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Behaviour Changes of Astronauts on Return to Earth

You have been hired as a scientist for NASA and for your first assignment you have to develop research on how the behavior of Astronauts changes from the period before they launch into space to the period following their return to Earth. Use the Methods of Research to describe how you came to your hypothesis. Astronauts are some of the bravest humans to walk the earth. They are subjected to environmental pressures within their control and others not within their control. Astronauts on long-duration missions are subjected to many factors that may affect their health, well-being, and performance of mission-related duties. Some of these factors are unique to the space environment (e.g., prolonged periods of microgravity), whereas others are also present in other environments (e.g., confinement, isolation, exposure to physical hazards, altered work or rest schedules) (Basner et. al., 2014). Massimino was the First person to use social media from space and tweet about the experience during his mission. He stated, “having a dream of going to space and what it meant was something important to him. Getting scared is not beneficial to the situation and as such the thought/feelings disappear (2019).” The psychological thought process of an individual is tested beyond its ability to comprehend what took place until they return to Earth and put into context the experience. Social scientists have been studying the behavior of humans in what have become to be called “extreme environments” even before space programs began. Extreme environments are those that are characterized by such features as isolation, risk, confinement, crowding, restricted privacy, and the inability to leave (Vakoch, 2011). As such, studying these individuals during their mission is important as it has the potential for sociologists to understand the role of humans in complex systems, and the development of environments. The difficulty in observing astronauts in an unnatural state is that the collection of data is more subjective vs objective. The reason for this is that attitudes are not measurable on a specific scale like measuring blood pressure which gives a specific value. Field experimentation via indirect unobtrusive observation would be the method in which these groups of individuals are observed. The reasoning is that researchers will not necessarily be present on the mission, however, will be able to view social interactions between crew members from the space station. Monitoring nonverbal cues is beneficial as we know that body language is a major key in understanding how one feels in a situation. The study would show that crewmembers will withdraw from one another, get into conflicts with each other, or get into disputes as a result of confined spaces and limited communication with society. Adaptation is social concept and the structure of the group directly impacts everyone’s well-being. It is possible for crews with clique structures report significantly more depression, anxiety, anger, fatigue, and confusion than crews with core-periphery structures (Vakoch, 2011). This is why it is important for personality selection. It is necessary to select crew members that are capable communicating effectively and deescalating situations. We must remember that how people experience an environment is more important than the objective characteristics of the environment. Even more important from a scientific perspective, it is likely that significant advances in our basic knowledge of human interaction and processes will emerge from the social research needed to ensure effective performance and adjustment in space. Describe the sociological imagination of a current event. How does it play into your personal life? Our perception of life is determined by our past and present experiences as well as the factors that affect us daily. It is shaped by micro- and macro sociological stimulants that aide in decision-making and our view of the world. The social interaction between groups, communities and institutes provides a collection of standards by which we live, breathe, and organize our personal lives. As individuals we strive to understand what part we play in a bigger picture. To understand one’s self, you must understand the structural arrangement of society and the role it plays in forming our thoughts, habits, and behaviors and how the two link is known as sociological imagination. Sociological imagination refers to the ability to see our private experiences, personal difficulties, and achievements as, in part, a reflection of the structural arrangements of society and the times in which we live (Hughes
