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‘Big’ Data Science and Scientists

‘Big’ Data Science and Scientists. ‘BIG’ DATA SCIENCE If you could possibly take a trip back in time with a time machine and say to people that today a child can interact with one another from anywhere and query trillions of data all over the globe with a simple click on his/her computer they would have said that it is science fiction ! Today more than 2.9 million emails are sent across the internet every second. 375 megabytes of data is consumed by households each day. Google processes 24 petabyte of data per day. Now that’s a lot of data !! With each click, like and share, the world’s data pool is expanding faster than we comprehend. Data is being created every minute of every day without us even noticing it. Businesses today are paying attention to scores of data sources to make crucial decisions about the future. The rise of digital and mobile communication has made the world become more connected, networked and traceable which has typically resulted in the availability of such large scale data sets. So what is this buzz word “Big Data” all about ? Big data may be defined as data sets whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to capture, create, manage and process data. The definition can differ by sector, depending on what kinds of software tools are commonly available and what sizes of data sets are common in a particular industry. The explosion in digital data, bandwidth and processing power – combined with new tools for analyzing the data has sparked massive interest in the emerging field of data science. Big data has now reached every sector in the global economy. Big data has become an integral part of solving the world’s problems. It allows companies to know more about their customers, products and on their own infrastructure. More recently, people have become extensively focused on the monetization of that data. According to a McKinsey Global Institute Report[1] in 2011, simply making big data more easily accessible to relevant stakeholders in a timely manner can create enormous value. For example, in the public sector, making relevant data more easily accessible across otherwise separated departments can sharply cut search and processing time. Big data also allows organizations to create highly specific segmentations and to tailor products and services precisely to meet those needs. This approach is widely known in marketing and risk management but can be revolutionary elsewhere. Big Data is improving transportation and power consumption in cities, making our favorite websites‘Big’ Data Science and Scientists
ENG 202 GMC The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka and The Darling by Chekhov Bibliography.

I’m working on a research & summaries writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Annotated Bibliography – InstructionsTo prepare for your research paper, you will submit an annotated bibliography that contains at least FIVE research sources (this is more sources than the minimum four you need for your eventual research paper; this is done purposefully. By finding more sources than you need now, you’ll still have adequate research in the event that you decide to discard one of these sources later on). These sources should come ONLY from the GMC library databases; going beyond GMC Library should only be done when there are no valid sources for your topic there, and even then, sources should be limited to .edu or .org sources- avoid anonymous .com sources at all costs (Wikipedia, Sparknotes, LitCharts, etc etc etc).
ENG 202 GMC The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka and The Darling by Chekhov Bibliography

WCU Empirical Study of Chronic Diseases in the United States Reflection

WCU Empirical Study of Chronic Diseases in the United States Reflection.

In the scenario assignments, you are asked to reflect on responses to the presented scenario. This should not just be writing down your first reaction or what you already know. Reflection involves critical thinking, which means rethinking your existing knowledge and previously held opinions in light of what we have learned about theories of ethics, logic, and reasoning. You will need to question your existing knowledge and beliefs.To complete each scenario assignment:Complete the entire scenario.Compose your reflection in a Word document and be sure to address, at a minimum, the following questions:Why do you feel the way you do about the issue presented?Of the four responses offered in the scenario, which do you feel is the most ethical and why?Support your conclusions with evidence and specific examples from the textbook, as well as other sources as needed.Your reflection must be 1-2 pages in length and follow APA formatting and citation guidelines as appropriate.Make sure that you are addressing the particular Ethical Theory from the list and the PowerPoint already provided, for your stance on the position you will take.Use the book provided as one of the references.Use the link below to watch the video:
WCU Empirical Study of Chronic Diseases in the United States Reflection

American Military University Epistemological Problems of Perception Discussion

assignment writing services American Military University Epistemological Problems of Perception Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy project and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

