One of the esults revealed during this research was that many counseling terms are used in conventional counseling have similar meanings in the Bible. This study shows that certain words that are used in the field of counseling today are indirectly built upon Biblical principles. Introduction There are many opinions and much debate concerning the use of the Bible and Scriptures in the counseling setting. Many in the secular community have questioned the use and the legitimacy of the results of counseling sessions that are based wholly on a religious belief system.
Many feel that since counseling that evolves around Biblical beliefs is and not based on scientific experiments and results is it not a valid form of diagnosis and treatment. Based on the research of Howard, etal (2005), Psychology is the result of man-made theories and scientific studies and has no foundation built upon religious beliefs. Psychology is known as the study of the mind and is an academic discipline that bases its theories on the scientific method and the study of human behaviors.
Psychology attempts to understand the role of a person’s mental functioning and their social behaviors all the while trying to determine any underlying physiological ssues. Psychologists study such things as personality, emotion, behavior and interpersonal relationships, and the unconscious mind (GanJe-Fling & McCarthy, 1991). They base their diagnoses on previously studied mental disorders and develop treatment plans based on those diagnoses. There is an obvious difference between the psychological direction of counseling the Biblical direction of counseling.
Psychology deals mostly with the study of theories and concepts that have been developed by scientists as opposed to the Bible’s study being focused on God and his direction of how we should live our lives. God has laid out his guide for us to follow in the Bible and Christian counselors work to help their client’s use His guide to work through their troubles. Both of these views have seemed to be on opposite ends of the spectrum for as long as counseling has been in existence.
Over the past several years, there has been a surge to try and integrate these two views into one view that will be more beneficial for the client as well as the counselor. The problem with this idea is that there has been so much debate between the professionals in each of these over the years that they do not want to admit to a common ground between the two. Clinton & Ohlschlager (2002) discuss the importance of the use of the Bible in contemporary counseling sessions and the use of contemporary counseling terminology and techniques in Christian counseling.
They suggest a more liberal approach to the counseling session one in which the Bible is used to enrich the counseling session and make it more rewarding for everyone. The research that was completed in this analysis was done to demonstrate how important the role the Bible and its terminology can be to contemporary counseling. The research was conducted on several terms that were commonly used in both the Bible and the counseling profession. It was determined that were many terms used in counseling today that are also mentioned in various verses in both the Old and New Testament.
The research showed that many of these terms have the same meaning in both disciplines and some have totally different meanings which was the main purposes of this paper. The reader will be presented with the meaning of the terms in both the Bible and the counseling profession, they will be presented with examples of their use in both the Old and New Testament, and how their usage compares under both disciplines. It will be important that the reader realizes that the use of Biblical terms in contemporary counseling can only work to increase the positive outcome of counseling and make the experience more enlightening for all involved.
Analysis Counselor/Counsel According to Holman’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), a counselor is someone who will analyze a situation and then give advice to the people involved and help direct them toward the appropriate decision or course of action. In the King James Version of the Bible, there are 14 references to the word counselor, 11 of which are ocated in the Old Testament and three of which are located in the New Testament. The term counselor can also be understood to mean someone who acts as a consultant not only to one person but to a group of people as well.
An example of this can be found in the Old Testament in 1 Kings 12:6-7, 6 “And, King Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this people? 7 And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve them, and nswer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants for ever. ” These Scriptures show that even in the Bible a counselor was sought out to give advice and to help people make important decisions in their life.
The words that were spoken to King Rehoboam demonstrate some of the guiding principles in counseling today. He was advised to speak kindly to his people and answer their questions, and the result would be that they would serve him. Counselors should not expect their clients to serve them, but they should tollow this same advice when talking with their clients. In the Bible, there are many persons who were considered to be counselors including Joseph of Arimatheae.
In Mark 1 5:43, “Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counselor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in bodily unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus”. This shows a good example that many people in the Bible was perceived as counselors because of their ability to give advice and help others. There are many additional instances in both the Old and New Testament that show examples of the use and influence of counselors. There are even instances where God is considered to be a counselor.
In Psalms 16:7, “l will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel: my reins also instruct me in the night seasons”. Discussion The use of counselors and the act of counseling is very prevalent in the Bible and in the examples demonstrated above. One of the key aspects of counseling is the fact that it requires the counselor to be a good listener. As evident in both the Bible as well as the mainstream counseling setting, in order to be an effective counselor you must be an effective listener.