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Abstract Palatal tremor, commonly called palatal myoclonus, is a rare movement disorder characterized by rhythmic contractions of the soft palate and associated with variable objective tinnitus. It may be categorized as symptomatic, essential or psychogenic. Mostly it is symptomatic because of secondary damage in brainstem or cerebellum; rarely it can be essential in the absence of brain lesions. We describe a case of young boy, who presented with palatal tremor with objective tinnitus. Most of the movement disorders may raise suspicion of psychogenic nature and vice-versa, however, this case highlights the need of careful history and keen observation of movements. Key Words: Palatal tremor; Palatal myoclonus; Psychogenic disorder; Objective tinnitus Introduction Palatal tremor is also known as palatal myoclonus. The term palatal tremor is appropriate because it correlates better with the neurophysiological study. It is a rare movement disorder characterized by rhythmic contractions of soft palate and associated with variable audible clicking sound. It may be classified into essential, symptomatic or psychogenic type. Mostly palatal tremor is symptomatic because of secondary damage in brainstem or cerebellum. Rarely, it is categorized as essential in which no brain abnormality is identified. There have also been reports of psychogenic palatal tremor in association with other neuropsychiatric illnesses [1]. Case Presentation An 18-year-old boy born out of non-consanguineous marriage with normal birth and developmental milestone, presented with loud audible clicking sound and abnormal palatal movement for six months. These movements used to worsen during stress and improve with sleep. He had no abnormal behaviour, mood disorders, seizures or abnormal limb movement. There was no history of similar illness or psychiatric disorder in family members. The oropharyngeal examination showed abnormal high frequency (approximately 100 Hz) palatal movement on both sides [Video]. There was associated rhythmic contraction of soft palate, tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini muscles. These movements were associated with loud audible clicking sound (tinnitus). During examination, suggestion (inducing by thinking of it) and distraction (mind diversion by concentrating on motor and cognitive functions like performing complex movements, reading, thinking or calculations) methods were used to demonstrate voluntary control of these movements. The patient was asked to voluntarily suppress and induce these movements. Surprisingly, he was able to suppress and induce these movements. Cumulative examination findings (suggestibility, distractibility, worsening during stress, suppression during sleep) demonstrated voluntary control of palatal movement. Rest of the findings including general physical, otolaryngological and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry including transaminases, lactate and pyruvate, ammonia, ceruloplasmin and copper levels, plasma amino acids, thyroid function tests and antinuclear antibody (ANA) were normal. Slit lamp examination did not show K-F (Kayser–Fleischer) ring. Audiometry and electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain with thin cuts focusing on brainstem [Figure 1] and MR angiography were normal. The patient was uncooperative for electromyography (EMG) study. Psychiatric opinion including detailed psychological analysis was obtained. Finally, a diagnosis of psychogenic palatal myoclonus was made. He was counselled along with placebo therapy. He was asymptomatic at discharge. After six months followup, he is symptoms free. Discussion Palatal tremor, also known as palatal myoclonus, is an abnormal movement of the soft palate. The term “palatal tremor” is more appropriate because it corresponds better with the electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of the rhythmic movements. It may be classified into essential, symptomatic (secondary) or psychogenic. Deuschl et al described that the movement of the soft palate is due to contraction of tensor veli palatini muscle in essential palatal tremor and contraction of levator veli palatini muscle in secondary palatal tremor [2, 3]. The contraction of these muscles result in closure of eustachian tubes and produce audible clicking sound. Essential type of palatal tremor mostly occur in children. The patients with essential palatal tremor usually have an audible ear