You will pick one of the following topics only to do your paper on:According to Socrates, must one NOT heed popular opinion about moral matters? Does Socrates accept the fairness of the laws under which he was tried and convicted? Would Socrates have been wrong to escape (CO3)?Consider the following philosophical puzzle: “If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it, does it make a sound?” (1) How is this philosophical puzzle an epistemological problem? And (2) how would John Locke answer it (CO1)?Evaluate the movie, The Matrix, in terms of the philosophical issues raised with (1) skepticism and (2) the mind-body problem. Explain how the movie raises questions similar to those found in Plato’s and Descartes’ philosophy (CO5 & CO6). Do not give a plot summary of the movie – focus on the philosophical issues raised in the movie as they relate to Plato and Descartes.Socrates asks Euthyphro, “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” (1) How does this question relate to the Divine Command Theory of morality? (2) What are the philosophical implications associated with each option here (CO4)?Explain (1) the process by which Descartes uses skepticism to refute skepticism, and (2) what first principle does this lead him to? (3) Explain why this project was important for Descartes to accomplish (CO2).In two to three full pages you need to include the following:Your rough draft introduction with a clear thesis (see this article about how to write a Thesis Statement)Paragraphs with transitioningA rough draft conclusionThree reliable resourcesAt least two in-text citations with direct quotes or paraphrasingResource page correctly done in formatting
American Military University Epistemological Problems of Perception Discussion

