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Basic Process of Learning history essay help assignment helper

The term learning is used in various ways by different psychologist to refer to the wide variety of phenomena. Learning is any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time. The Behavioral perspective on LEARNING: acquiring ne responses to and for stimuli * Behaviorism is the attempt to understand behavior in terms of relationship between observable stimuli and observable response. separate learning processes * Classical conditioning- a process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comes to elicit a response in a reflexlike fashion, after it is paired for one or more trails with a stimulus that already elicits a response. * Operant conditioning- process by which the consequences of a response increase or decrease the likelihood that the response will occur again. A. Classical Conditioning a. Petrovich Pavlov b. Has to do with the formation of reflexes i.

Reflex is a simple, relatively automatic, stimulus response sequence mediated by the nervous system. c. Reflexes are mediated by the nervous system, they can be modified by experience it. One simple effect experience is habituation 1 . Habituation is defined as a decline in the magnitude of a reflexive response when the stimulus is repeated several times in succession d. Conditioned vs. unconditioned reflex e. Conditioned vs. unconditioned response B. Operant Conditioning f.

Operant responses- operate on the world to produce some effect alled instrumental responses because they function like instruments L. Thorndike lv. Thorndike’s Puzzle-Box Procedure v. Thorndike’s Law of Effect iii. Also g. Edward 2. Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become likely to occur again I that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation v’. Skinner Box h. Therapeutic Applications of Operant Conditioning vii.

Biofeedback Training- sensors record scalp-muscle movements and finger emperature. In this procedure, a signal is made to come on whenever a certain desirable physiological change occurs and the person is instructed to try to keeo the signal on for increasing period of time. C. Phenomena Associated with Operant Conditioning i. Shaping- technique which successively closer approximations to the desired response are reinforced until the response finally occurs J. Extinction and Schedules of Partial Reinforcement- to distinguish it on the one hand from

Executive summary Description of the Initiative Our initiative’s goal is to create

Executive summary

Description of the Initiative

Our initiative’s goal is to create a series of rooftop gardens around the DC/Baltimore Metropolitan area. Food deserts are defined as parts of the country with a scarcity of fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthy foods, usually found in lower income areas. This is mostly due to a lack of grocery stores or other markets at which to purchase fresh food. This has become a big problem because while food deserts are characterized by an absence of grocery stores, this also means that fast food outlets tend to fill that void as the faster, cheaper choice. This greatly contributes to our nation’s obesity problem and furthers health issues for impoverished Americans. All of the gardens would be powered by self-sustaining hydroponics systems to keep the plants healthy. The purpose of our initiative is to create a place where the people of these communities can come to buy fresh fruits and vegetables. While rooftop gardens have become a trend in recent years to bring back some life into the city, our plan goes much further in actually offering a means to alleviate a growing problem in big cities. These rooftop gardens could potentially be crucial in improving the health of citizens living in these densely populated areas. Our initiative may include tax breaks for those companies willing to sponsor the construction of such gardens on their company buildings, which will hopefully encourage sponsors to invest. These rooftop gardens might even have a comparative advantage over grocery stores due to the fact that more of them can exist, making them easier to access while dealing with the heavy traffic of inner cities.

Target Area

Baltimore is the biggest city in Maryland, and with a population over 600,000 people, it comes in as a top 30 cities in the country. Baltimore is also the largest independent city in the United States. Baltimore is in north Maryland, near the Patapsco River. It has a humid subtropical climate, and has four seasons. Winters a chilly and summers are warm, but varies from year to year. The city is organized in a grid pattern, which means the streets run at 90-degree angles to each other. Baltimore consists of 63% African Americans and 29% Whites, leaving the rest to less than 2% each. The average income per household stands at $42,241, which is about $10,000 less the national median for household income. There are about 23.7% of people living below the poverty line, which is almost exactly 10% higher than the national average. Baltimore’s Inner Harbor was a major manufacturing centre, but now has gone away from manufacturing and industrialization. It now has a heavy low-wage service economy, which supports over 30% of jobs for the city. Crime has been high in Baltimore, with rates exceeding the national average. In 2015, there were 344 homicides, which set a city record of 52.5 homicides per 100,000 people. Also, this was the second highest in the country, surpassing Detroit.

Benefits and Opportunities

To help reduce the environmental problems that occur from concentrated urban population, increase the amount of organic green produce, and to maximize space, green technologies are in demand. Rooftop gardens are an eco-friendly method of solving existing issues. They have been found to conserve water and energy, reduce air pollution, and act as a source of extra food production.

Rooftop gardens can be constructed on commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings. Through promotion, private residential areas could be persuaded to install them on their roofs. Baltimore rowhouses are a great example of a location for rooftop gardens due to the nature of their long, flat design. The longevity of the roof can be increased since the garden is essentially adding a layer of protection to it.

The added layer of rooftop gardens also acts as an insulator, thus reducing energy consumption. Naturally, plants also absorb carbon dioxide, a pollutant that along with other emissions creates smog in large cities. By absorbing the CO2 emissions, the plants would aid in improving the air quality.

To convince municipalities and stakeholders of implementing rooftop gardens, it is recommended to suggest a set of standards on specific objectives to be met. After reaching the objectives, incentives such as expedited permits, tax reductions, and rebates could be offered. This would make rooftop gardens more attractive and encourage non-profit organizations, private companies, and the government to collaborate on implementing them.


Anonymous Critiques:

“It very unique.”

“It looks a little sloppy”

“I like it.”

“Uses a lot of negative space.”

“Good use of getting the purpose of the business in.”

“The “N” is too small.”

“Very creative.”


“Straight to the point.”

“Nothing like I’ve seen compared to other logos.”

Because of the feedback we have received we proposed another logo as seen below: