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Biases Helping Managers Make Better Decisions Psychology Essay

Biases Helping Managers Make Better Decisions Psychology Essay. In the business world managers are presented with a multitude of problems on a daily basis, some of which require quick on the spot decisions whilst others require more depth in knowledge. The decisions and judgements made by managers are based on beliefs relating to outcomes of events. These managers rely on heuristic principles and it is these heuristic principles which also determine the outcome of a bias in their decisions (Kahneman, et al., 1982). Heuristics are those rules of thumb, cognitive techniques, which people use to reduce the amount of information processioning that is required when making decisions. An employer for example might use the heuristic of “untidily dressed candidates are messy workers” while making their hiring decisions. The example given allows the employer to narrow down the list of potential candidates by only taking into consideration those that are neatly dressed and eliminating candidates that are untidily dressed before giving each a fair chance. Sometimes these heuristics work and at times as is the case in the example they are quite misleading and hence lead to biases and discrimination. Biases occur when people have tendencies to make decisions based on cognitive factors rather than considering the actual facts as evidence. These biases generally occur as a consequence of using the information processing shortcuts; heuristics, as was the case in the earlier mentioned example. A common product of human thought are biases, and it is these biases which can easily skew the reliability of the evidence which people present in their decisions or facts (BazermanBiases Helping Managers Make Better Decisions Psychology Essay
The Rise of the Papacy Analytical Essay. The church in Rome was just one of the many churches that were all over the Roman Empire. In 70 AD, however, the destruction of Jerusalem by the army of Titus meant that Rome was the new political as well as cultural capital of the empire. Since many roads led to Rome and many people travelled there was a concentration of cultures and more so missionaries to a point where Christianity adopted Rome as its home base after the destruction of Jerusalem. This led to the growth of the roman church which warranted its respect especially due to its moral and doctrinal probity. This strengthened its influence on the political class to a point where emperors like Constantine adopted Christianity and professed the faith openly. This led to the church, which had lived as a lonely entity outside the ruling class, enjoyed an imperial embrace. With the moving of the roman political capital to Constantinople by the emperor Constantine, the bishop was left in Rome1. The bishop of Rome took over the title of the Pope due to the influence that the church had on the leadership of Rome at the time. After the Roman Empire fell to the barbarians in 455 AD, the power of the bishop in Rome had grown immensely so as to fill the vacuum of leadership that was left. The church became the defender of order as well as the provider of justice. With the invasions that were rampant all over the empire, which marked the end of the pax romana, the unity and stability of the people had been shattered and it was upon the church to restore this sense of unity and stability as well as the confidence of the people. Pope Leo the Great was of particular importance in the rise of papacy as he not only convinced the barbarians not to destroy the city of Rome, he also coaxed the emperor Valentinian into recognizing the authority of the bishop of Rome officially which led to the issuance of an edict by the emperor that proclaimed the papal supremacy of the bishop. The reason behind the strength of the papacy in Rome lies in the nature of its authority. The first issues that were raised in regard to the authority of the Pope, was the suggestion that the bishop of Rome was a direct successor of St. Peter. This was later followed by the fact that Jesus had given St. Peter authority over the whole Christian church hence his successor also had to exercise authority over the church. Siriciuos was the first to impose the name Pope on himself and he served the church between 384 AD and 399 AD. He was also the first to issue a ruling that had a binding legal precedent on church dispute. This made the title of the Pope to be associated with supreme ecclesiastical authority, which held pastoral guidance over all the churches and Christians in general. Before Siricious, Damasus I had already been recognized by the roman authority in Constantinople when the heresies of Apollinarianism as well as Arianism were condemned by the roman authorities after he had condemned them. He had also commissioned the use of the Latin Vulgate in the translation of the Bible and this was followed throughout the following centuries. There was the general belief that Leo the Great was the first Pope among the non-Christians as he was the first to exercise the misinterpretation of Mathew 16:18 to acquire some form of biblical support for his great authority. In the eighth century the ‘donation of Constantine’ was made public. This publication contained the last words of Emperor Constantine that he said on his death bed and it proclaimed