Get help from the best in academic writing.

Benefits of a Flexible Work Schedule

Benefits of a Flexible Work Schedule Contents Executive Summary Introduction Background Problem and Purpose Findings Why Flexible Work Schedule is Necessary? Work-Family Balance Continuing Education A Trend for Disappearing Corporate Office Great Sense of Being Valued What are The Benefits for Employees and Employers? Employees Employers Type of Flexible Work Arrangement How to Get Started for Employer? Conclusion Recommendation Works Cited Bibliography Executive Summary The report goes through the important of having a flexible schedule in work place. Employees will have the opportunity to balance working hours and family time as well as continue education and personal development. Flexi schedule is also a current and future trend when corporate office might be no longer a must. In addition, the sense of being valued by employer will motivate employees to dedicate more to the company. Flexible work schedule brings benefits for both employers and employees. Employees can reduce unproductive commuting time, reduce fuel costs, and increase productivity. On the other hand, employers are able to retain outstanding staffs as well as recruit talents easily. Employers would appreciate high productivity by reducing tardiness and absenteeism as a result of offering flexible work hour. However, flexible work arrangement also has some disadvantages that both employers and employees need to consider. Having different working hours with co-workers might cause some difficulties in finishing the job and employees might sometimes feel that working hours have been extended more than normal hours. Meanwhile, employers will not feel that working hours can be controlled while employees are not physically in the office, and fairness will also be concerned when some employees have to stay in office as required by the job. Flexible work schedule can be arranged in different format including flexibility in time, location, and work continuity. In order to convince employer agreeing on a flexible schedule, employees should perform well and be ready to tackle all the obstacles that might occur by having a flexible work schedule. Flexible Work Schedule Introduction Background This report is designed as an assignment in Research and Report Writing Class. General topics are provided by instructor and students can choose one topic from the list or suggest another topic. It will discuss about Flexible Work Schedule which is one of the topics given and approved by instructor. Problem and Purpose Many employees experience a personal, professional, and monetary need to achieve especially workers with kids and family at home. Most employees need to have a balance between work and personal life, and the term work-life balance refers to this situation. Employers can assist employees to experience work-life balance by offering such opportunities as flexible work schedule, paid time off policies, responsible time and communication expectations, and company-sponsored family events and activities. This approach will create a work environment in which work-life balance is expected, enabled, and supported in order to retain outstanding employees to whom work-life balance is important and allow them to pursue all components of a healthy life. This report presents information regarding current trend in work place which is flexible work schedule where employees are not required to come to office in a daily basic while they can still perform their job well. It will also discuss why it is a trend, what are the values and drawbacks for both employees and employers. The report also suggests how an employee can start discussing a flexible schedule with an employer, and on the other side what should employer do to manage employees under this flexibility. This research will only cover flexible work schedule as a part of work-life balance approach due to limit time. It is significance because flexible work schedule gives employees the motivation to work and dedicate to employers. It will also represent different views from employee and employer. Findings The result of this research indicates that flexible work schedule is necessary to motivate employees to perform well, enhance productivity, and connect employees to employer emotionally. The research findings present four aspects (a) why flexible work schedule is necessary, (b) what are the benefits and drawbacks, (c) type of flexible work schedule arrangements, and (d) how to get started for employer. One online survey conducted by The Honourable MaryAnn Mihychuk, Minister of Employment, asking Canadians for providing their views and experiences related to flexible work. The survey showed that 827 among 990 respondents answered that their companies provide flexible work arrangement and 163 among 990 respondents answered that no flexible schedule is provided at work (Employment and Social Development Canada, 2017). It is no doubt that flexible work schedule has been a trend in work place. Figure 1 below gives more details on the questions had been asked and the respective responses. Figure 1 (Source: Employment and Social Development Canada, 2017) Note that the total of percentages for all four answers does not equal 100% since participants could select more than one answer. Why Flexible Work Schedule is Necessary? Work-Family Balance Work-life balance is very important to employees since some have many family obligations while juggling with work, some have other passions to pursue, others simply are not interested in committing to one particular job or profession in a full-time capacity. The 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey stated that 16.8 percent of millennials choose their job based on opportunities it presents them for achieving work-life balance and 11 percent of millennials look for flexibility as top priority when it comes to choosing a company to work (Galic, 2018). Employees will have a desire to balance work commitments with raising children as the more children are closely connected to parents, the more likely that children will be personally involved in caring for parents when parents age. The trade off, of course, is