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Analytical Research: Poverty in Thailand: Peculiarities and Perspectives Essay

Thailand today is considered as a country with an emerging export-dependent economy with an export accounting about two thirds of gross domestic product. Although the country is a newly industrialized, the problem of poverty is one of the most sharp and controversial. The tsunami tragedy that happened in 2004 led to a number of problems and increase of poverty. Millions of people were affected by the flood and drought. Between 2000 and 2007 the level of poverty has diminished from 21% to 8,5%, today about five million live below the poverty line (Human Security, Today and Tomorrow 2009). Most of the tourist centers are developed and modern cities. However, even the capital of the country demonstrates the strong level of poverty. Therefore, the government has enacted the various measures that have to improve the level of life and the image of the country. The rapid economic growth of the country between 1985 and 1995 helped Thailand become a major exporter. Besides, the country is well-known by its touristic centers such as Bangkok, Pattaya, etc. The level of expatriates from developed countries has grown rapidly. However, nowadays, poverty is one of the major problems of Thailand. The urban population as well as the rural is affected by the process that occurs in the country. A high level of country’s development in 1990s caused a decline of the level of poverty from 32,6% in 1988 to 11,4% in 1996, and the number of poor people decreased from 17,9 to 6,8 million (Poverty Profile 2001). However, in spite of the evident increase of the economy, Thailand has the most severe gap than most of the Southeast Asian countries. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The regional and sector segregation leads to the inequality of the opportunities in the sector of employment, secondary education and vocational training. Especially this problem is evident in the North, Northeast, South and Central regions of the country. The poverty incidence is highest in the Northeast and South regions. The distinct types of Thailand’s community are the obvious example of the difference in the poverty level. The rural areas are more subject to the influence of poverty than municipal and sanitary areas. The Asian economic crisis as a cause increased the poverty incidence of Thailand to 21,3% in 2000 (Thailand’s Official Poverty Lines 2009). The country’s national poverty line has a number of peculiarities such as the population groups, different regions and the indexes of the rural and urban population. Engbersen describes the further debate on how to poverty should be measured (1999). It is a complicated issue that includes the numerous components and details. The article “What Is Poverty and Why Measure It?” says that “the broadest approach to well-being (and poverty) focuses on the capability of the individual to function in society (2008). Often, poor people do not have an access to a number of facilities. Thus, an inadequate income, insufficient education and lack of the political freedom are the results of the social segregation and poverty. According to the World Bank statistic, the poverty headcount ration at national poverty line in Thailand in 2004 was 11,2% of population, in 2006 – 9,6%, in 2007 – 8,5%, in 2008 – 9,0% (Thailand’s Official Poverty Lines 2009). This statistic indicates the reduction of the poor citizens due to the financial stabilization of the county’s economy. We will write a custom Essay on Analytical Research: Poverty in Thailand: Peculiarities and Perspectives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thailand’s economy is based on the manufacturing and service sectors. The agricultural sector today demonstrates the negative tendency, facing with a number of difficulties. The limited supply of water, necessity of the new land reform and a small level of investment hamper the process of the country’s development. As the results of those negative processes, population of the rural areas that depends on the agricultural sector does not have the ability to increase their financial situation. As poverty is still a big problem in many parts of the country, the government has to be prepared to develop the action plans which can manage the problem of poverty and reduce the gap between the rural and urban population. According to the article “Causes of Poverty”, as the result of the external influence “the governments of poor nations and their people are often powerless” (Shah 2011). When the inequality became evident as the result of the economical growth of the country, the government offered The Eights National Development Plan in 1997-2001 and the Ninth Development Plan in 2002-2006 (Poverty profile 2001). Both of them included the possible solutions of the poverty problem as one of the major issues of country’s development. The Eight Plan indicated the importance of the human resources’ development that included the reduction of the regional disparities