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Negative feedback Essay Homeostasis of Animals and Plants Many animals, including humans, can regulate their body temperature through a process called negative feedback. The temperature within the body is regulated to be maintained within a certain range. Animals capable of this type of homeostasis are deemed homeotherms (1). Temperature is adjusted by receptors that detect temperature fluctuations called thermoreceptors, which are found in the hypothalamus-a portion of the brain. These receptors can also be found in the skin, here they can recognize the temperature of the external environment as well (1).

Once this information is attained, it is transferred to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus can then transmit nerve pulses results in the regulating mechanisms to balance the temperature. Temperature management in humans can be controlled in many responses, including sweating or shivering. Sweating is used when the temperature inside the body becomes too hot, usually ninety-nine degrees or higher. This mechanism is a corrective response to overheating along with vasodilation. This process is the closing f blood vessels to the skin surface and becoming more dilated.

This allows the surface area to increase. By increasing the surface area, heat is lost to the external environment, cooling the body down back to normal temperature. However, shivering is the exact opposite of this response. When the body becomes too cold, the internal system works to bring it back up. This is also called Vasoconstriction. If the opposite occurs and body temperature drops, signals from the hypothalamus are sent to the cutaneous arteries (arteries supplying the skin) (2). When the body temperature of an rganism drops the blood vessels become constricted in order to decrease surface area.

This allows for minimal heat loss. Warmer blood is seen to be immersed in the body so to keep heat from escaping at the surface (2). In human thermal regulation, the hairs on the body aid in insulation. The hairs ‘stand on end’ and capture a layer of air between the skin and hair, serving as insulation. If the air held is warmer-with longer hairs- than the hairs will reduce heat loss and a thinner hair layer will allow for more heat to be loss, decreasing temperature. Due to these mechanisms, emperatures in the body rarely exceed . 5 degrees Celsius below or above its normal point.

This negative feedback loop maintains body temperature and can also help regulate other process in the body. Plants are often subjected to periods of extreme water loss or gain. These fluctuations of water availability force vegetation to have responses in order to maintain homeostasis. These responses are complex and involve deleterious adjustments. This may be modified by the superimposition of other stresses, such as diseases or environmental disorders. All of these processes and practically all other he cellular level, water management coincides with cell damage or even adaptive processes.

The molecular basis for responding to water deficits is not completely understood, however, it is known that it has much to do with a particular chemical called abscisic acid ABA (3). An increase of ABA in plant organs correlate with those plants living in areas undergoing a period of drought (3). Therefore, it is widely understood that ABA is involved in the adaptive mechanism in response to drought (3). There is also evidence that other signals may be involved in the process as well. Plants also exhibit secondary and tertiary controls when placed under water stress.

In addition, they will also undergo primary effects if placed under longer periods of time. During water stress, like nutrient deficiencies, free amino acids and sugars accumulate. Though nutrient deficiencies may result in different metabolic functions, plants under water stress have been seen to go through similar changes in dealing with these environments(4). Because of this, it is hard to examine the mechanisms for dealing with water stress when observing such general patterns. Early responses sually are dependent on new metabolic abilities, while there is an alteration of gene expression.

Management Question

Define different perspectives and knowledge of process-flow analysis, process design
Apply knowledge and skills to optimize production objective of maximizing profits
Demonstrate process-flow analysis, process design solutions, operations strategies,
solutions, lean system, quality controls, Inventory control system and green systems
(CLO 1.2)
using qualitative and quantitative techniques in related areas of operations
management (CLO 2.1)
Inventory Control System and customer services in the business operation. (CLO 2.2)

This Assignment is based on ‘Lean Manufacturing System’:
As we know that 5S is a lean manufacturing approach to “A place for everything, and everything in its place” based on the Toyota Production System.
To consider these five S, write an ‘Article’ focusing on the following considerations.
Employee Morale2 Marks
Safety2 Marks
Efficiency2 Marks
Reduces time for looking2 Marks
Performance evaluation2 Marks

Note: The Article should not be less than 300 words

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