Not only is it important to listener to what the client is saying but the counselor must also be able to “hear” what the client is saying. The examples that have been presented show that the role of the counselor has always, in one way or another, been a part of our existence. In the contemporary counseling setting, a counselor is someone who gives advice or counsels another person concerning educational, personal, or professional issues (McMinn, 1996). The Biblical examples and the definition presented by McMinn show that there is a correlation between the meaning of counselor in both disciplines.
Writing in community
Writing in community.
Part One: Tasks Collecting Data Choose a discourse community to study, and get permission to do so from the people involved in it. Then do the following: • Observe members of the discourse community while they are engaged in a shared activity; take detailed notes. (What are they doing? What kinds of things do they say? What do they write? How do you know who is “in” and who is “out”?) • Collect anything people in that community read or write (their genres) — even short things like forms, sketches, notes, IMs, and text messages. • Interview at least one member of the discourse community. If you want to record audio and transcribe the interview. Otherwise simply take notes on what the member of the community says. You might ask questions like: How long have you been here? Why are you involved? What do X, Y, and Z words mean? How did you learn to write A, B, or C? How do you communicate with other people (on your team, at your restaurant, etc.)? Data Analysis First, try analyzing the data you collect using the six characteristics of a discourse community found in Johns (p. 319) and Branick (pp. 383–394): • What are the shared goals of the community? Why does this group exist? What does it do? • What mechanisms do members use to communicate with each other (meetings, phone calls, emails, text messages, newsletters, reports, evaluation forms, etc.)? • What are the purposes of each of these mechanisms of communication (to improve performance, make money, grow better roses, share research, etc.)? • Which of the above mechanisms of communication can be considered genres (textual responses to recurring situations that all group members recognize and understand)? • What kinds of specialized language (lexis) do group members use in their conversation and in their genres? Name some examples — ESL, on the fly, 86, etc. What communicative function does this lexis serve (e.g., why say “86” instead of “we are out of this”)? • Who are the “old-timers” with expertise? Who are the newcomers with less expertise? How do newcomers learn the appropriate language, genres, knowledge of the group? • The above will give you an overall picture of the discourse community. Now you want to focus in on what you’ve learned to find something that is especially interesting, confusing, or illuminating. You can use Johns, Branick, Wardle and Kain, and Marro to assist you in this. In trying to determine what to focus on, you might ask yourself questions such as: • Are there conflicts within the community? If so, what are they? Why do the conflicts occur? Do texts mediate these conflicts and make them worse in some way? • Do any genres help the community work toward its goals especially effectively — or keep the community from working toward its goals? Why? • Do some participants in the community have difficulty speaking and writing there? Why? • Who has authority here? How is that authority demonstrated in written and oral language? Where does that authority come from? • Are members of this community stereotyped in any way in regard to their literacy knowledge? If so, why? Planning and Drafting As you develop answers to some of the above questions, start setting some priorities. Given all you have learned above, what do you want to focus on in your writing? Is there something interesting regarding goals of the community? Are there conflicts in the community? What do you see in terms of the lexis and mediating genres? Do you see verbal and written evidence of how people gain authority and/or enculturate in the community? At this point you should stop and write a refined research question for yourself that you want to address in your writing. Now that you have observed and analyzed data, what question(s) would you like to explore in your final report? (Consult the articles by Johns, Kain and Wardle, Marro, and Branick in this chapter for examples of how you might do this.) If your teacher has assigned you to write a fairly formal research report, then your final text ought to have the following parts, or you should make the following moves (unless there’s a good reason not to): • Begin with a very brief literature review of the existing literature (published research) on the topic: “We know X about discourse communities” (citing Johns and others as appropriate). • Name a niche (“But we don’t know Y” or “No one has looked at X”). • Explain how you will occupy the niche. • Describe your research methods. • Discuss your findings in detail. (Use Johns, Kain and Wardle, Branick, and Marro as examples of how to do this — quote from your notes, your interview, the texts you collected, etc.) • Include a references page. LITERATURE REVIEW, REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A literature review (or review of the literature) is a text that explains the existing conversation about a particular topic. Literature reviews are usually found at the beginning of research articles or books, but are sometimes written as separate projects. Note that literature in this case refers to published research in an area, not to novels or short stories. Criteria for Success Your assignment will be most successful if you’ve collected and analyzed data and explored the way that texts mediate activities within a particular discourse community. Exceptional reports will show a clear awareness of audience and clear understanding of what discourse communities are and will effectively demonstrate your ability to analyze the discourse community carefully and thoughtfully. The report will explore in depth a particularly interesting aspect of that community.
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