Social Inequality In Usa Sociology Essay

Why do you think the U.S. is characterized by more inequality and fewer public efforts to reduce inequality than any other developed nation? Capitalism cannot provide a decent standard of living for all, but as long as it can provide a tolerable standard of living for substantial layers of the population, it can maintain social stability. Recent studies have shown that the “middle America” begins to feel insecure, which points at the inevitable social problems. The average salary is the salary, which includes both the income of the richest and the poorest. This amount is far from real wages of most Americans. According to the latest statistical review, in the period after 1998, when the U.S. economy grew by 25%, the average salary of one fifth of U.S. residents fell by 3.8%, while the salary of the rest remained at 1973 level (Hurst 132-34). While the economy was rapidly growing, this prosperity has not affected the middle class, not to mention industrial workers and the poor. Along with the freezing of income of the middle class, social inequality was growing. Since 1973 the annual revenue growth of 1% of the richest was 3.4%, and for 0.1% of the richest it was 5.2%. But for the remaining 90% this figure was 0.3% per year since 1973. Leaders of large companies were earning 26 times more than their employees. Now they are earning 300 times more (Crompton 98-102). According to experts, children from families with low income have a 1%chance to get rich, while children of the rich have 22% opportunity. For the middle class the figure is 1.8%, not much more than for the poor. The middle class of America is more and more afraid to become poor. Families face a decrease in their incomes. The number of families, whose income fell to $ 20,000, has increased from 13% in 1990 to 17% in 2007 (Hurst 206). Unemployment in the U.S. has reached the highest level over the past 20 years. Average duration of unemployment is 18 weeks. And, most often the unemployed have to accept a new job with less pay. House owners (about 70% of Americans), after paying taxes, have to give 11% of their income for mortgages. Today, these people are insolvent. Today the average American family with two working spouses has to work for 32 weeks to pay taxes, medical insurance, credit for housing, and education. In 1979, they needed 28 weeks. After all these payments, such a family has less means for basic needs than in 1980. In the current economic situation, an average American feels much worse than 25 years ago (Hurst 57-60). An average American works longer and harder than before just to make ends meet. And one increasingly has to take loans, family debt reached 120% of family income. Private pension funds are extremely small. Moreover, now pensions begin to be paid only after the worker invests a certain amount. In this world richest country 45% of Americans have no pension program. Only 20% have a guaranteed pension. The same situation is in health care. The number of uninsured people reached 16%, i.e. about 45 million Americans will not get treatment if they get sick. Despite all the efforts, most of the U.S. social problems do not disappear. Obviously, these are the negative effects of economic growth that exist in almost every post-industrial society. Moreover, the distribution of wealth including personal property and shares has not changed in the U.S. for 200 years. Tiree and Smith managed to obtain data on the taxable property of persons who had permanent jobs in Philadelphia in 1789. Comparing these data with the distribution of income in 1949, 1959 and 1969, they found a completely equal distribution of wealth in these two periods. Both, at that time and today, dealers and persons of intellectual labor were richer than the workers and clerks (Hurst 89-93). Since 1982, profits of American capitalists have grown considerably. This was achieved by reduction of salaries of workers, and increased exploitation. Thus, the rate of added value grew up while investments into new equipment have been reduced to minimum. Therefore the returns were growing. Inequality of income distribution remains in American society despite various changes in the economy and many programs helping the poor. The privileges are established for those who have the power in any societies. People with high status often have a very visible political influence, which they can use to their advantage. In the 1960s, the President Lyndon Johnson declared the war against poverty. The weapons of this war were tax cuts, retraining programs, educational programs and increased benefits. These actions were important, since it was estimated that between 1965 and 1975 the number of families below the poverty line was less than 5% of all families. However, since then many of these programs were reduced or abolished in order to stabilize the government budget. More positive results of programs have been undermined by rising unemployment and an increase in the number of poor families with single mothers. Therefore, in the U.S. there are still many poor families (Hurst 248-49). How is social stratification a creation of society rather than simply an expression of individual differences. The question of why there is social inequality is central in the study of society. It has two strikingly different answers. The first one was given by the conservatives, who argued that the unequal distribution of social benefits is a tool for solving the major tasks of society. Supporters of a radical approach, by contrast, sharply criticize the existing social order and believe that social inequality is a mechanism of exploitation of individuals and is associated with the struggle for scarce products and services. According to the functionalist theory of social inequality, stratification exists because it is useful to society. Davis and Moore argue that social stratification is not only universal but also necessary; therefore, no society can exist without stratification and classes. The system of stratification is required in order to fill all the statuses that form the social structure, and to give the individuals the motivations to perform duties associated with their position. In this regard the society must motivate people on two levels (Crompton 57-59): 1. It should encourage individuals to take various positions, since not all the duties associated with different statuses, are equally useful for the human body, equally important for social survival, and require equal abilities. If the social life was different, the position would make no difference, and the problem of social status would be considerably smaller; 2. When these positions are occupied, the company should awaken in people a desire to play the relevant role, because the duties associated with many posts are considered as painful and in the absence of motivation many would not manage to do their roles. These social realities have led to the view that society should have certain benefits that can be used as incentives for their members, and the mode of distribution of these benefits among different statuses. Inequality is the emotional stimulus that society has created in order to solve the problem of filling in all statuses and make their owners to do their best to fit the role. Since these benefits are built into the social system, social stratification may be considered a structural feature of all societies. On the basis of the economic model of supply and demand, Davis and Moore concluded that the highest paid positions are those occupied by the most talented or skilled workers, as well as functionally most important ones. Thus, separate individuals who hold high-paying jobs, should receive remuneration, otherwise the post will remain unclaimed, and society will disintegrate (Crompton 115-122). On the other hand, a person is born in a privileged or unprivileged position. For example, almost two-thirds of managers in 243 large U.S. companies have grown up in families of upper middle class or upper stratum of society. Basing on similar data, advocates of conflict theory claim that society is organized so that