catching up on email at 10 P.M. or finishing a project on a Sunday morning to make up the time. Continuing Education Another thing that employees normally look for when choosing where to work is having the ability to grow and learn more while on the job as well as get the opportunity to get higher education. Company that offers employee development opportunities always do well when it comes to hiring and retaining younger workers. In many cases, employees will be spending time taking classes and working additional jobs to skill up, and some of this activity will occur during the normal workday. Flexible scheduling enables workers to work around current and future educational goals, maintain a job, and continue learning at the same time. Apparently, this is a big win for employers as well, who will be able to retain employees who are determined to learn and improve while on the job (Galic, 2018). A Trend for Disappearing Corporate Office The growth in use of electric computer and voice tools have made work more portable, facilitating employees’ ability to work anywhere, anytime. More employers have become comfortable with flexibility as technological tools enhance the ability to electronically monitor employees’ productivity. By 2030, professionals will work mostly from home using super-fast data terminals. Meeting will routinely occur virtually and across geographies and time zone, rendering air travel to visit clients or partners unnecessary. And if the office is not necessary, why office hours need to be set (Levit, 2015). Great Sense of Being Valued Letting employees know that staffs are appreciated is very important since that would be one of the main reasons for staying with a company. Being valued is important to people not only in the work place. It is important in family situations, in social situations, and in any type of human relationship. Levit (2015) found that “employees who are offered the ability to work with flexibility tend to feel more valued by employers, in turn those employees will be more loyal and work harder.” What are The Benefits for Employees and Employers? Prior to making a decision, all people involved will consider benefits and drawbacks to see it is worth to make a change. The advantages that employees see while being permitted to work more flexible schedules are fairly clear and obvious; however, it’s important to know that granting flexible schedules doesn’t make sense if the needs of business are not met. Employees Advantages According to Heathfield, 2018 with flexible work schedule, employees experience these benefits: Flexibility to meet family needs, personal target, and life responsibility. Reduce unproductive time spent on commuting and fuel costs. Avoid traffic and stresses of commuting during rush hours. Increase feeling of personal control over schedule and work environment. Reduce employee burnout due to overload. Increase productivity. Decrease childcare cost. Disadvantages Employees who thrive in an office environment may find it difficult to work when colleagues do not hold the same schedule. This is why many employers require core days and core hours during which everyone is in the office. Moreover, working from home can often make neighbours and friends think employees are not actually working, thus causing problems with relationships. Lastly, there is no clear delineation between work and home as sometime employees may have the feeling of working all the time. Manager feels that employees can be contacted all the time due to flexible work schedule (Heathfield, 2018). Employers Advantages Heathfield, 2018 also found that employers can gain below benefits when allowing a flexible work schedule: Increase employee morale, engagement, and commitment to the organization. Reduce absenteeism and tardiness. Increase ability to recruit outstanding employees. Reduce turnover of valued staff. Increase productivity. Extend hours of operation for departments such as customer service. Develop image as an employer of choice with family-friendly flexible work schedules. Gain better recruitment. Disadvantages In team-oriented departments, teams still need to meet and flexible work schedule might reduce team work. Some people take advantage of the flexibility and use that mostly for personal purpose; therefore, employer feels that working hours cannot be controlled. Moreover, some managers will have trouble to adjust to new management style which requires trust rather than traditional style which managers can see when staffs come to work, watch what staffs do, and when people leave for home. Clients might feel inconvenient when not able to reach person in charge by calling office number. Meanwhile, employers sometimes struggle with fairness when only certain employees can work remotely (Heathfield, 2018). Type of Flexible Work Arrangement Current definition of flexible work schedule builds on the concept of employee scheduling discretion enabling employees to have some choice to determine how long, when, or where to work for various time period (e.g., days, weeks, seasons). Figure 2 below provides basic type and definition as well as examples of flexible work schedules. Figure 2 Types and Examples of Flexible Work Schedules Basic Type and Definition Flexibility in the timing of work Definition: flexibility in when work occurs Flexibility in the location, or place of work Definition: flexibility in the location or place where work occurs Flexibility in amount of work Definition: flexibility in amount of work or workload Flexibility in work continuity Definition: flexibility to allow for employment breaks or time off Examples Flextime Core days Result-based professional work Contingent work Rotating shifts Shift work 4-day work week Compressed work week Weekend, evening, night work Telework or flexplace satellite offices Required travel or client office work Split locations Job sharing Reduced load or customized work Part-time work Overtime mandates or limit Work-study or coops Short-term or long-term leaves Extended paid and unpaid leaves Vacation Sick leaves Part-year work Intermittent leave Source: Ellen
Bad news letter wk 4. Need help with my English question – I’m studying for my class.

