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Beck Hopelessness Scale Assessment college application essay help online Internet assignment help

Beck Hopelessness Scale * Authors: a) Aaron T. Beck and Robert A. Steer (A. Beck, A. Steer, 1978-1993). * Publisher: a) The Psychological Corporation * Date of Publication: b) 1978-1993. * Current Version: * Reasons for any revisions: 2) Logistical Information * Cost of manual: a) 1997 price data: $49. 50 per complete kit including 25 record forms and manual; $27. 50 per 25 record forms; $24 per manual; $6. 50 per scoring key. b) 2013 price data: BHS Complete Kit- Includes Manual, 25 Record Forms, and Scoring key for the price of $121. 50 * Test materials: ) Paper-and-pencil or online administration. * Computer-based version: d) Available on the Pearson Assessments website; duration is 5 to 10 minutes; this can be self-administered or be given verbally by a trained administrator. 3) Purpose for which the test was developed a) This self-report inventory was developed to measure three major aspects of hopelessness to better understand to what extent individuals experience negative attitudes or pessimistic views about their future. b) The inventory measures the three categories of hopelessness: expectations, feelings about the future, and loss of motivation.

This inventory is a tool that a clinically trained professional can use to indicate how likely an individual is to commit suicide (A. Beck, R. S, 1978-1993). These test items, I assume, were selected by determining what the definition of hopelessness was and what factors best fit within that explanation. 4) Demographic Characteristics * Age: b) Ages recommended were adolescents and adults (A. Beck, A. Steer, 1978-1993) c) Ages recommended: 17 through 80 years (Pearson ,2013) * Gender: a) Both male and female * Culture: ) From my readings, I understand that the test is available in both English and Spanish. The test has also been translated into Dutch and Hebrew (Test Inventory, 7). So I am lead to believe that the span of individuals, who take the scale assessment, can vary in cultural backgrounds. Hispanic, Aboriginal, Caucasian, and African-American were all listed. The diversity in the cultural and geographical samples of this inventory varies (Test Inventory, 7). People with history in drug abuse, delinquency, and MDD’s were also mentioned and targeted. * Sample size : ) I could not find sample sizes in the reading 5) Recommended use(s) of the test: * This test is recommended time and time again, to be used as just one tool in the vast tools accessible to a clinically trained professional in finding suicidal prevalence in an individual’s life (Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1992). b) The use of this test is not to be used in a test battery necessarily, but again, it is recommended to not be used as the only diagnostic tool in determining treatment or diagnosis of any individual (Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1992).

So while it is not necessarily categorized in the test battery field it can be used with various other tests and tools to ultimately reach a conclusion and plan of action for treatment to better improve an individual’s life. The test is also encouraged to be administered to individuals willing to be honest and take the assessment. c) Typical settings for the exam would be when a clinical professional wants to know the ideas and outlooks an individual has about their future. To also discover how severe and how influential negative thoughts play a role into those ideas and outlooks of their future. ) Method and time for administering and scoring the test: * Method and time for administering the test I imagine would happen when the individual decides to start it if they are conducting an online based inventory. If in person with a clinically trained professional is present, when the professional decides to administer the inventory. Scoring would take place after the inventory is completed and submitted for review. a) Examinee behaviors and responses necessary are ability to be honest and must be able to complete a 5 to 10 minute, 20 T/F questionnaire inventory.

Examinees would have to be honest and prepared to answer as truthfully as possible. b) Optimal setting for administration would have to be one where the Examinee is comfortable and able to reflect and respond appropriately to the questionnaire. c) No exact “reading level” was mentioned or recommended but in order to answer the questions, examinees would have to have average reading skills to finish and understand the material presented. d) Recommendations are to see greater variety in the types of norms that are used as well as a larger size other than just seven groups (Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1992).

Also, see Question 4 7) Recommended interpretation of the test data for: * All major Scales * Any subscales 8) Training needed to administer the test; Training needed to interpret the test. Do these differ? * Training to administer the test and score the test is not needed and can be done so by paraprofessionals. However, the data collected after the administration and scoring of the test have been done; the information must be interpreted and only used by a clinically trained professional. The reason why, is because clinically trained professionals are the only ones that can implement and apply psychotherapeutic interventions. These two differ very much so because while one is doing the task of providing the simple 20 T/F questionnaire it the job of the other to interpret those results. By using the results received from the test and combining that information with information from other tools available and used, the professionals can then take the next step with an individual. A paraprofessional’s job is done once the individual is completed with the test and the professional’s job only just begins, when the test is completed. 9) Coefficients: * Construct validity for the BHS is rather shaky.

The BHS consistently has had high internal consistency ranging in coefficients of around . 87s to . 90s which simply means that what they collected in the test they believe caused what they observed. That does not mean however that there is causation, these numbers mean that there is a strong correlation between a mindset of “hopelessness” and suicide, it doesn’t necessarily mean that “hopelessness” causes suicide. Test- retest reliability ranged from coefficients of . 60 to . 68 which means more data could be added in to strengthen the consistence of the test.

If the same test is given to the same group of people over a span of 6 weeks and the numbers are showing that they are receiving different results that are dramatically different that puts the reliability of the tests results into question. 10) Evaluation of the test: The common theme with theme I noticed in my readings was that there needed to be a stronger number in reliability, particularly the test-retest. The test has proven to have internal validity and shows strong correlations between hopelessness and suicide but the area of causation is very shaky.

I do believe that this test is useful and that with the right combination of tools professionals can help individuals who feel hopeless find other alternatives to deal with those feelings/emotions as opposed to using suicide as an option. This test could be used for a wide variety of populations, I think if more cultural aspects were to be taken into account as well as more norms in the test the potential to make the test stronger is very high. At the time being, the norm/standardizations might be too narrow and could really be hindering the results one might get across the board if the test was not limited in that way.

An individual’s interpretation of what hopelessness means to them on an interpersonal level can have a tremendous impact on the results of this test. Definitions can differ from person to person and in the end, definitions will affect the way individuals answer the test questions as well as affect the interpretation of those results. Specific improvements suggest to “…add more normative data and other uses should be develop din the future, as well as further data on the stability of hopelessness in various populations “(Mental Measurements Yearbook, 1992). The furthering research of outside variables is also suggested and ore awareness of “cross-validation” in other clinical groups. While I agree that this test is useful, I also agree that many other variables and possible research is not being considered in this test. I would recommend furthering research in the meaning of “hopelessness” across a wide variety of populations and determine whether other possible biases are causing results to be affected. This test is not one to use on its own in forming a conclusion about an individual’s mental state in regards to suicide but is a great and available resource to use in combination with other more reliable and accurate tests.

Recourses Impara, J. C. , & Plake, B. S. (1998). The Thirteenth mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, Neb. : The Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Kramer, J. J. , & Conoley, J. C. (1992). The Eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, Neb. : Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Pearson. (n. d. ). Pearson Education. Retrieved May 20, 2013, from http://www. pearsonassessments. com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail. htm? Pid=015-8133-609&Mode=summary

I: Topic selection

 Support the submission with Research Design and concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook along with few scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.  Use academic writing standards and APA style guidelines, citing references as appropriate.  Submit your findings in a 3-4 page document, excluding the title page, abstract and required reference page.

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