline with Getting it right for every child, (2007) were is states Children and young people should be involved in planning according to their age, stage and understanding. Practitioners then are putting the child needs at the centre and develop a shared understanding within the setting and across agencies. There are eight sub headings that Scotland feels Children in Scotland should have met. These are Safe, Healthy, Achieving, Nurtured, Active, Respected, Responsible, and Included. A plan may be put in place if a child is not being able to achieve one of the above. A plan is put in place for the childs goals to be accomplished and to monitor the childs progress. A child with this assessment tool is having their individual needs looked at. In Task 1(Appendix A:1) it is evident demonstrating how the setting dealt with a child who had specific individual needs and who the setting was in partnership with. Staff should be aware how they treat children as individuals to avoid stereotyping what a girl can play with and what a boy can play with. For example a boy should not be discouraged from playing in the home corner as that would be stereotyping it should only be girls. This is outlined in Lindon, (1998). Children should be able to choose and play with what they want. Staff should be aware of their language towards children and shouldnt suggest strong boys or a clever girl to pass on a message. This was outlined in my observations where the children had the choice to choose what they want to play with and what area in the playroom. This is outlined in Task 1 (Appendix A:1) . Early years establishments should consider The Race Relations Amendment Act, (2000). This act protects staff from being racial abused promotion of good equality to all people regardless of their racial groups. Milner, (1983) demonstrated children have shown positive and negative feelings about people from a different race from themselves. As a practitioner ensuring they portray a positive image to all will discourage negative and racial prejudice whilst making children aware not everyone is the same. Planning with Curriculum for Excellence (2009) will encourage for children to be Responsive Citizens which covers respect for others and understand different beliefs and cultures. In early years settings it is predominately females but a mixed work force is an advantage for children and staff. Children should have positive relationships with females and males. There should be a staff employment process and policy to prevent stereotyping and discrimination when recruiting. Staff should also speak to male guardians when they come to collect the child rather than only speaking to the mothers. This would be deemed as prejudice towards the male role of parenting. In my placement they had a recruitment policy, which was visible at the entrance. This is outlined in Task 3 (Appendix A:3). HMIE The Child at the Centre, (2007) indicator 9.1 looks at promotion of positive attitudes to social and cultural diversity. By talking to both female and males parents the vision is shared and all are working together. This means all involved with the setting have a shared knowledge of the setting aims and values. In point 9.1 is also describes the importance of celebrating diversity and inclusion. This is a key point as it may then promote positive attitudes in which will have a knock on effect on the child perception of what is acceptable. Whilst having protection for children and their rights, each child should be treated as an equal whilst getting their individual needs met. All children should be treated fairly regardless of their home circumstances. Children have a better prospect to a brighter future in life if legislation is in place. Pre-school is important for children to receive positive messages and learn values of others. If children are in a minority in a nursery class they are more likely to find it difficult if labelled or stereotyped. This is in-line with what Dowling, (2010) believes children will learn from the message received from the adults in their life and through modelling. Acts are put in place to protect children and others. The Children (Scotland) Act 1995 protects the welfare, safety and rights of the child. Childrens participation in family, community and culture makes a particular contribution to their life (Waller, 2005). Early year settings should be making it their duty to work well together with parents, authorities and agencies to tackle issues against class, poverty and discrimination. Also staff should be aiming for all childrens outcomes to be achieved regardless of their class, so children dont fall into a low class society due to lack of opportunities. As a practitioner I have a responsibility to use legislation in my practice and portray positive images to children about all being equal and treated fairly which is in-line with National Care Standards, (2005), Standard 8, point 1. The Equality Bill, (2009) is to reduce socio-economic inequalities. It gives each individual opportunity to succeed to build a modern prosperous society, tackling any barriers that hold people back. If people receive help they wont begin to have a sense of hopelessness. Services should be aiming for all childrens outcomes to be achieved regardless of their class, so children dont fall into a low class society due to lack of opportunities. Equally Well, (2008) is The Scottish Government approach to tackling poverty and to improve the health in Scotland. It covers points, which will influence a child opportunity in life. Children’s circumstances in the earliest years of life are critical to future health inequalities. If work can be put in place at the earliest stage possible it achieve to an ending of the cycle of todays health inequalities which is what the parents passes onto the child and affecting their future. Equally well, (2008) is also in line with the Scottish Government policy, Early Years Framework, (2009). Through this they hope to change the focus from crisis intervention to prevention and early intervention. Achieving Our Potential (2008) also is a framework, which is trying to tackle poverty in todays society. The Government through this policy is aiming to support those who are in poverty or any individuals that in risk of falling into poverty. In Scotland they found 17% of Scotland population was affected by relative poverty. The Early Year Framework, (2009) aims to provide children the best start to their life through the support of families, communities and services. Further more if all working together it should help to improve the state of people health through, less stress for parents as receiving support, safer housing and environments for children to develop and learn. It will also improve engagement with children and families. The framework works along side