The Scenario:
A new customer, Mr. Gordon has purchased a weight loss package from your company, FITness Inc. The package includes workout video access, meal plans, tracking apps, food products and workout accessories, and suggests results can happen in as little as 30 days, if followed accurately. However, Mr. Gordon claims the package is false advertising because he has not lost any weight. Your company has a strict “no guarantees” policy because it is not possible to know how closely customers follow the program guidelines. Mr. Gordon is demanding a free upgrade to a more expensive package and a month of free personal training sessions. He is threatening to post negative reviews on social media if his requests are not met.
Following the format in your textbook write a minimum 1-page single-spaced bad news letter based on the above scenario using Times New Roman 12-point font with 1” margins all the way around.

Includes appropriate greeting, subject, and closing.

Appropriately starts with a “nod” or a “buffer”.

Clearly states what the customer is asking for and acknowledges their position

Uses concrete, specific details to give an appropriate implicit no, without using “company policy” as an excuse.

Avoids negative language such as “unfortunately” or “however”.

Makes an apology and/or expression of regret

Offers a “sweetener” that is mindful of company policies.

Closes on a friendly and constructive note

Meets technical requirements above and is polished and free of grammatical errors


Bad news letter wk 4


1. THE CASE ASKS YOU TO USE THE HISTORICAL AVERAGE RISK FREE RATE FROM CHAPTER 10. THIS IS 3.6%. 1. THE CASE ASKS YOU TO USE THE HISTORICAL AVERAGE RISK FREE RATE FROM CHAPTER 10. THIS IS 3.6% – PAGE 299 2. THE CASE ASKS YOU TO USE THE RETURNS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF THE TWO BLEDSOE FUNDS. THIS IS ON PAGE 315. THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT BETWEEN THE TWO FUNDS IS 0.16. 3. PLEASE IGNORE QUESTION 6 OF THE CASE. Read the material and answer the questions provided on page 356. Use the provided rubric to gauge your own work. Rubric Case Study Rubric Case Study Rubric Criteria Ratings Pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIdentification of Main Issues/Problems 5 pts Accurately identifies all key issues and complexities in the case. 3 pts Accurately identifies some but not all key issues and complexities in the case. 1 pts Does not accurately identify all key issues and complexities in the case. 0 pts Does not identify issues or complexities in the case. 5 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis and Evaluation of Issues/Problems 5 pts Presents an insightful and thorough analysis of all identified issues/problems; includes all correct calculations to inform the analysis. 3 pts Presents a thorough analysis of most of the issues identified; missing some necessary calculations. 1 pts Presents a superficial or incomplete analysis of some of the identified issues; omits necessary calculations. 0 pts Does not provide analysis or evaluation of issues/problems. 5 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRecommendations on Effective Solutions/Strategies 5 pts Supports diagnosis and opinions with strong arguments and well-­‐ documented evidence; presents a balanced and critical view; interpretation is both reasonable and objective. 3 pts Supports diagnosis and opinions with limited reasoning and evidence; does not present a balanced and critical view. 1 pts Little action suggested and/or inappropriate solutions proposed to the issues in the case study. 0 pts No solutions are suggested. 5 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLinks to Course Concepts 5 pts Makes appropriate and powerful connections between identified issues/ problems and the strategic concepts studied in the course. 3 pts Makes appropriate but somewhat vague connections between identified issues/problems and concepts studied in the course. 1 pts Makes inappropriate or little connection between issues identified and the concepts studied in the course. 0 pts Makes no connection between issues identified and the concepts studied in the course. 5 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Mechanics and Formatting Guidelines 5 pts Demonstrates clarity, conciseness and correctness; formatting is appropriate and writing is free of grammar and spelling errors. 3 pts Occasional grammar or spelling errors, but still a clear presentation of ideas; lacks organization. 1 pts Writing is unfocused, rambling, or contains serious errors; poorly organized and does not follow specified guidelines. 5 pts1. THE CASE ASKS YOU TO USE THE HISTORICAL AVERAGE RISK FREE RATE FROM CHAPTER 10. THIS IS 3.6%

Option #2: PEST Analysis

online assignment help Option #2: PEST Analysis.