and inequality. According to this Plan, the major issues of the national structure have to be the decentralization and community rights. Focusing on the needs of poor people, the Plan highlighted three areas that have to be restructured. First of all, it is necessary to absorb the migrants from urban centers and create the new employment places in the rural areas. Not sure if you can write a paper on Analytical Research: Poverty in Thailand: Peculiarities and Perspectives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second important issue is to help people affected by the crisis in the different ways such as education, healthcare, social welfare, etc. The third point that could help preventing the problems is an alleviation of such social issues as crimes and drugs and promotion of healthy way of life and the social values. It is necessary to provide the cash transfers and loans to the poor households. Besides, free medical service and the school lunch program are the significant steps to the reduction of the poverty. Human development as the major issue of the country’s economy is the most important element that the governmental program is focused on. The major efforts of the Thai government devoted to the education and healthcare systems. The government sees the access to basic education and its quality improvement as the most important issue that can help developing the way of life. The government provides the effective non-formal educational programs and improves the process of getting the education for girls. The various financial support programs create a good basement for the secondary education attainment. In 1999, the Thai government provided a new educational law that included the provision supply of the primary and secondary schools. Decentralization is another important point of the Thai educational system. In recent years, the various problems within the economic development reduced the competitiveness of Thailand against other Southeast Asian countries. The healthcare system is another important element of the social development. Nowadays, vaccination rate is about 90% and contraceptive prevention of married women is 75% (Human Security, Today and Tomorrow 2009). Covering the half of all health expenditure, the Thai government helps poor people get the access to the public health facilities. Such policy allows covering more than 74% of the population by the health insurance. The family planning and vaccination are the major facilities that can be accessed for free. The financial crisis caused the pessimistic expectations of the possibility of the equality of all citizens within the healthcare system. However, reduction of the health services and a number of the medical problems such as the children’s nutrition drug addicts, etc. due to the unemployment is low nowadays (Poverty profile 2001). Nevertheless, the Thai government has to provide more strict laws included a wide medical help and the various services to the poor citizens. As a global citizen, I would argue that individuals must confront the injustices and the inequalities that exist throughout the world. Following the ethical guidelines, I could help those people who are in need. I think that several projects within the high schools and universities can provide an adequate support of the poor citizens. Students should learn about the global problem and explore the possible solutions. Universities should incorporate this issue to the curriculum. Volunteering programs are another useful tool. Thus, people from the different countries can help Thailand rebuild Thailand after the flooding in 2011, cleaning the streets, preparing food or donating money. The poverty in Thailand demonstrates the following peculiarities. First of all, the locations with the highest level of the poor population are in the Northeast, North and South regions of the country. The ration between the rural and urban poverty is significant. Therefore, the Thai government should provide more methods of the rural areas development. The rural population does not have an access to the various facilities such as the medical services and a good education. The poor citizens demonstrate less ability of accessing the employment opportunities and the basic services such as water and sanitation. The perspective of country’s development depends on the ability of the Thai government to provide the laws which could lead to the changes in the social life of the poor citizens. Works Cited Engbersen, G. “Definitions of Distress: Who are you calling poor?”, Le Monde Diplomatique, September 1999. Web. Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Poverty Profile. Executive Summary. Kingdom Of Thailand. 2001. Web. Shah, A. “Causes of Poverty.” Global Issues, 11 Nov. 2011. Web. Thailand Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme, Human Security, Today and Tomorrow. 2009. Web. Thailand’s Official Poverty Lines. National Economic and Social Development Board, 2004. Web. What Is Poverty and Why Measure It? World Bank Poverty and Inequality Analysis, 2008. Web.