the UN Convention on Rights of the Child, (1989). One of the points which is important for early years setting to be aware of is Article 27 – Children grow up free from poverty in their early years and have their outcomes defined by their ability and potential rather than their family background. This applies to all children regardless of their age, gender, race, culture beliefs and social status. According to Bennett and Moss report, ( 2009) Working with Diversity: summary of a discussion paper for Children in Scotland. They believed some children services help contribute to social justice. One of the key themes being working with ethnicity and poverty They believed that children with a lower socio-economic groups are statistically likely to have poor outcomes on a wide range of measures. These outcomes include the childs family stability, attendance in class, health and employability opportunities. Children from an excluded ethnic background will be even more likely to have poorer outcomes due to be socially excluded. Additionally they also felt the government should give children a fair start in life which is very similar to what the Early Years Framework, (2009) is trying to achieve. Services for children then have an important role in looking at children at individuals and promote their learning regardless of any ethic background. This is evident from my placement in Task 1 (Appendix A:1). The placement also offered praise to the children through various ways and is inline with the setting prompting Positive behaviour policy. This is evident in Task 2 and Task 3 (Appendix A:2 and A:3). This promotes the identities of the children and is a fair process for all promoting inclusion. Point 1.1 of the Scottish Social Services Council Codes of Practice for Social Service Workers, (2002) is to treat each person as an individual. The codes is an agreed document which is active as services Workers are adhering to working in services to provide the best possible care to the needs of others and following a conduct of practice. Point 1.6 Respecting diversity and different cultures and values. This point is valuable to be respectful of individual identities and their backgrounds. Early years staff on my placement all held a enhanced disclosure from Disclosure Scotland, (2002), which is where adults working with children are vetted against any convictions and details any list they are on which inhibits them to work with children. It means the person working with a child is safe to do so and plays an important part of the recruitment process that all individuals will undertake due the nature of work. This is line with the placement policy on Selection Process For Staff and is in-line with HMIE Child at the Centre, (2007) indicator 1.2. The indicator implements what is the lawful requirement for the setting whilst following legislation and codes of practice. Maslow hierarchy of needs is a triangle of needs he believed human beings have to work through. According to Maslow one stage had to be satisfied in order to process to the next stage. A child in poverty will struggle to move from the physiological needs stage as poverty will inflict on the amount of food and warmth they have. The next stage takes into account of safety, which may not be ideal for people living in rural areas due to poverty. Carneiro, (2007) showed that parental interest has a strong impact on the development of cognitive and social skills. Parents with high interest for preschool education will send their child to a good learning environment. According to Sammons, ( 2005) children who have no pre-school have lower cognitive scores and social abilities. This will then have a knock on effect to the child abilities to succeed as they grow. Parents are encouraged to take an active role within the setting I was on placement at. This is evident in Task 3 (Appendix A:3). By involving themselves they are working alongside the team and provides the parents the opportunity to build positive relationships. With all parents being welcomed they will feel valued and are being treated as an equal. It also gives parents the opportunity to find out information about the childs home life. With thinking about my placement and its stage of understanding social justice and inclusion I began to think of Siraj Blatchford, (1996) stages of equality practice. With the 6 stages I feel my placement lies within Stage 4. They do celebrate different cultures and follow policies around equal opportunities, Partnership with parents and promotion of positive behaviour. With the partnership policy all parents are welcomed and individual talents are also encouraged for the children learning. This is outlined in Task 2 and Task 3 (Appendix A:2 and A:3). There are no male members employed at the moment within the setting I was placed at, so dads and other significant male figures are encouraged to play their role within the setting. This too then set out equalities within the setting and offers a different kind of learning for the children. They have a wide range of cultural activities in which the children can choose they are not only set out when its the time of a particular festival. The setting has a wide range of learning materials for the children learning around different cultures. This is evident in Task 1(Appendix A:1) Children can also explored new resources with their own choice; this is evident in Task 2 (Appendix A:2). The general ethos of the setting is to respect all and is this evident throughout the setting. This is evident throughout Task 1-3(Appendix A:1-A:3). As stated in Malik, H (2003) within my role I should be providing the best possible care and a high level of service in my practice as it reflects equal opportunities policies and practices. This is where it is logical to have a clear understanding of policies and the government initiatives to make Scotland a better society for the future of todays children. In practice today practitioners need to be able to treat children as individuals and demonstrate a positive attitude to abolish negative traits such as stereotyping, prejudice and judging others social class. By offering a good learning environment for children such as pre-school, school and open play areas, it will give them the opportunity for the best start in life. This is in-inline with an approach from Achieving Our Potential, (2008). Legislation and policies in this piece of writing play a crucial role in early year settings. Equality and fairness should be a robust significance throughout a setting to promote inclusion and multiple identities. All involved in a setting are treated in a non-discriminatory and respectful manner. This is in-line with HMIE The Child at the Centre, (2007) Point 5.6. The Concepts Of Equality And Inclusion
Ashford University Innovation Assignment Essay.