clicking sound (objective tinnitus). Although essential palatal tremor has a benign course and usually disappears spontaneously, it is very annoying for the patient as well as to the bystander due to continuous audible clicking sound. The brain is normal in essential palatal tremor. It is usually bilateral and disappears during sleep. The etiopathology of essential palatal tremor is not known. Fernandez-Alvarez classified essential palatal tremor under transient primary movement disorders of childhood [4]. The symptomatic or secondary palatal tremor is mostly seen in adult males. It is usually associated with hypertrophy of the inferior olives; however, its precise role in causing palatal tremor has not been established [5]. It can be a consequence of trauma, infections, encephalitis [6], degenerative lesions, vascular, Krabbe’s disease [7] or tumors of the cerebellum [8] or brainstem. Usually, there is no associated audible tinnitus and movements persist during sleep. It is usually unilateral and associated with neurological deficits. Many movement disorders raise suspicion of psychogenic nature and vice-versa; palatal tremor can also be a part of psychogenic spectrum. Few cases of psychogenic palatal tremor have been described in the literature [9, 10]. The closest differential diagnosis is essential palatal tremor, which may have audible clicking sound, disappear during sleep and have normal neuroimaging studies. Voluntary inhibition of palatal tremor is also possible in some cases of essential palatal tremor [11]. Psychogenic palatal tremor often have various psychiatric symptoms (anxiety disorders). These movements are characterized by variable frequency, increased during stress and attention, suppression when distracted; disappear during sleep, marked improvement with placebo and psychotherapy. During examination, suggestion (inducing by thinking of it) and distraction (mind diversion by concentrating on cognitive and motor functions like thinking, reading, calculations or performing complex movements) methods can be used on patients to demonstrate voluntary control of these movements. Our patient had acquired special motor skills to both induce and suppress voluntarily rather than inhibition of involuntary movements. These showed complete voluntary control of movements and suggested a psychogenic etiology. The underlying psychiatric illness is a conversion disorder in most of the cases described in literature. The possibility of essential palatal tremor is ruled out by detailed clinical, psychological and laboratory examination. Our patient improved abruptly on suggestion, placebo and psychotherapy. Psychogenic palatal tremor is a treatable disorder. A detailed psychoanalysis should be an essential part of management [12]. The patient should be managed with a combination of psychotherapy, anxiolytics and antipsychotic drugs. The psychogenic palatal tremor usually responds well to placebo and psychotherapy. Conclusion Palatal tremor is attributed to organic lesion of the brain; however, occasionally it may be due to psychogenic etiology. In our patient, movements were intermittent; used to worsen during attention, suppress during distraction and voluntary control on suggestion. All these features suggest psychogenic palatal tremor. Here we emphasize the detailed clinical and psychogenic evaluation of the patient and need for psychiatric treatment in these cases. Figure and Video Legends Figure 1. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain with contrast showed normal study. T1-weighted (a), T2-weighted (b), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) (c) and T1-contrast (d). Video Clip. The oropharyngeal examination showed high frequency (approximately 100 Hz) palatal movement on both sides. There is associated rhythmic contraction of soft palate, tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini muscles. These movements are associated with loud audible clicking sound (tinnitus). During examination, suggestion by thinking of it and distractions in form of mind diversion by concentrating on motor and cognitive functions like performing complex movements, reading, thinking or calculations were used to demonstrate voluntary control of these movements. He was able to suppress and induce these movements voluntarily. References 1. Richardson SP, Mari S, Matsuhashi M, Hallett M. Psychogenic palatal tremor. Mov Disord.2006;21(2):274–276. 2. Deuschl G, Toro C, Valls-Solé J, Zeffiro T, Zee DS, Hallett M. Symptomatic and essential palatal tremor. Clinical, physiological and MRI analysis. Brain. 1994;117(Pt 4):775–788. 