International marketers experience expanded levels of uncertainty as they not only deal with the uncontrollable elements of their own country but also with those of another country. Keeping this in mind, discuss how compiling a PEST Analysis would aide an international marketer. Review the components of a PEST as you discuss how changes in the uncontrollable external environment affects the international marketer.Be sure to discuss and reference concepts taken from the assigned textbook reading and relevant research. (The CSU-Global Library is a good place to search for research sources.) Additionally, the website will provide valuable insight.Your paper should be 1-2 pages in length and conform to CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements. Include at least three scholarly references in addition to the course textbook. The CSU-Global Library is a good place to find these references.
Option #2: PEST Analysis

Potomac Rationale and Justification for Measurement Outcomes Discussion Paper

Potomac Rationale and Justification for Measurement Outcomes Discussion Paper.

Scenario:You are a member of the Scottsdale Police Department’s team of strategy leaders and your role is to develop a strategy for measuring the outcomes of the strategic plan.Write a 525-word outline in which you summarize a strategy for measuring the outcomes of the Scottsdale Police Department’s strategic plan.Include the following in your outline:Stages of plan implementationOverview of stakeholders involved in the processExamples for measurements of outcomesRationale and justifications for measuring outcomesExplanation of the gap analysisFormat your outline according to APA guidelines.See attached for strategic plan for Police Department. This should help with the assignment.
Potomac Rationale and Justification for Measurement Outcomes Discussion Paper