I’m working on a political science writing question and need support to help me study.

As we have discussed in class, innovation should be part of an organization’s DNA. Successful innovation is essential for those wanting government services “better, faster, simpler, cheaper.” There are many case studies that demonstrate successful innovations that have taken place worldwide. For your paper you are to analyze a case study from the materials in BlazeVIEW or available from one of the websites below. The paper is to be 4-6 pages, double-spaced, 12-point font and will be graded on organization; language, grammar, and APA style; research and effort; and, of course, content. You should consider how the innovation addressed the innovation strategies that we have discussed in class. Remember, this is an analysis—it will require you to do someresearch beyond what is available from the case study. This assignment is worth 50.points.The Work Foundationhttp://www.theworkfoundation.com/ReportsInnovation in Educationhttp://classroomofthefuture.org/innovation-awards/…Innovations Awards Program ASH Center for Democratic Governance and Innovationhttps://www.innovations.harvard.edu/find-innovativ…
Ashford University Innovation Assignment Essay

week 4 project

week 4 project. Paper details In a Microsoft Word document of 6-7 pages formatted in APA style, submit your instructional unit, which should include three lesson plans: one focused on patient education, one on family education, and one on staff development. Remember, your plans should demonstrate a logical approach to teaching, communicate what is to be taught and how, and outline how objectives are to be evaluated. Click here for a refresher on what each final lesson should include. Building on the work that you started in Week 2, for all three groups of learners: Write two broad instructional goals for the educational experience for each group. For each learner group, write at least one learning objective related to each of the domains of Bloom’s taxonomy: Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Describe the lesson content. Provide a sequence for teaching activities. Describe instructional methods. Indicate time allotted for each activity. Identify and describe the instructional resources (materials, tools, etc.) and technology to be used. Describe how the learning will be evaluated.week 4 project

1: Identify or select a performance problem in a business activity that you believe could be resolved or substantially

essay writer free 1: Identify or select a performance problem in a business activity that you believe could be resolved or substantially improved by the acquisition of IT services performed by a contractor selected in open competition as a result of an RFP (request for proposal). The acquisition of IT services may also include the acquisition of IT software and hardware, as needed. Document your performance problem as Activity 1 using Template 1 provided by IT Economics Corporation. Everything that is need will be uploaded to the files . WEEK 1 instructions files ( 1. Individual Project Activities (same as the Week 1 content assignment information) ) is where the instructions start 2. Template PDF files are some examples of how the template should look when you are finished 3. Lecture notes are also provided

SOC 313 California Polytechnic State Functionalism and Conflict Theory Paper

SOC 313 California Polytechnic State Functionalism and Conflict Theory Paper.

I’m working on a Social Science discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

APA, 4 pages, 6 references, Here are the instructionsFirst, Demonstrates a clear understanding of related course material (includes appropriate use of sociological theories, principles, and terminology). The Paper reflects the quality analysis and thought using the sociological concepts/”tools”. The ability to use the sociological perspective is reflected throughout the paper. Illustrate that you had the ability to stand back as a sociological observer and assess the situation with a larger vision. Remember that the sociological perspective is more than casual observation. In the sociological perspective, the sociologist is objective about their observation of the social world. Overall, this paper integrates information learned in an everyday environment with related sociological perspectives and concepts; demonstrates clear links between research and observation.The paper includes a thorough introduction that explains why you chose this location. Illustrate how this location is familiar to you personally and that it clearly offered the opportunity for sociological practice.must discuss TWO major sociological theories:1. functionalism2. conflict theory3. symbolic interactionism4. post-modernismYou must thoroughly discuss 6 of the following form below:1. Sociological imagination2. Culture3. Subculture4. Symbols5. Language6. Values7. Norms and/or Mores and/or Folkways8. Taboos and/or Sanctions9. Socialization10. Material culture11. Non-material cultureWhen discussing the theories and below-listed concepts, you must highlight, underline, italicize, or bold them.Must be Well organized; clear transitions throughout assignment; technically correct (e.g. grammar)
SOC 313 California Polytechnic State Functionalism and Conflict Theory Paper

Select one of the following prompts and write a well structured essay with 5 paragraphs Context (1), Thesis (1), Evidence (2), Analysis (1), and Complexity (1)

Select one of the following prompts and write a well structured essay with 5 paragraphs Context (1), Thesis (1), Evidence (2), Analysis (1), and Complexity (1). Paper details Choose one to write about: Evaluate the extent to which reform movements changed United States society in the period from 1877 to 1914. Evaluate the extent to which the Progressive movement fostered political change in the United States from 1890 to 1920. Evaluate the relative importance of different causes for the expanding role of the United States in the world in the period from 1865 to 1910.Select one of the following prompts and write a well structured essay with 5 paragraphs Context (1), Thesis (1), Evidence (2), Analysis (1), and Complexity (1)