3. Deuschl G, Mischke G, Schenck E, Schulte-Mönting J, Lücking CH. Symptomatic and essential rhythmic palatal myoclonus. Brain. 1990;113(Pt 6):1645–1672. 4. Fernández-Alvarez E. Movement disorders in children: Recent advances in management. Indian J Pediatr. 2009;76(5):531–536. 5. Lapresle J. Rhythmic palatal myoclonus and the dentato-olivary pathway. J Neurol.1979;220(4):223–230. 6. Baram TZ, Parke JT, Mahoney DH. Palatal myoclonus in a child: Herald of acute encephalitis.Neurology. 1986;36(2):302–303. 7. Yamanouchi H, Kasai H, Sakuragawa N, Kurokawa T. Palatal myoclonus in Krabbe disease. Brain Dev. 1991;13(5):355–358. 8. Deuschl G, Jost S, Schumacher M. Symptomatic palatal tremor is associated with signs of cerebellar dysfunction. J Neurol. 1996;243(7):553–556. 9. Schwingenschuh P, Pont-Sunyer C, Surtees R, Edwards MJ, Bhatia KP. Psychogenic movement disorders in children: A report of 15 cases and a review of the literature. Mov Disord.2008;23(13):1882–1888. 10. Richardson SP, Mari S, Matsuhashi M, Hallett M. Psychogenic palatal tremor. Mov Disord.2006;21(2):274–276. 11. Samuel M, Kleiner-Fisman G, Lang AE. Voluntary control and a wider clinical spectrum of essential palatal tremor. Mov Disord. 2004;19(6):717–719. 12. Campistol-Plana J, Majundar A, Fernandez-Alvarez E. Palatal tremor in childhood: Clinical and therapeutic considerations. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48(12):982–984. 1 Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Nowadays more and more students interact with the digital content for learning so that the concept of the digital citizenship is becoming one of the most relevant issues. Digital citizens have the same rights and responsibilities as ordinary citizens of the country including the right to study at university, to acquire real estate, or to learn. In this connection, the paper is devoted to the proposal of the digital citizenship necessity and its safe implementation including such integral aspects as digital literacy, etiquette, tolerance to other digital citizens, appropriate referencing, and others and resulting in the design of the methodology for the prospective study, the aim of which is to examine the level of the digital citizenship competence among students. Digital Citizenship Definition The digital citizenship, also known as the e-citizenship, involves regular access to networks and their effective use that require several conditions such as the presence of access to the Internet, the availability of computers or gadgets, the ability to use technology properly, and, last but not least, the critical thinking skills to evaluate the reliability of information that can be found online. More precisely, the digital citizenship is a new developmental stage of the society and technology that is associated with the impact of digital and communication technologies (Searson, Hancock, Soheil,
PSY 7708 capella University Operant and Respondent Conditioning & Similarities of Operant and Respondent Paper.

Operant and Respondent ConditioningIn this unit, we explore two types of learning—operant and respondent conditioning. With respondent conditioning, individuals emit reflexive behavior in the presence of certain stimuli. With operant conditioning, behaviors continue to occur, or not, due to the consequences that follow them. As behavior analysts, we frequently use operant conditioning to teach new behaviors (and eliminate old behaviors) by manipulating the consequences that follow them. Respondent conditioning is also used by behavior analysts, for example, by establishing various reinforcers through pairing of stimuli.For this assignment, complete the following:Define operant and respondent conditioning.Describe the similarities and differences between these two types of learning.Provide two real-world, detailed examples of operant conditioning and two real-world, detailed examples of respondent conditioning.Assignment RequirementsWritten communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA style guidelines.Resources: Minimum of 1–2 scholarly or professional resources.Length: 2–3 double-spaced pages, in addition to the title page and reference page.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.SafeAssign: You are required to use SafeAssign before submitting the completed assignment to your instructor. Submit your work to SafeAssign as a draft, review the results, and make any needed changes. When you are ready, submit your assignment to the assignment area for grading.Refer to the Operant and Respondent Conditioning Scoring Guide to ensure you understand the grading criteria for this assignment.