Virgin Blue Airline Company Essay

professional essay writers Competition within the airline industry has become a major factor that calls for the enhancement of better marketing management practices, higher customer value in service delivery and increased levels of productivity for profitability. According to Leeflang, (2011, p. 80), the fast changing systems of consumerism that dictate the need for greater value in service provision has driven businesses in the airline industry to build a culture of providing superior services. It is against this consideration that this paper explores the marketing analysis of Virgin Blue airline as a major competitor in the Australian airline industry and its marketing as well as provision of catering services. A brief background of the airline company Virgin blue airline was established in the year 2000 from the Virgin Express airline to offer low cost flights between the major cities in Australia (Lucio

Comparison of Healthcare Systems: Russia and the US

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Joel Adewuyi Madalyn Arnott Stephanie Armstrong Lauren Ball Russian federation has 17 million km2 of land surface area, making it the largest country in the world. The country has major deposits of coal, timber, oil, and assorted minerals and is thus perceived by many as a rich country who can provide universal healthcare to her citizens. Today, the healthcare system in Russia unlike in the United States is universal but has been plagued with poor quality and deficient services and thus in the process of being reformed by the Russian government. It is a universal system only in theory but the poor quality has made many Russians result to paying under the counter-bribes in order to get their necessary treatments (Russian, 2017). Recent government reforms, and measures to increase efficiency such as increase in funding have begun to address the ongoing problem in the healthcare sector. However, even with the new reforms in place, since the 1990’s, there has been no significant improvement in the healthcare system (Russian 2017). The biggest problem confronting this system has been attributed to lack of funding by the government. Historical Perspectives The end of the Soviet Union gave birth to the Russian Federation in 1991 and since then the health status of the Russian population has been on a dramatic decline. Rates of medical conditions like cancer, heart disease, and tuberculosis are the highest compared to any other industrialized country. Government spending on healthcare which was 7% of Gross National Product (GNP) in the 1960’s before Soviet Union’s breakup was reduced to 3% after the breakup (site wide, 2017). Most of the government funding started going to industrial and military developments and lesser priority given to the healthcare system and by the end of 1995 less than 1 percent of Russia’s budget was allocated to public health in comparison to more than 12 percent in the United States (site wide 2017). With this, the public health delivery system in Russia went into the crisis with poorly trained medical personnel, lack of modernized equipment, poor payments for the medical personnel, poor personal hygiene and diet, lack of exercise, virtually nonexistent preventive medicine etc. The lack of accessibility to national health system facilities, with most patients standing in line at clinics for an entire day before receiving treatments coupled with non-affordability prescriptions drugs, has encouraged them resulting into unorthodox alternatives such as herbal medicine, mysticism, and faith healings. Russian Healthcare System Today There are several issues that can be observed in the modern Russian healthcare system. For example; there is limited access to healthcare facilities, and the sanitation in the facilities is below United States standards. The Healthcare system in the United States is often viewed as the best in the world, but it has several flaws as well. There is limited access for veterans and several hospitals charge as much as three times what others charge. There are also several benefits to the United States healthcare. Virtually on every corner of any town in the U.S there is access to a hospital or an emergency room. Also in the U.S., there are several payment plans individuals can use. In the Russian healthcare system one of the main problems is limited access to healthcare facilities. Only four percent pay their doctors when they have a medical procedure (Allianz, 2009 p 5). This causes a shortage of medical professionals. The lack of medical professionals causes individuals to rely on themselves for medical treatment. Several problems arise when individuals rely on their own knowledge. Another major issue with this system is the unsanitary working conditions of medical practices and medical professionals themselves. The lack of sanitation in facilities causes individuals to be more susceptible to diseases and other types of infections (Antonova, 2016 p3). The Russian healthcare system has several flaws that we do not have in the United States healthcare system. In the United States, there are hospitals around every corner. This allows individuals to have access to healthcare no matter where they live, but this can have some repercussions. Although hospitals are easy to find some individuals cannot afford this care. In 2010 the Affordable Care Act was signed so everyone has access to healthcare, but individuals need to have insurance for this Act to apply to them. This although seems beneficial to all, some individuals feel that they are forced to buy insurance. One positive aspect of the United States healthcare system is the amount of insurance options available. Most individuals use insurance through their employer, and some have medical cards. One negative aspect of the healthcare system is there is little to no coverage to for veterans. Tricare only covers veterans when they are in active duty, once they retire the insurance no longer covers them. Future of Healthcare System in Russia The Russian healthcare system for sure needs improvements due to many problems. Russia’s population is more than 6 million lower than it was nearly two decades ago (public health, 2015). Sadly, birth rates are lower and mortality rates are higher. Over half of the deaths are due to cardiovascular disease. Other problems include cancer and external causes such as accidents and traumas. However, since 2005 the Russian