that he had ceded all the land as well as the authority of Rome to the Pope. This exalted the position so much that the period that followed, between 897 and 955 was characterized by a total of 17 Popes. This was due to the corruption by power that the bishops of the time had. There was also the breach of the fundamental foundations of papacy such as clerical celibacy, where some of the men bribed to be ordained, some married and some kept concubines. This phenomenon is recorded in the Bible in Revelation 2:6, 14 and 15. The dominance of Western Europe was mainly characterized by the rise of monarchs. At this period the Pope would crown kings which led to the establishment of the Papal States. This was mainly informed by need to obtain protection as well as support in case of aggression by the barbarians against Rome. It is important to note that at this time, the Pope had total control over Rome, both as a Christian leader and as a political ruler, and any invasion of Rome meant that the authority of the Pope was being challenged2. An English Benedict monk by the name of Boniface was responsible for the crowning Pepin the short as the king of the Franks with approval from the Pope. He had been ordained as bishop after his great mission to preach Christianity to the Franks who are now referred to as the Germans. He went ahead to establish monasteries in the land and this earned him a lot of trust from the Frankish rulers. This led to a close relationship between the papacy and the Franks such that when the barbarians threatened to invade Rome, king Pepin protected Rome and even went ahead to give the Pope a strip of land in Italy which then made the office of the Pope a territorial ruler. This arrangement would continue for a while and it also instilled the totalitarian power of the church over states. In 1296, however, during the reign of Pope Boniface, the Pope threatened to excommunicate anyone who dared to tax the church3. This being a period of military activity most kings were running out of resources to fund their huge armies and were therefore looking for other sources of income. King Edward I of England and king Philip of France were not happy about this threat and king Phillip went ahead to put an embargo on the export of jewels from his territory. This affected the Pope’s resources and he therefore withdrew the threat of excommunication. This created doubt among the people on the authority of the pope and later in 1301 the declaration by Boniface that all human beings were subject to the roman pope, was the straw that broke the camel’s back. King Philip resolved to depose the pope by claiming that he had been elected illegally and on grounds of immorality, heresy as well as simony. Several churches joined in and King Philip’s troops went ahead to hold the pope prisoner in his hometown of Anagni in the Apennine Mountains for three days before he was rescued by his people. The people of Anagni escorted him back to Rome where he died a few weeks later. This marked the first open rejection of the pope and his spiritual dominance by the people, especially by the monarchies of Western Europe. The rise of papacy was characterized by some positive as well as negative ramifications. Among the positive aspects was the unification of Europe especially after the Roman Empire had fallen. The pope was able to extend the same spirit of the pax romana through at a smaller scale considering that he was under the constant threat of invasions by the barbarians. There was also the spread of Christianity which contributed to the installation of Christian morals in the roman laws. This ensured that the societies in Rome adopted the teaching of Jesus and were holier than before. Missionaries were now allowed to travel all over the empire to spread the word as well as establish churches and monasteries. The negative ramifications on the other hand, were specifically disastrous to the Christian belief. The assumption of secular leadership by the bishops exposed the church to scrutiny especially where the church had to give rulings that contradicted the Bible and its teachings, for instance, in cases of executions. The later rejection of the pope especially in the Western Monarchies also served to weaken the church and the Christian faith. Bibliography Ferguson, Everett. “Baptism in the early church: history, theology, and liturgy in the first five centuries”. Journal of Religious Studies Review 36 issue 1, (2010): 81-93. Web. Nicole, Roger R. “The Canon of the New Testament.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40, no. 2 (2002): 199-206. Web. Verlag, Franz-Steiner. The evidence of the conversion of to Christianity: book 16 of the theodosian code.Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (1993). Web. Footnotes 1 Verlag, Franz-Steiner. The evidence of the conversion of to Christianity: book 16 of the theodosian code. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (1993). 68. 2 Everett Ferguson. “Baptism in the early church: history, theology, and liturgy in the first five centuries”. Journal of Religious Studies Review. Volume 36, issue 1, (2010). 71. 3 Roger, R. Nicole. “The Canon of the New Testament.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40, no. 2 (2002): 134. The Rise of the Papacy Analytical Essay
GCCCD Social Media Advertising Worldwide Potencial Basic Math Question Discussion.