PSY 7708 capella University Operant and Respondent Conditioning & Similarities of Operant and Respondent Paper

The Dance Video “Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2” Essay

Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2 The video “Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2” is a carefully choreographed piece of art. The choreographer has merged different aspects of dance to produce this masterpiece. To begin with, the choreographer has used both rhythmic and non-rhythmic composition techniques to make the dance spectacular. There is also variation and repetition thus making the composition entertaining. The choreographer has also used the best emotional context, human energy, and space. The concept of improvisation is also notable in this dance. The choreographer has also used canon, unison, and shadowing choreographic techniques. The choreographer has used various dynamics to produce long, short, and soft movements (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2). The performance quality of this dance is exemplary. For instance, the dancers sustain the best dynamics, time control, and space. This makes the dance meaningful and entertaining. The dance combines certain aspects of performance such as space, dynamics, and time. The motion is fantastic because most of the dancers show proper coordination and movement. The dancers use their skills to interpret and communicate to the audience. This shows how the dancers commit themselves to the act. This explains why I have liked the dance (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2). This video excerpt shows an orchestra dance technique. The dancers combine certain elements of dance to achieve their goals. The dancers use different choreographic techniques to pass across the intended message. The dance excerpt portrays how choreographers can be sensitive about human emotions. I strongly believe that the content of this except encourages the viewer to appreciate the dance. The dance also embodies the best performance styles, movements, actions, and compositions (Matthew Bourne’s Swan Lake 2). Remanso, Vladimir Malakhov, Parrish Maynard

Managerial Accounting Basics

help me with my homework Managerial Accounting Basics. Paper details Upon completion of the Required Readings, write a thorough, well-planned narrative answer to the following discussion question. Rely on your Required Readings and the Lecture and Research Update for specific information to answer the discussion question, but turn to your original thoughts when asked to apply, evaluate, analyze, or synthesize the information. Your Discussion Question response should be both grammatically and mechanically correct, and formatted in the same fashion as the question itself. If there is a Part A, your response should identify a Part A, etc. In addition, you must appropriately cite all resources used in your responses and document in a bibliography using APA style. Discussion Question 1 (50 points) Chapters 2 and 3 introduce you to basic cost behavior, cost-volume relationships, and ways to measure cost behavior. Based on these readings, perform the following. (50 points) (A 1½-page response is required.) a. Complete a solution set for Fundamental Assignment Material – Exercise 2-A2, “Cost-Volume-Profits and Vending Machines” (p. 64). Be sure to show or explain how you arrive at each answer. b. Complete the Critical Thinking Exercises 3-26, 3-27, 3-28 (p. 108). Managerial Accounting Basics

The Cause and Effect of Divorce on Children Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Causes Effects on Children Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Although the main objectives of marriage are permanent union and healthy relationship between couples, unfortunate circumstances do arise in marriage that forces marriage partners to divorce. Psychologists and sociologists have noted that causes of divorce entail many complex issues that complicate and stall continuation of marriage. Infidelity, lack of commitment, drug abuse, poor relationships, incompatible lifestyles, abusive behaviors, and financial problems are some of the common causes of divorces in the modern society. When divorce occurs in a family, couples are not the only ones who experience emotional and psychological suffering, but also children. Children experience traumatic experiences seeing their parents quarrel and fight until they divorce leaving them to live under single parent-families, which denies them a chance to enjoy balanced parenthood. Given that divorce rates are increasing in the modern society, what are the causes and effects of divorce on children? Causes Psychologists and sociologists argue that causes of divorce are complex of issues that result from internal and external influences on marriage. Couples experience many challenges in their marriages that complicate their relationship status and compel them to divorce, as the only way out of the problems they face. As mentioned above, the common causes of divorce in the modern society include infidelity, lack of commitment, drug abuse, poor relationships, incompatible lifestyles, abusive behaviors, and financial problems among other social issues. Nevertheless, research studies point at infidelity as the most common cause of divorce among young couples. According to Stewart and Brentano, “extramarital affairs contribute about 27% of the divorce rates in the United States while domestic violence comes second with approximately 18% of divorce rates” (448). These figures show that, the major factor that contributes to the high rates of divorce in the society is an external factor of extramarital affairs. Extramarital affairs are very common due to change in marriage lifestyles and perceptions of the society. Studies further reveal that husbands are the most unfaithful in marriages by having many partners as compared to their wives. Abusive behaviors of husbands that lead to domestic violence come second as the most cause of divorce in marriages. Financial problems, incompatible lifestyles, drug abuse, and lack of commitment contribute to poor relationship in marriages leading to divorce. When couples experience financial problems in their marriages, they cannot agree on how to satisfy family needs; therefore, the priority of satisfying family needs creates conflict because partners feel that they are living poor lives within the marriage while divorce can offer freedom of satisfying one’s needs. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since marriage involves union, husband and wife have diverse interests in life. Clashing interests of life in marriage result into incompatible lifestyles that complicate marriage relationship. Couples who have incompatible lifestyles will not lead a happy marriage life for they will always have quarrels and disagreements that eventually end up in divorce. Stewart and Brentano argue, “Drug abuses such as alcoholism has made couples to neglect their marital responsibilities leaving their partners lose interest with marriage life causing them to file divorce in the courts” (451). According to survey, among couples, husbands are more likely to fall into drug addiction and neglect their marital responsibilities, which push their wives to seek divorce. Effects on Children Effects of divorce are very damaging to the growth and development of children and significantly change course of their lives. Research shows that the “effects depend on the age of the child at the time of divorce, on the child’s gender and personality, the amount of conflict between parents and the support provided by friends and family” (Temke 109). Children of two years and above can experience emotional and psychological disturbances if parents divorce. The children at this stage are psychologically mature to understand the nature of relationships that their parents undergo and they are often depressed and traumatized when parents divorce. Preschool age children tend to blame themselves for the occurrence of divorce as they develop sense of guilt and become socially withdrawn from the family Since children are very young to endure emotional and psychological disturbances, they become depressed and their performance declines in class. As children grow and approach adolescence, divorce experiences haunt them. They contemplate on how divorce has changed their lives in terms of increased family responsibilities and change in their lifestyles. Adolescents tend to lose meaning of life and marriage because they may leave their studies and decide never to get married in future. “Teens experience anger, fear, loneliness, depression and guilt, some feel pushed into adulthood if they must take responsibility for many new chores or care of siblings and may doubt their own ability to get married or to stay married” (Lansdale, Cherlin,

ECE 355 Ashford University Synthesis of Farxiga Flow Sheet

ECE 355 Ashford University Synthesis of Farxiga Flow Sheet.

For your assignment this week, you are going to begin to compile your core content, ideas, and references for your Parent Education Final Project. This assignment will be the basis of the first half of your final project and you will complete the second half in Week 5. By preparing for the first section of your final project now, you can organize your ideas and research and still be able incorporate instructor feedback and any additional learning before submitting your final project in Week 5. A separate template will be provided for the final project in week 5.Prepare:Use the Parent Education Project Part 1 Template. Write:In this assignment, complete the Parent Education Part 1 Template with the following information written in paragraph form:IntroductionDescribe yourself as a professional in the professional field for which this parent education project is designed.Describe the purpose of the project.Parenting ChangesDiscuss how parenting is changing referring to your work in the Week 1 How Parenting Has Changed discussion forum.Describe the benefits of parent education using your annotated summary from your Week 1 Writing an Annotation assignment.At least one in-text citation is required in this section.Parenting StylesDefine each of the four styles of parenting.Highlight two to three characteristics for each parenting style.At least one in in-text citation required in this section.Impact of Parenting on Child OutcomesSummarize how parenting styles can impact child and adolescent outcomes using research from your Week 2 Annotated Bibliography assignment.At least one in in-text citation required in this section.TemperamentDescribe temperamentDescribe why temperament is important to the parent-child relationship.At least one in in-text citation required in this section.Goodness of FitDescribe goodness of fit.Provide an example of what goodness of fit looks like in action.The Parent Education Project Part 1,Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages and formatted according to APA Style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.)Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of assignment in bold fontSpace should be between title and the rest of the information on the title page.Student’s nameName of institution (Ashford University)Course name and numberInstructor’s nameDue dateMust display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view this Ashford University Library Quick ‘n’ Dirty (Links to an external site.) tutorial, which introduces the Ashford University Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.Must document any information used from sources in APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA: Citing Within Your Paper guide. (Links to an external site.)Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the APA: Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Writing Center for specifications.
ECE 355 Ashford University Synthesis of Farxiga Flow Sheet