healthcare system have been trying to turn things around positively. In 2006, the Russian government launched the National Priority Project (NPP) to try and change the system for the better (public health 2015). The budget for this project was over than 400 billion rubles (Russian dollars) which was granted between 2006 to 2009 (public health 2015). Many activities have been planned and accomplished through the NPP. The NPP has increased salaries of primary and emergency care physicians, purchased more primary care equipment, provided more vaccination programs, providing free medical examinations to the public, increased the promotion of fertility, and made more high-tech centers for tertiary care. These activities have increased the quality of the system and bettered it for the citizens of Russia. There have recently been very bad financial troubles in Russia yet the NPP has managed to improve the system through these ways. Fertility rates are higher, mortality rates are lower, and life expectancy for both women and men have risen. However, not all the healthcare problems have been addressed. Basic healthcare is still unfunded, there are many problems with Russia’s healthcare insurance, and there is little effort to face and fix the population health behavior. Until the Russian citizens take these problems into their own hands the future of Russia’s health will be a problem. The citizens need to stop smoking, binge drinking, and bad habits in order to enjoy better health. The Russian public needs to be able to provide healthy air, water, better food quality, safer roads, and safer work environments. Until these problems are addressed, the health challenges that Russia faces will not be fixed and will follow to the years ahead. Russia’s health care system has taken a turn for the worst. Consequences of a failing healthcare system have fed to declining health among the Russian population. Inefficient funds have led to cost cuts, this already damaging a weak system. Numerous medical staff had to be laid off because of this, when healthcare workers were already at a minimal amount. At this point in time Russia suffers from a high death rate, low birth rate, and low life expectancy. The total population is decreasing by 700,000 people each year (Aarva 2009). The average life span for a male is statistically shown to only reach 59 years old (Aarva, 2009). Compared to the United States, a typical average life span for men is 78 years old (Aarva, 2009). Women in Russia overall only average to 72 years old (Aarva, 2009). The fertility rates in Russia cannot meet the declining rate of population. The decline in health statistically shows to only get worse within the next 50 years, declining by 30 percent (Aarva 2009). In Russia, the number one leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease, this is followed by alcoholism and tobacco use. The World Health Organization accounts for more than 1.2 million deaths per year from these. A growing health issue in Russia is disease, such as HIV/AIDS, a little over 1 percent of Russia’s population test positive (Aarva, 2009). Lancet 2012 study showed that 57 percent of those affected acquired this from drug use (Aarva, 2009). Although over looked, Russia’s health care system has led them to have a lot in common with 3rd world countries. Numerous factors have led to Russia’s health care decline; however, many believe lack of education is the number one reason for the decline. Public health policies and information is less easy to access in Russia then the United States. Russia is also lacking in resources such as a lack in medication. Russia’s health care doesn’t have the ability to give the citizens proper health care, if this situation continues their population will significantly continue to decline. In conclusion and in fairness to the Russia federation, the truth is that despite the relatively poor health statistics and healthcare situations, Russia is not dependent on any international assistance for her healthcare funding and is nondependent on any of the developed countries. Even though, they are independent, the government’s duty of a guaranteed full range of free healthcare services to her citizens has not experienced any setback, but rather has been confirmed through the newly implemented Russian constitution and the new healthcare financing laws. References Russian health care: A healthy future? (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2017. Site-wide navigation. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2017. “Public Health: Russia is Sick.” The Globalist. N.p., 04 Oct. 2015. Web. 23 Feb. 2017. Landed, S. J. (2014, May 04). Overview. Retrieved February 22, 2017. Allianz. (2017). Healthcare in Russia – support. Retrieved February 23, 2017. Aarva, P., Ilchenko, I., Gorobets, P.,

Effect of Mindfulness on Attention, Learning and Memory

Effect of Mindfulness on Attention, Learning and Memory. Chapter-3 METHOD The present study aims to investigate the effect of mindfulness on attention, learning and memory among adolescents. Present study is of interventional nature, as it tries to manage and maintain the attention, learning and memory. The present chapter gives a detailed account of the research method used to carry out the study. The description of various methodological aspects has been presented under various headings: Sample Measuring Instruments Administration of Test Interventional Procedure Scoring Statistical Analyses 3.1 Sample: The sample for the present study was drawn from various school students of Hisar district. A total of 600 subjects were drawn by using the technique of cluster sampling. It was ensured that equal numbers of male and female subjects are sampled for the study. After the screening of 600 subjects, 60 subjects were chosen for intervention having low level of attention, learning and memory. The age of subjects ranged between 13 to 16 years. 3.2 Measuring Instruments: The measures used in the study were selected in accordance with the objectives of the study. The measures used in the study are related to both verbal and non-verbal test which were selected to assess the key variables of the study such as attention, learning and memory. The brief description of the measures used in the study is as under: A). Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven, Court and Raven, 1996) B). The d2 attention test ( BrickenkampEffect of Mindfulness on Attention, Learning and Memory