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# Bernoulli’s Theorem Apparatus cheap mba definition essay help Law homework help

The objective of this experiment is to determine the relationship between pressure head, velocity head, and static head and compare it with Bernoulli’s Theorem. The total head of flowing liquid between two points remain s constant provided there is no loss due to friction no gain due to application of outside work between the two points. So basically the apparatus used for this experiment consist of a venture tube with different diameter at certain part, 8 tubes of water manometer, a rotameter, stainless steel tube and a stop watch to record the time of the water flow.

The procedures are simple, after connecting the hydraulics bench outlet to the test set, the pump is started. Then adjust the flow rate to 10, 15, 20 L per minute. The flow rate and readings for each manometer should be taken and recorded in the table provided. The total head at any point is indicated on tube no. 7. As for the result, we need to obtain the time needed for the flow to fill up 4L. Then we can calculate the flow rate followed by the velocity of the flow at any point. With the velocity of the flow for each point are known, thus we can calculate the velocity head for each point.

As for the static head value is taken from the manometer readings. We can observe that even point 1 and point 8 have the same diameter but the flow rate manometer readings might differ a little which is due to the friction loss along the venture tube. There might be some error occur in this experiment as the valve in this apparatus used contain some defect which will affect the result of the experiment. After conducting this experiment, we can conclude on the statement of Bernoulli’s Theorem that relates between velocity head and static pressure head, where the increase of velocity head is compensated by a reduction in the static pressure.

Objectives The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the relation of pressure head, velocity head and static head then compare with Bernoulli’s Theorem. Besides, this experiment also aims to determine the total head and the friction loss between two points in the Venturi tube with same cross sections. Theory: Bernoulli’s Theorem States ‘The total head of flowing liquid between two points remains constant provided there is no loss due to friction no gain due to application of outside work between the two points. Total head (HL) of flowing liquid is made up of Elevation Head or Static Head (Hs).

Another example of friction loss is as point 1 and point 8 have same diameter, we should expect that the static head are equal. But as shown is the result the values are not the same in fact the value of point 8 are much lower than that of point 1. This has shown the existence of friction loss along the venturi tube. Besides that, error or mistakes committed during the experiment may also affect the end results. There are several errors and mistakes might have occurred during the experiment which affected the result. The errors and ways to avoid these from happening in the future are as follow:

I. There might be some air or bubble that entrapped in the venturi tube or the manometer. This will affects the flow of the fluid in the venture tube and also affect the readings of the manometer. To this error from happening, we should allow the fluid to flow until there is no visible bubble before starting the experiment. II. During the experiment, we encounter some problem on the valve of the apparatus. It seems that it could not be tighten. Even after that it was fixed but this might slightly affect the result due to the defect of the valve.

Therefore any broken parts of the apparatus should be replaced and maintenance should be done on the equipment to ensure that it is in a good condition. III. Some unnoticed leakage or blockage in the equipment might also affect the result. Maintenance on the equipment should be done regularly to avoid this. IV. Human errors such as parallax error and some delay in pressing the stop watch might also hugely affect the results of the experiment. The only way to avoid this is to repeat the experiment for several times. V.

Manometer that fluctuates all the time makes it harder to get the exact values and therefore influence the accuracy and consistency of the data. So we should wait until it steadies at a certain value before taking the reading. Conclusion This experiment has demonstrate the relation of pressure head, velocity head and static head and compare it with the Bernoulli’s theorem which stated that The total head of flowing liquid between two points remains constant provided there is no loss due to friction no gain due to application of outside work between the two points.

In conclusion, the total of velocity head and the static head should be equal to the total head which is the manometer value point 7. And the reason that the total is not equal is due to the existence of friction loss along the venturi tube. From this experiment, we can notice that smaller cross sections of Venturi tube will have higher velocities, thus the cross section of the tube is inversely proportional with the velocity. Flow rate will affect the velocity head. References Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering I Laboratory Lab Manual Appendix

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THEORIES AND WORLDVIEW.

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