Your initial post(s) should be your response to the questions posed in the discussion question. You should research your answer and cite( APA STYLE) at least one scholarly source when appropriate, and always use quality writing. The discussion board is never a place to use text language or emoticons.1.Discuss what information (details) you gathered from the infographics. The graph portion of the infographics are designed to provide a visual message. Also discuss what you liked graphically and why.Review the website The Potential of Social Media AdvertisingThere are six related infographics shown:The Potential of Social Media AdvertisingBrands Are Flocking to InstagramThe Brands Flocking to SnapchatWhere’s Digital Advertising Headed?The Great InfluencerThe Digital Ad Market Still Has Room to Grow. 2. Review the video Relevance of Polynomials ….. Share your thoughts about the video and name three other real-world applications not mentioned in the video and why they impact society.
GCCCD Social Media Advertising Worldwide Potencial Basic Math Question Discussion

Economic Instruments For Controlling Air Pollution Economics Essay

Air pollution as a menace is known to one and all. Air pollution has numerous disadvantages, which are both on a micro and a macro scale. On micro scale, it causes health problems like respiratory diseases and degradation of immediate environment. On macro scale, it leads to greenhouse problem, ozone layer depletion, climatic discrepancies etc. Various economic, scientific, technological and industrial measures are being taken to check this growing problem. Economics plays a very important role in checking air pollution. Various economic measures for controlling it are – Tradable credits – This measure includes allowing firms a maximum level of polluting permit surpassing which they will be liable to fines. These credits are transferable. These will either lead to firms turning to more eco-friendly production measures if it amounts to decrease on cost or paying other firms to decrease their carbon emissions. Incentive Pricing – This method includes introduction of such economic measures that makes the polluter himself pay for the pollution caused by him. Tax imposition [1] – This is imposition of taxes on polluting units. Taxing polluting units will have an increased per unit cost of production. A producer can avert this situation of rise in unit cost by reducing the level of output or substituting the eco friendly input for polluting input. Subsidies – This measure amounts to subsidising eco-friendly measures such as wind mills, hydro power plants, allowances to research of green technology etc. Direct regulation – This is use of legal machinery to place curbs on polluters by passing legislations and rulings. All these measures whether they are market based or command and control types are related with the theories of ‘polluter pays [2] ‘ and precautionary measures. The principle of ‘polluter pays’ was adopted as an environmental policy for checking air pollution by the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development [3] (OECD) in 1972. According to this principle, the external costs of pollution shall be borne by the polluter. The precautionary principle recognises the existence of uncertainty and seeks to avoid irreversible damages via imposition of a safety margin into the policy. 1.AIR POLLUTION ; CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROLLING PRINCIPLES Air pollution [4] is the presence of solid, liquid or gaseous particles in the atmosphere, which are not generally present, or are present in higher concentration and have no beneficial effect. They are injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or environment. CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION There are broadly two sources of air pollution – natural and manmade. Natural sources [5] of air pollution include fog, dust, salt spray, gases from springs, fissures and cracks in the earth, volcanoes producing ash, gas, fumes and smoke, smoke from forest fires, and pollens from various plants and weeds. Man made causes of air pollution include pollution from industries, vehicular pollution, domestic pollution etc. Industrial pollution includes all the works related to production and consumption of energy in any form. For example, it includes use of oil, coal, gas and electricity. Pollution from motor vehicles is also source of air pollution. It has become an issue simply because of the steady increase both in the number of the vehicles in use and the distance travelled by each vehicle each year. Number of registered motor vehicles increased from .306 million in 1951 to 58.863 million in 2002 [6] . It is the fastest growing source of CO2 emissions. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Air pollution has many negative effects associated to it. Among many others, they are greenhouse effect, acid rain and effect on health. It has harmful economic effects as well. Greenhouse effect – Air pollution is due to the large scale burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum etc.) in industries and for transportation. This leads to greenhouse effect which acts as an instrument in increasing earth’s temperature. Among the various greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide independently plays an important role in creating greenhouse effect, which is emitted due to the burning of fossil fuels. Acid rain – Acid rain may be defined as the increasing level of acidity in rain water. This phenomenon is observed mainly near places where there are coal-fired power plants, smelting facilities and large scale automobile usage. It can create serious environmental damage. For example, British industries emitting harmful gases have caused substantial harm to fishery in the lakes and rivers of Sweden and Norway [7] . Effect on health – Air pollution creates serious impact on health. It gives rise to various diseases like asthma, lung cancer, impaired vision and other bronchial and respiratory diseases. Many recent studies bear out the cancer risk from diesel fumes; children