Electronic Advertising Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Literature review Analysis Findings Conclusion Reference List Introduction In electronic advertisement, business enterprises take hold of the opportunities presented to them through the Internet and the World Wide Web to promote their respective businesses. Electronic advertisement involves the use of these and suchlike platforms to deliver marketing or promotional messages to potential customers. Electronic advertisement is performed through search engines, social networking sites, blogs, E-mail and online networks devoted to its promotion. One major benefit presented by electronic advertisement that surpasses traditional advertising methods is the increased ability to customize adverts, thus making investments in this kind of business more efficient. Another benefit of electronic advertisement over traditional advertising methods is that it has the ability to reach a wider audience comprising people of different ages, ethnic and racial backgrounds. the next advantage of electronic advertisement is that consumers wield more control on an item and, therefore, can choose whether to check the advert or not. The Internet is the main platform through which electronic marketing is carried out. Its expansion to accommodate more capabilities is an incentive that attracts business enterprises to electronic marketing. Literature review Organizations need information systems so that they can manage efficiently and provide security to the information at the procession. In addition, information systems are an effective means to improve integration and work processes in them. An information system basically creates a log of another system that is integrated into the organization. The system which log is created by an organization’s information system is known as a target system. Owing to the dynamicity and volatility of the electronic marketing environment in which an organization or business enterprise finds itself in, there is a need to mange its marketing information more efficiently and log its marketing systems to ensure optimal performance. Thus, there is the need for information systems based on the information technology devoted to the electronic marketing. Such information systems are known as Information Technology-based Marketing Information Systems (MkISs). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MkISs can be defined as a collection of procedures and methods formulated for regular planning analysis and presentation of information that is essential in marketing decision-making (Talvinen, 1994, 8). Managing marketing information through MkISs in an organization facilitates effective online or electronic marketing as it ensures that marketing decision-makers are presented with timely and accurate marketing information, thus enabling them to improve the design, plan and implementation of their electronic marketing strategies (Talvinen, 1994, 8). MkISs collect, share marketing information and use it to promote the corporate and brand image of an organization. MkISs in organizations improve communication of marketing information between personnel in the sales (or promotion, or product management) and accounting (or corporate planning, or advertising) departments. An examination of MkISs reveals that a number of models underlie their design and development (Talvinen, 1994, 10). These models present MkISs along two aspects, namely, typical subsystems and general dimensions. There are six classes of these models, thus the classification is done on the basis of the type of primary use of the MkISs. The first class of these models is data gathering where MkISs that fall in this category are used primarily for gathering marketing data and all the necessary information. The second class of MkISs’ models is data analysis which comprises of MkISs used first for analyzing the collected statistics that is critical in marketing decision-making. The third class of MkISs’ models is marketing planning which captures all the MkISs that facilitate effective design of marketing plans. The fourth class of MkISs’ models is marketing decision making, which captures MkISs that enable informed and positive decision-making with respect to the marketing strategies. The fifth class of MkISs’ models is the implementation of marketing activities, which capture MkISs that are used in the development and promotion of successful electronic marketing activities. The sixth class of MkISs’ models is control, which is divided further into two subclasses, namely, external and internal ones. The external control subclass of MkISs captures the MkISs that are used in controlling an organization’s external marketing environment and activities. The internal control subclass of MkISs deals with the MkISs that are used in controlling an organization’s internal marketing environment and activities. We will write a custom Essay on Electronic Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More MkISs can be divided into two groups, and this is dependent on two things. The first one is the position of the users of the MkISs in the organization, and the second is the use of a certain type of the MkISs. The first group of MkISs is used by managers, and the second one is that for use in sales and marketing activities. Typically, in an organization, there is a variation in class of MkISs used by managers and marketing analysts and so on. Similarly, there is a variation in class between the MkISs implemented in operational sales activities and marketing. The users of MkISs, marketing information management and decision-making systems include marketing managers, senior executives, marketing analysts, marketing experts and SBUs (Strategic Business Units) (Talvinen, 1994, 10). So as to come up with sound electronic marketing decisions, marketing managers heavily rely on marketing analysts and experts because the latter have skills to transform raw marketing information collected by data gathering MkISs into knowledge needed by the marketing managers. In today’s world, MkISs are not only designed and developed to be used strictly in the context of management but in other areas as well. MkISs are integrated into operational process-oriented systems for sales and marketing that are used in operational daily marketing activities. These daily marketing operational activities include telemarketing, database marketing (or direct mailing) and operational sales management. The users of such kind of MkISs are personnel in an organization’s middle management, operative sales and marketing. A very important factor to consider when integrating MkISs is the relationship between them and other information systems (Talvinen, 1994, 10). These other information systems include those used in other organizational processes, such as finance, human resource, production, etc. The movement of data or data flow between the MkISs and the other information systems should be understood and defined well. Another very important aspect to consider in the integration of MkISs is data gathering. The MkISs have to collect information from the marketing environment of an organization and, mainly, from consumers and competitors. MkISs generally gather marketing statistics of a qualitative nature whereas other information systems working with the MkISs collect quantitative data (Talvinen, 1994, 10). An example of data gathered by MkISs is consumer buying behaviour. MkISs can be tuned to generate management reports, such as sales forecasts. To complement the statistics and information gathered by MkISs, there is an outstanding need for organizations to collect data on the organization’s external marketing environment. When such data is gathered, it can be again stored in the MkISs. Such statistics is accumulated through queries invoked against