individuals’ rank is determined by birth and does not dependent on their abilities and characteristics of the society (Hurst 206-219). Advocates of the conflict theory believe that the stratification of society exists because it is profitable to individuals and groups with authority over others. While functionalists identify common interests of members of society, conflictologists focus on the differences of interests. From their point of view, the society is an arena where people are fighting for the privileges, prestige and power. The theory of conflict is based largely on the ideas of Karl Marx. He argued that to comprehend the mechanism of a particular economic system one must know what preceded this system, as well as the processes that contributed to its development. According to Marx, the level of technique and method of organization of production determines the evolution of society in general. At each stage of history, these factors determine the group, which will rule in society, and groups that it will obey. Possession of means of production is only one source of power. Another source is the possession of means of control over people. The role of bureaucracy in society (exclusive control of national income and national wealth) gives it a special privileged status (Crompton 87-94). Even in modern developed countries, individuals can flourish without property. Much of the power is provided by the position in large transnational corporations, rather than property. Employees do not merely possess a relatively small property, but their influence lasts only as long as they occupy a certain position. A very similar pattern is observed in the government. In this case, no class exists in isolation and independently of the other classes. Sociologists are divided on the sources of social stratification, but they are united in the fact that social inequality is a structural aspect of the modern life of the whole society. Speaking about the structuring of social inequality, social scientists mean not only the fact that individuals and social groups differ in the privileges they have, prestige they receive, and power they possess. Structuring means that inequality in the society is institutionalized as a system. Inequality is not formed at random, but in accordance with the repetitive, relatively consistent and stable models: it is usually passed down from generation to generation, for which the individuals and groups with the benefits usually find appropriate ways (Crompton 54-58). How do caste and class system differ? How are they the same? Why does industrialization introduce a measure of meritocracy into social stratification? Inequality exists in human societies of all types. Stratification can be defined as structured differences between groups of people; the society consists of layers located in a hierarchical order, where the privileged layers are closer to the top and the underprivileged ones are at the bottom. However, class and caste systems are different in their essence (Crompton 41-43). Caste system is primarily associated with the cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and is presented by four main classes (varnas), differing in the degree of social prestige. Below these four groups are the “untouchables”. There are also jatis in the caste system: local marginalized groups within which the division into castes takes place. The caste system is very complex, and its structure varies from region to region, but it shares some common principles. Brahmins, forming the highest Varna, represent the highest degree of purity, while the untouchables represent the lowest one. Brahmins should avoid certain contacts with the untouchables, while only the untouchables are allowed to have physical contact with objects or animals, which are considered unclean. The caste system is closely linked with the Hindu concept of reincarnation, under which people who neglect the rights and duties of their caste should be born in their next incarnation in a caste, which occupies a lower position. In the Indian caste system, an individual is not allowed to move from one caste to another during his life (Crompton 65-72). The concept of caste is sometimes used outside the context of Indian culture, e.g. in cases, when two or more ethnic groups are separated from each other, primarily for reasons of racial purity. In such circumstances, there are strict taboos (and sometimes legal prohibitions) on intergroup marriages. After the abolition of slavery in the southern states of the U.S., the level of disengagement of black and white population was so strong that the term “caste” is sometimes used for this system of stratification. There are also reasons to speak about the existence of caste system in South Africa, where rigid segregation remains between whites and blacks and where interracial marriages were until recently forbidden by law. The class system differs from the caste system in many aspects. Let us consider the four of these main features (Crompton 105-113). 1. Unlike other types of strata, classes do not depend on legal or religious orientation. The class membership is not associated with the congenital status, whatever it was determined by – by law or custom. The class system is much more mobile than other stratification systems; the boundaries between classes are never clear-cut. Formal restrictions on marriages between people from different classes do not exist. 2. The class membership is achieved by the individual, at least partly, and is not simply “given” at birth, as in caste systems. Social mobility is distributed more widely, while in the caste system, an individual move from one caste to another is generally impossible. 3. Classes are related to differences in economic status groups, with inequality in the ownership of physical resources and control, whereas in caste systems, the leading role is played by non-economic factors (such as religion). 4. In caste stratification system, inequality manifests itself primarily in the personal relationships of people, in the difference between rights and responsibilities (Brahmin-Harijan). In contrast, class system is manifested mainly in the large-scale relations of impersonal nature. For example, the essential foundations for the class division are the differences in working conditions and payment, which relate to people of any category and, in turn, depend on the situation of the economy as a whole. Thus, classes can be defined as large-scale groups of people with similar material resources, which in turn determine the lifestyle they lead. Class differences primarily depend on the welfare of people and kind of occupation. In modern Western society, the following main classes exist: the upper class (rich people, businessmen, industrialists, and the upper stratum of managers who own or directly control the means of production), the middle class (which includes the majority of white collar workers and professionals) and the working class (“blue collar” workers, or people involved in physical labor) (Hurst 327-333). According to Weber, the division into classes is determined not only by the presence or absence of control over the means of production, but also by economic differences, not related directly to the property. These determining factors primarily include skills and expertise that affect the ability of the person to perform a job. People belonging to the categories of professionals and managers are also working for hire, but they earn more and have better working conditions than the workers. Qualification certificates, degrees, titles, diplomas and trainings place them in a more advantageous position in the labor market compared with those who do not have the relevant qualifications (Crompton 93-98). Thus, the concept of status in the meritocracy society is associated with varying degrees of social prestige of social groups. The distinctive features of the exact status can be changed independently of the class division. While the class affiliation is an objective feature, the status, in contrast, depends on subjective evaluations of social distinctions by individuals.