and the infirm are known to be especially vulnerable. The impact of air pollution on health is widespread. A World Bank 2000 study conducted for six cities in developing countries found that pollution from diesel vehicles(vehicular air pollution) are responsible for 79 per cent of the total health cost from the transport sector [8] . Economic effects – Air pollution leads to livestock depletion. Canaries, ducks, cattle, sheep, horses, and pigs grow sick and die due to the pollution. They breathe air pollutants or eat feed or grass that has been contaminated by the residues of the various pollutants. For example, arsenic produced during copper smelting process, molybdenum produced during steel making process. Pollutants lower the egg yield of chickens, milk yield of cows and makes sheep to grow a thinner coat of wool. Property is also damaged by polluted air. Steel, iron, copper, nickel, brass, tin, lead and aluminium, all corrode faster in the areas where the concentration of air pollutants is high. Pollutants affect fabrics. Smog causes rubber tyres to crack. Acid rain caused due to air pollution decreases farm yield apart from egg and milk production as stated above. Degradation of fertile land takes place. PRINCIPLES FOR CONTROLLING AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is a problem, both at the national and the global level. Thus, controlling measures, policies and laws regarding its control are to be formulated at both national and global level. There are two principles evolved to control air pollution. They are firstly, the ‘polluter pays principle’ (PPP) and secondly, the precautionary principle. Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) – Basis – If consumption or production decisions of one economic unit enters into the utility or production function of other economic units without any compensation, negative externalities arise. When a firm discharges its emissions into the atmosphere, they result in harm/damage to society. The firm treats the environment as if it were a free good or an unpaid factor of production: it ignores the cost of degradation of the environment [9] . Meaning – The basic theory of PPP is that the price of a good or service shall fully reflect its total cost of production which also includes the cost of all the resources used. It will also include the use of natural resources like air used for emission of wastes [10] . Thus, in a way, polluter shall bear the external cost of pollution caused by him. This gives an incentive to the polluter (producer/consumer) to lower its pollution level at least to the level where the marginal cost of pollution reduction is equal to the marginal cost of the damage caused by such pollution [11] . The interpretation of PPP would change its colour slightly with changes in the environmental policies of a country. For example, if there is an acceptable pollution limit line drawn, and the polluter has to pay only when his pollution level exceeds the acceptable pollution level, and not for the environmental damage caused by the discharge acceptable pollution. Thus, in this case PPP can be interpreted to grants polluters a de facto right to discharge the acceptable level of effluent without paying any fine. Problems [12] – A difficulty attached with the implementation of the PPP is that the environmental sources are freely and widely available and thus stand a chance of over exploitation in lack of any proper pricing measure for them. The PPP seeks to transfer the costs of pollution to the polluters, but to obtain effective results proper pricing of environmental sources has to be done. Another problem is of a coordinated international approach. If one country subsidises environment friendly measures for its industries, and others do not, the industries of the subsidising country would have an advantage over others in the market. The concept of ‘polluter pays’ has been encouraged at both international and national levels. International level – The Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted in 1972 the ‘polluter pays’ principle as a principle of environment policy. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Earth Summit, 1992 held at Rio de Janeiro also endorse the application of the ‘polluter pays’ principle [13] . National level – The Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution, issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests in February 1992, recommends the ‘polluter pays’ principle. In its Judgement dated 21 August, 1996 on the Public Interest Writ Petition (c) No. 914 of 1991 filed by the Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum, the Supreme Court endorsed the ‘polluter pays’ principle [14] . Precautionary principle Basis – If polluting substances are being released into the environment at a high rate or in cases where human health damage effects are likely, or in situations where uncertainty is great, rather than treating the problem after it becomes big, precautions should be taken. The age old saying of ‘prevention is better than cure’ comes into picture. Meaning – The precautionary principle recognises the existence of uncertainty and seeks to avoid irreversible damages via the imposition of a safety margin into the policy. It insists on taking care while setting emission standards, and emphasise on the prevention of pollution through source reduction measures (e.g. changing, modifying production processes or products ) rather than the sole reliance on end of pipe treatments (e.g. effluent treating) [15] . Problems – This principle involves greater fund transfer to research of cleaner technology thereby overlooking the present needs of immediate pollution control through effluent treatment etc. Another problem associated with this principle is that setting up of standard of pollution will leave no incentive with the firm to further lower the pollution caused by him once he reaches the standardised level set. The precautionary principle has been appreciated and promoted at both national and international level. International level – The Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted in 1972 the precautionary principle as a principle of environment policy. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Earth Summit, 1992 held at Rio de Janeiro also endorse the application of the precautionary principle [16] . National level – In its Judgement dated 21 August, 1996 on the Public Interest Writ Petition (c) No. 914 of 1991 filed by the Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum, the Supreme Court endorsed the precautionary principle [17] . 2. APPROACH AND METHODS FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL There are two approaches to the problem of air pollution. One is by the way of market based instruments and the other is the approach of command and control measures. Market based instruments Market based instrument approach to environmental policy makes use of market place, by modifying market signals in order to induce environmentally more friendly behaviour. These include tradable permits, incentive pricing and subsidies. Tradable permits – For tradable or marketable permits, first an acceptable level of pollution is determined. Permits are then issued for the level of emissions with respect to different pollutants up to the allowable limits. Any polluter achieving lower pollution than the acceptable limit possesses a credit. This credit can be traded in the market for money or any other consideration [18] . This will give an incentive to polluters to pollute less. If the polluter has to bear more costs for abating pollution than buying credits, he will buy credits thereby giving incentive to other firms to pollute less. This trade need not be between different polluters (external trading). It can be between different sources within the same firm (internal trading). The result would be the same, as the firm will gain by concentrating abatement in its low cost sources and concentrating permits in its high cost sources [19] . Certain arguable questions raised by environmentalists regarding the tradable permits are, whether environmental quality is sacrificed under a tradable permits system, and whether it is morally right to permit pollution even for a price. Incentive Pricing – Economic incentives can be provided to the polluter so as to make him bear the costs of his pollution. The method of making the polluter himself bear the costs which he had earlier passed on to the society is known as internalisation. Some economists argue that when private costs of the polluter involves the costs of the social damage on account of the pollution caused by him, he will willingly try to reduce his pollution level [20] . This method will be successful even when the polluter keeps on polluting, as the extra cost paid by him will be utilised to finance the control pollution measures by some other body. Subsidies [21] – This method is comparatively more effective because it provides some incentive to the polluter to adhere to the policies or laws formulated. Subsidies can be of the form of tax reduction, supplemental funds, easy availability of loans and grants. Subsidies on initial investment i.e. loans for new projects has a disadvantage over tax reduction as it may discourage the use of other pollution control measures. For example, in some cases air pollution can be better controlled by switching from polluting to non polluting or less polluting fuels like from coal to gas rather than capital expenditure on some pollution control device. In case of vehicular pollution, subsidies can be granted to promote more efficient vehicles or as the Earth Summit on Environment and Sustainable Development (1992), Agenda 21 suggests the government to promote mass transport systems, instead of highly wasteful personal transport. Command and Control (CAC) instruments This measure includes setting up of environmental standards (e.g. for air quality) which are enforced with the help of legislation without the aid of market-based incentives. It involves control methods such as direct regulation and tax imposition. The CAC instruments are argued to be on a lower footing compared to market based instruments. The reasons given for this are – 1. Under the CAC approach, government must set up a regulatory body to know about the emission standards of the polluter. This involves exhausting of resources whereas this information can be directly obtained by the polluter himself. 2. Under CAC, polluter has to achieve a given standard which is subject usually to some consideration about the type of technology adopted. But the control is not concentrated in the sources that may be best effective in decreasing the pollution. If such a process was available under CAC, it would have helped to reduce the overall costs of compliance with the standards set by CAC. We can conclude about the veracity of these statements by dwelling deeper into the CAC approach for controlling air pollution. Direct regulation [22] – Direct regulation involves legal recourse in the form of any law or regulation. There are certain guidelines to be kept in mind while formulating any direct regulation for putting a check on air pollution. Laws should not demand very high level of pollution control or fail to provide any financial burdens; else they will not be very effective. Also, laws should be such that they do not involve undertaking of high economic loses by a large number of people because then it will be difficult to enforce it. Anti pollution laws are not properly observed when some amount of financial sacrifice is needed [23] . Enforcement problems arise when there are inadequate detection and policing systems. Another problem with direct regulation is that even if similar regulations are present in different countries, if the method adopted for their formation is not the same, there may be discrepancies in the law, which may place nations on different environmental stands even after having similar regulations. An instance of such a discrepancy is India, where the government does not undertake evaluation and reanalysis of cost estimates that the refineries churn out. Other governments crosscheck the cost claims of industry and refineries first. Thus the regulations imposed on our refinery sector though apparently similar in their outlook are different in terms of the environmental standards provided by them [24] . Example of a direct regulation for control of air pollution is the decision of the Supreme Court of India in April 1999, making it mandatory for the automobile industry to meet with the Euro I norms within 30 days. It gave the automobile industry another 9 months to meet with the Euro II standards [25] . Direct regulations may be also be applied to collect data regarding pollution from the polluters themselves, thereby releasing the burden on the government to perform surveys and checks. To take an example [26] , in US, after the Bhopal Gas tragedy, the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, 1986 was passed. This act made it mandatory for industries to disclose the names of hazardous chemicals they were dealing with, quantities of such chemicals they were releasing into the atmosphere, and the possible dangers. In 1990 the Clean Air Act was amended and required a range of industries to disclose worst case scenarios and the preventive measures in place. The US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) moved to post all the information on the internet in order to make it more widely accessible. Making the information publically available can also help controlling the pollution. People earlier using products production of whose tends to pollute environment a lot, may change their preferences when they come to know about the harmful environmental effects of the products used by them. Tax imposition – The idea of a pollution tax was first put forward by the British economist Pigou, in 1920, who suggested that polluters should face a tax based upon the estimated damage caused by their pollution emissions. Such charges were known as ‘Pigovian taxes’ [27] . Tax on input is shall be imposed when pollution takes place at production level (e.g. use of coal in copper smelting plant) and tax on output shall be imposed when pollution takes place at consumption level (e.g. use of petrol in cars). Tax on input would ultimately lead the producers to adopt more environmental friendly techniques. For example, if a tax on carbon fuels is imposed where coal would attract higher tax than oil which in turn would attract higher tax than natural gas. Then, in this case of industries using these resources like those involved in power production are charged indirectly. Thus electricity sector would alter its fuel mix to a less carbon polluting form. In this way, pollution can be controlled at production end. Tax on polluting output would increase the market price of the product and thereby decrease the level of demand and hence the production. Taxing polluting unit will have an increased per unit cost of production [28] . There are certain products and sources of pollution which can be charged at both input and output level for improving air quality. For example, tax can be imposed on vehicular pollution at both input and output level, which would include higher tax rate on fuel inefficient vehicles, higher tax rate on polluting vehicles and on fuels not meeting the desired environmental norms [29] . Advantage of taxes over other kinds of direct regulations like setting emission standards is that since taxes would be administered by the government’s existing tax framework, there is a lower chance of their evasion compared to that for fixed emission standards which are policed via irregular on site inspections. Once the pollution level is set, the firms have no incentive for further reduction of emissions below this level, whereas in the taxing framework, incentive to keep on reducing the emissions is always present because the lower the emissions the lower the tax which polluter would be liable to pay. This in turn gives an incentive to the firms to allot funds for research and development of new pollution abating technology [30] . Tax upon one pollutant may reduce the emission of the associated pollutant. For example, if a firm switches to non fossil fuels from fossil fuels due to a tax imposition of carbon emission, then emission of other pollutants like sulphur associated with fossil fuels will also decrease which is not possible when the policy of fixed emission standards is applied. Taxes have disadvantages as well. They are argued to be distributionally regressive [31] . To meet with the increase in cost because of tax imposition, the producer will increase the price of its product, thereby distributing his increased liability among the consumers. This has a negative effect of charging the poor in a proportionately higher manner than the rich. There are some international problems [32] associated with tax imposition. If one country imposes taxes on its industries then they will be at a disadvantage when compared to foreign competitors. If all countries agree to impose taxes, then for equity, tax in each country has to be different which would be arguable. Industries in those countries which do not sign any international pollution tax treaty will be at an advantage. CONCLUSION Air pollution takes place by virtue of both natural and manmade causes. It has various harmful effects which include health hazards, greenhouse effect and acid rain. It has many negative economic effects as well. Polluter pays principle and precautionary principle are the two principles devised to control air pollution. They have been recognised and encouraged at both national and international level. The measures under these principles are categorised as market based instruments which rely on market changes to control air pollution and command and control instruments which rely on executive and judicial powers to control air pollution. The methods applied at the grass root level under market based instruments are tradable permits, incentive pricing and giving subsidies, and those applied under command and control instruments are direct regulation and tax imposition. All of these economic measures help in averting the problem of air pollution.