commercial databases and data banks. Another aspect to consider in the integration of MkISs is how to transform or convert the data gathered into usable information and knowledge (Talvinen, 1994, 10). Not sure if you can write a paper on Electronic Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MkISs are a vital tool in the implementation of the sales and marketing strategies as they provide an analysis approach and analysis tools for converting the qualitative data they have gathered into information and knowledge. An area in which the knowledge generated from an MkISs is used is in sales and marketing activities, e.g. telemarketing and database advertising. Another area which benefits form the knowledge generated from MkISs is management which has to control markets, marketing strategies and activities, analyze target markets and make marketing decisions. Operational MkISs are vital sources of internal information for management MkISs’, which are the main systems that generate information from the data collected (Talvinen, 1994, 10). Another area in which the knowledge generated from an MkISs is useful is in research and development where new marketing strategies are developed, and/or older ones are improved. Information generated from MkISs is also useful in market forecasting as well as planning. Another very important aspect to consider when integrating MkISs into an organization is analysis and decision-making (Talvinen, 1994, 10). MkISs are tools for analysing the data they gather. Moreover, these systems are, therefore, essential in successful and effective decision making. Marketing analysts and experts should familiarize themselves with the analysis approach and analysis tools presented by the MkISs. Senior executives are the main decision-makers and should be, therefore, conversant with how the MkISs present their findings. In the organization, marketing decision making involves close collaboration between the current analysts (experts) and the senior executives with the former ones transforming the raw data gathered by the MkISs into the information and knowledge that can be readily used by the latter Analysis One of the underlying strengths of all the MkISs is information technology (IT) boom. The IT boom is a worldwide phenomenon encouraging the automation, storage and digitization of the knoweledge. This inherently encourages the development and use of MkISs. Another underlying advantage of MkISs is their need for digital storage of information. Traditionally, marketing information would be kept and stored in paper form, which would make it more risky and arduous to manage high volumes of information. With MkISs, information is stored in electronic form in computers reducing the chances of it being lost and, in addition, it makes its management easy. Another basic benefit of MkISs is their need for an integrated information management for marketing data. The marketing environment in which organizations find themselves in is very dynamic and volatile. Collection and management of marketing data in such an environment can be difficult, thus MkISs make it possible for the statistics to be collected and kept until the time when an organization is ready to transfer it or use it in one or another way. The next main strength of MkISs is that they need to have a ready access to marketing data. The electronic (digital) storage of marketing data by MkISs allows its users to have a ready access to the marketing data from any geographical location as long as the MkISs are online, It means that they are running on the World Wide Web or through the Internet. Another underlying strength of MkISs is its compatibility or support for advanced information technology infrastructure. MkISs can be implemented or integrated using advanced information technology infrastructure. This factor allows to have a huge storage of data and fast processing. This ensures that knowledge is generated from the MkISs in real-time and quickly integrated into marketing decision making. On the contrary, one of the main weaknesses of MkISs is the need for advanced knowledge to operate them. Typically, MkISs’ infrastructure consists of computer hardware such as mainframes, which are less user-friendly to operate and thus may require additional training which can be costly. Another disadvantage of MkISs is low security. Keeping information online as its risk as the information is vulnerable to online attacks from hackers who can maliciously use it for their own gain. An organization is to ensure that the information in the MkISs is secure, otherwise, lack of information security can be detrimental to the organization. Low security is a weakness as well as a threat of MkISs. Findings From the analysis above, low security as been identified is both the weakness and the threat to MkISs. One way to enhance the security of MkISs can be implemented through cryptography where information is hidden from unauthorized individuals due to the use of encryption and decryption algorithms (Coulouris et al, 2005, 275). In the face of the online attacks, cryptography ensures knowledge security by making sure that information being exchanged between the MkISs and the other systems is encrypted and decrypted by authorized individuals (Coulouris et al, 2005, 276). Another way to maintain the security of MkISs is through firewalls. Firewalls monitor as well as regulate the communication and interaction between a computer and an online resource and, thus, ensure that no malicious attacks can occur. In addition to these security enhancing measures, it is also important that MkISs undergo continuous quality improvement (CQI). Continuous quality improvement ensures that MkISs do not become obsolete in the face of new challenges, especially those relating to security. In continuous quality improvement, the potential failures of MkISs are determined beforehand, and action plans (proactive incident response plans) are formulated to eliminate or deal with them. One technique of doing CQI is FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) (Black, 2005, 25). FMEA reveals the strengths, weakness and potential failures of a system. The main function of FMEA is that it predicts the failures related to the design of a system and, therefore, ensures that the system will be based on the set standards and work according to all the necessary requirements. Conclusion As technology advances, the capabilities of the Internet and the World Wide Web are extended in tandem. This results in increased online traffic which marketers want to tap into. electronic advertising. This is, therefore, a positive strategic investment for organizations and business enterprises with long term growth and expansion objectives and endeavors. To perform effective electronic advertising, it is imperative that such organizations are able to manage their marketing information effectively owing to the dynamicity and volatility of the environment they are to operate in. Thus, it is important that they acquire and implement MkISs, which are information systems dedicated to improving decision-making in the area of electronic marketing. MkISs, however, have one major shortcoming which is that they cannot guarantee the security of information stored in them. This shortcoming necessitates the need for an organization to invest heavily and regularly in information security. Reference List Black, R. (2002). Managing the testing process: practical tools and techniques for managing hardware and software testing. Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Canada Coulouris, G. Dollimore, J. And Kindberg, T. ( 2005). Distributed systems concepts and design. (4th ed.). Pearson Education Limited: England. Talvinen, J.M. (1994). Information systems in marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 29(1), 8 -10