Applications Of Electrostatics Analysis Engineering Essay

The practical application of electrostatics is represented by such devices as lightning rods and electrostatic precipitators and by such processes as xerography and the painting of automobiles. Scientific devices based on the principles of electrostatics include electrostatic generators, the field-ion microscope, and ion-drive rocket engines. There are many applications of electrostatics:- 1).Van de graff generator. 2).The electrostatic precipitator. 3).Xerography and Laser Printers. 4).Electron Gun for 6-18 GHz,20 W Helix-TWT Amplifier. 5).CST particle studio simulation of a Depressed Collector. 6).Electrostatic Simulation of a medical X-Ray device. 7).Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing. 8).MEMS Comb Sensor. 9).Consistent charged Particle Simulation of a Pierce Gun. The brief explanation of above applications is given below:- The Van de Graaff Generator Experimental results show that when a charged conductor is placed in contact with the inside of a hollow conductor, all of the charge on the charged conductor is transferred to the hollow conductor. In principle, the charge on the hollow conductor and its electric potential can be increased without limit by repetition of the process. In 1929 Robert J. Van de Graaff (1901-1967) used this principle to design and build an electrostatic generator. This type of generator is used extensively in nuclear physics research. A schematic representation of the generator. Charge is delivered continuously to a high-potential electrode by means of a moving belt of insulating material. The high-voltage electrode is a hollow metal dome mounted on an insulating column. The belt is charged at point A by means of a corona discharge between comb-like metallic needles and a grounded grid. The needles are maintained at a positive electric potential of typically 104 V. The positive charge on the moving belt is transferred to the dome by a second comb of needles at point B. Because the electric field inside the dome is negligible, the positive charge on the belt is easily transferred to the conductor regardless of its potential. In practice, it is possible to increase the electric potential of the dome until electrical discharge occurs through th Because the “breakdown” electric field in air is about 3000000 V/m, a negatively charged oil droplet in sphere 1 m in radius can be raised to a maximum potential of 3 % 106 V. The potential can be increased further by increasing the radius of the dome and by placing the entire system in a container filled with high-pressure gas. Van de Graaff generators can produce potential differences as large as 20 million volts. Protons accelerated through such large potential differences receive enough energy to initiate nuclear reactions between themselves and various target nuclei. Smaller generators are often seen in science classrooms and museums. If a person insulated from the ground touches the sphere of a Van de Graaff generator, his or her body can be brought to a high electric potential. The person hair acquires a net positive charge, and each strand is repelled by all the others. Van De Graaff Generator The Electrostatic Precipitator One important application of electrical discharge in gases is the electrostatic precipitator. This device removes particulate matter from combustion gases, thereby reducing air pollution. Precipitators are especially useful in coal-burning power plants and in industrial operations that generate large quantities of smoke. Current systems are able to eliminate more than 99% of the ash from smoke. A high potential difference (typically 40 to 100 kV) is maintained between a wire running down the center of a duct and the walls of the duct, which are grounded. The wire is maintained at a negative electric potential with respect to the walls, so the electric field is directed toward the wire. The values of the field near the wire become high enough to cause a corona discharge around the wire; the air near the wire contains positive ions, electrons, and such negative ions as oxide ions. The air to be cleaned enters the duct and moves near the wire. As the electrons and negative ions created by the discharge are accelerated toward the outer wall by the electric field, the dirt particles in the air become charged by collisions and ion capture. Because most of the charged dirt particles are negative, they too are drawn to the duct walls by the electric field. When the duct is periodically shaken, the particles break loose and are collected at the bottom. In addition to reducing the level of particulate matter in the atmosphere the electrostatic precipitator recovers valuable materials in the form of metal oxides. Electrostatic Precipitator Xerography and Laser Printers The basic idea of xerography5 was developed by Chester Carlson, who was granted a patent for the xerographic process in 1940. The unique feature of this process is the use of a photoconductive material to form an image. (A photoconductor is a material that is a poor electrical conductor in the dark but becomes a good electrical conductor when exposed to light.) The xerographic process is illustrated in Figure 25.31a to d. First, the surface of a plate or drum that has been coated with a thin film of photoconductive material (usually selenium or some compound of selenium) is given a positive electrostatic charge in the dark. An image of the page to be copied is then focused by a lens onto the charged surface. The photoconducting surface becomes conducting only in areas where light strikes it. In these areas, the light produces charge carriers in the photoconductor that move the positive charge off the drum. However, positive charges remain on those areas of the photoconductor not exposed to light, leaving a latent image of the object in the form of a positive surface charge distribution. Next, a negatively charged powder called a toner is dusted onto the photoconducting surface. The charged powder adheres only to those areas of the surface that contain the positively