Physics homework help

help me with my homework Physics homework help. MILLENNIALS:ÿÿÿÿRead these 3 reports followed by the Assignment in REDÿa. ÿclick ÿand reasd ÿhttp://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/outlook/millennials/ÿ(Links to an external site.)This is a recent report to compare and contrast with the one below in b.ÿ ÿb. ÿhttp://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2014/03/26/the-surprising-way-millennials-are-changing-the-workplace/ÿ(Links to an external site.)c. A Portrait of Generation Next?Confident, Connected, Open to ChangeIn ?today?s world the 3 R?s of learning have been replaced by:1.ÿÿÿÿÿÿRIGORÿlearning new material, reading your text, thinking, ideating, etc.2.ÿÿÿÿÿÿRELEVANCE…helping you to understand what the ?real world? is like andÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿ ÿgiving you the tools and self-confidence to succeed when you graduate.3.ÿÿÿÿÿÿRELATIONSHIPS….the value of understanding and respecting others in a globally diverse workplaceÿI think you will actually enjoy and find this assignment extremely interesting and ÿuseful ÿsince it ?Is Totally About You?ÿwhile embodying and integrating theÿ RIGOR, RELEVANCE, and RELATIONSHIPS of the world in which we live.ÿ Be prepared to take an honest look in the mirror; and also look at how life is changing/ or not changing your parents and grandparents, and how they all look at the same world you look at, along with the leadership, marketing and management, etc. opportunities that the data points and trends speak to in the report.ÿThis report was released February 24, 2010, and don?t flinch on the size of the report, read the OVERVIEW first.ÿ You will find that each chapter has very interesting and easy-to-understand charts and graphs summarizing the content. ÿI suggest you also look at the video and take the test too….this is about you performing in the ?real world?ÿ(RELEVANCE).ÿÿThis report also has greatÿ(RIGOR)ÿresearch, data, comparisons, and information….very interesting and useful for identifying leadership opportunities, business and market research, etc. about your generation and others.ÿ The survey methodology at the end will also give you a great insight in to how this type of research is conducted and compiled…useful information for your future when you are asked to research something. ÿGenerations, like people, have personalities, and Millennials — the American teens and twenty-somethings who are making the passage into adulthood at the start of a new millennium — have begun to forge theirs: confident, self-expressive, liberal, upbeat and open to changeÿ(RELATIONSHIPS).ÿASSIGNMENT:There are 8 sections to the report.ÿ While I strongly encourage you to at least browse every chapter for this assignment (they have great charts) you are to:ÿa.ÿÿÿpick anything that interests you in any 2 different chapters from chapter 2 to 9 below and compare and contrast them with the Goldman Sachs report.b.ÿÿÿreference which chapter it is in and what part of it you are writing about.ÿc.ÿÿÿIdentify, anything in that chapter you like, differ with, agree with, etc. and tell me what global leadership, marketing, management, or ÿpersonal opportunity or insight that this information gave you and ÿalso tell me why?ÿd.ÿÿÿWrite 150- 250 words on EACH of the 2 chapters you identified.e.ÿÿÿWrite an additional 150-250 wordsÿ on ?What did you learn about yourself? from reading these 2 comprehensive report that will help you in preparing forÿliving in a globalÿbusinessÿworld.ÿÿ See the link below.ÿMILLENNIALS: A Portrait of Generation Next?Confident, Connected….. Open to Change.http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdfÿ(Links to an external site.)ÿÿCHAPTERS:1 Overview……………………………………………………………………………2 Demography…………………………………………………………………………3 Identity, Priorities, Outlook ……………………………………………………….4 Technology and Social Media ……………………………………………………..5 Work and Education ……………………………………………………………….6 Family Values ……………………………………………………………………….7 Lifestyle……………………………………………………………………………..8 Politics, Ideology and Civic Engagement …………………………………………..9 Religious Beliefs and Behaviors ……………………………………………………..PewÿResearch Center:ÿMILLENNIALS: A Portrait of Generation Next–Confident. Connected. Open to Change.http://pewsocialtrends.org/assets/pdf/millennials-confident-connected-open-to-change.pdfÿ(Links to an external site.)ÿVIDEOhttp://pewresearch.org/millennials/videÿ(Links to an external site.)oÿÿQUIZ: How Millenial Are You?http://pewresearch.org/millennials/quizÿ(Links to an external site.)ÿSee also:http://pewresearch.org/millennials/ÿ(Links to an external site.)ÿOVERVIEWThe Millennials: Confident. Connected. Open to Change.February 24, 2010http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1501/%20millennials-new-survey-generational-personality-upbeat-open-new-ideas-technology-boundÿ(Links to an external site.)Physics homework help

Teamwork / Make sure you do not plagiarize.