charged image. At this point, the image becomes visible. The toner (and hence the image) is then transferred to the surface of a sheet of positively charged paper. Finally, the toner is “fixed” to the surface of the paper as the toner melts while passing through high-temperature rollers. This results in a permanent copy of the original. A laser printer operates by the same principle, with the exception that a computer-directed laser beam is used to illuminate the photoconductor instead of a lens. Xerography Laser Printer ELECTRON GUN FOR 6-18GHz,20 W Helix-TWT Amplifier Electron guns are the starting point of every charged particle application. There the DC energy is translated into an extracted beam which later on interacts with all kinds of RF structures. The design and analysis of an electron gun can be performed with the tracking code of CST PARTICLE STUDIO. Schematic of an electron tube The electron gun has to provide the slow wave structure with a beam, which then interacts with the electromagnetic wave existing in the structure and finally is collected in the collector. In order to enable the interaction, the particles’ velocity has to match the EM-wave’s velocity on the circuit. The necessary velocity determines the voltage to be applied. The electron gun then has to be designed in a way, that the emitted current is maximized. The relevant parts for the Electrostatic (Es) simulation are the cathode, focussing electrode and anode (left). Important for the Magnetostatic (Ms) simulation are the iron yoke and permanent magnets. The potentials and permanent magnets serve as sources for the Es and Ms solver of CST EMS (here run from CST PS) respectively. The iron yoke is considered as non linear material, where the working point is obtained by a non linear iteration scheme in the Ms solver. CST PARTICLE STUDIOHYPERLINK “http://www.cst.com/Content/Applications/Article/CST PARTICLE STUDIOâ„¢ Simulation of a Depressed Collector” Simulation of a Depressed Collector CST PS simulation of a depressed collector. A multi-stage depressed collector for the “Rijnhuizen” Fusion Free-Electron Maser (FEM) is simulated with CST RTICLE STUDIO. The results are reproduced with permission of Pulsar Physics. See also M.J. de Loos, S.B. van der Geer, Pulsar Physics, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, Vol 139, 1997. CST PARTICLE STUDIO(CST PS) is dedicated to simulating charged particles travelling through electromagnetic fields. To accomplish this task, CST PS requires fields from other CST STUDIO SUITE 3D EM solvers, particularly CST EM STUDIO and CST MICROWAVE STUDIO, as input. CST PS tracks charged particles through this fields, considering relativistic effect, space charge and secondary emission, delivering particle trajectories, phase space distribution, remitances. Electrostatic Simulation of a medical X-Ray device Electric Field Distribution in the X-Ray Device CST EM STUDIOs Electrostatic Solver can be used to establish electric breakdown fields in X-Ray devices. A STEP model of the device was imported via CST EMS’s comprehensive CAD Interface. The main goal of the simulation is to determine the maximum field strength in the model. The design of the housing for the X-Ray tube can then be optimised to reduce the potential of arcing. Results may be post-processed in terms of field values at specific points, along curves or on material surfaces. . The field was plotted on a central cut-plane using a logarithmic scaling to aid visualisation. Maximum field values in the model may be extracted automatically in the post-processor. Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing Cross-sectional View of the Transformer Bushing The above figure shows the construction of the bushing comprising a central conductor, a ceramic insulator, and a housing containing the transformer oil. The structure was created using the powerful modeling tools in CST EM STUDIO . The bushing was created by sweeping over 360 degrees a curved profile. To complete the bushing geometry, the blend tool can be applied to round off the bushing edges. The permittivity of the ceramic has been set to 1000 with an epsilon of 2.9 for the oil. The housing and the central conductor were both defined as perfect electric conductors (PEC). Symmetry is exploited via the use of tangential symmetry conditions and an open boundary has been applied to reduce the simulation domain MEMS Comb Sensor Potential and electric field for the rectangular and triangular comb tip The design process of the comb sensor starts with a shape optimization in CST EMS. Here two different shapes are modeled and compared. Therefore, by using parameters a true shape optimisation of the force can be performed. After the calculation of fields the forces can be determined as a post processing step. Using appropriate boundary conditions, the single combs are assumed to be part of an infinite array. Due to its special shape the triangular comb tip has a 14% higher attracting force. Consistent Charged Particle Simulation of a Pierce Gun The pierce type gun example demonstrates the analysis of an electrically large gun configuration. The acceleration of the electrons takes place in only a small part of the computational domain, nearly 90% of the gun consists of a drift-tube. The electric field is established by the cathode, which acts at the same time as particle source, a guiding electrode and the anode, which incorporates the drift-tube. The magnetic field is produced by a large current-driven coil and guided by a highly permeable cylinder which encloses the whole configuration. The above figure shows the geometry of the gun which consists of hollow cylinders forming the guide for the magnetic field, the drift tube, the emitting cathode and the focussing cathode. typical construction features used to create the model include lofting, chamfering and blending operations. The geometric properties of the coils were created with the aid of two curves, one for the coil cross-section, the other for the coil sweep path.

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