Teamwork / Make sure you do not plagiarize..

TeamworkHow does effective teamwork look? How is teamwork displayed in your life as it relates to your current role? Why is teamwork a necessity for organizations? Does this help or hurt an organization if teamwork and collaboration is nonexistent?The requirements below must be met for your paper to be accepted and graded:Write between 700 – 1,000 words using Microsoft Word in APA style, see example below.Use font size 12 and 1” margins.Include cover page and reference page.At least 80% of your paper must be original content/writing.No more than 20% of your content/information may come from references.Use at least three references from outside the course material, one reference must be from EBSCOhost. Text book, lectures, and other materials in the course may be used, but are not counted toward the three reference requirement.Cite all reference material (data, dates, graphs, quotes, paraphrased words, values, etc.) in the paper and list on a reference page in APA style.References must come from sources such as, scholarly journals found in EBSCOhost, CNN, online newspapers such as, The Wall Street Journal, government websites, etc. Sources such as, Wikis, Yahoo Answers, eHow, blogs, etc. are not acceptable for academic writing. A detailed explanation of how to cite a source using APA can be found here (link). Download an example here.Grading Criteria AssignmentsMaximum PointsMeets or exceeds established assignment criteria20Demonstrates an understanding of lesson concepts30Clearly presents well-reasoned ideas and concepts30Uses proper mechanics, punctuation, sentence structure, spelling and APA formatting20Total100
Teamwork / Make sure you do not plagiarize.

Lewis University Immigration and Living in A Foreign Country Discussion

Lewis University Immigration and Living in A Foreign Country Discussion.

I’m working on a writing project and need support to help me learn.

Please use these sources should be 5-6 but please try and make it to 5 and a half pages. My topic is about e-cigarette. I put a rubric please follow everything on the rubric and don’t miss anything from the rubric. Thanks so much, I need the essay by Thursday so, I would like to receive this essay by Wednesday night or Thursday morning. If a website isn’t opening you can send me a message and I will send you pictures of the Website. “Attitudes to E-Cigarettes and Cessation Support for Pregnant Women from English Stop Smoking Services: A Mixed Methods Study.” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 3 Jan. 2019, www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/1/110.Health Risks of E-Cigarettes and Vaping.” Health Risks of E-Cigarettes and Vaping | American Lung Association, www.lung.org/quit-smoking/e-cigarettes-vaping/impact-of-e-cigarettes-on-lung.Know the Risks of E-Cigarettes for Young People: Know the Risks: E-Cigarettes & Young People: U.S. Surgeon General’s Report.” E, e-cigarettes.surgeongeneral.gov/knowtherisks.html#risks.“E-Cigarettes and Youth: Patterns of Use, Potential Harms, and Recommendations.” Preventive Medicine, Academic Press, 3 Feb. 2020, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0091743520300335.This is my rubric please follow every stepResearch Essay Assignment Sheet Research Essay: English 102 will write a 5-6 page essay that explores, in-depth, about a topic that addresses the prompt below. The essay will be a thesis-driven argument that addresses the prompt, below, and it should include extensive development of the student’s own thinking and relevant secondary sources researched and cited by the student’s annotated bibliography and Works Cited page. Students will formally propose their essay—see the attached Proposal Form. Each essay should address this prompt: Explore a social, political, or economic topic of your choice and present how and to what extent the idea supports or hinders our society (the United States)? What are the opinions of experts in the field, what is the data saying about the topic, and are there ways in which we could potentially reform/better this topic?Sources:The student will include a Works Cited page (MLA format), citing all secondary sources consulted and/or used in the essay. The paper should include relevant information from at least FOUR secondary sources, and all of these sources should appear on the student’s annotated bibliography. Proposal Form: Students must complete typing concise and specific responses to the seven questions listed on the form.
Lewis University Immigration and Living in A Foreign Country Discussion