The BSP’s primary objective is to maintain price stability conducive to a balanced and sustainable economic growth. The BSP also aims to promote and preserve monetary stability and the convertibility of the national currency. Responsibilities:The BSP provides policy directions in the areas of money, banking and credit. It supervises operations of banks and exercises regulatory powers over non-bank financial institutions with quasi-banking functions.
Under the New Central Bank Act, the BSP performs the following functions, all of which relate to its status as the Republic’s central monetary authority. Liquidity Management. The BSP formulates and implements monetary policy aimed at influencing money supply consistent with its primary objective to maintain price stability. Currency issue.The BSP has the exclusive power to issue the national currency. All notes and coins issued by the BSP are fully guaranteed by the Government and are considered legal tender for all private and public debts. Lender of last resort.
The BSP extends discounts, loans and advances to banking institutions for liquidity purposes. An agency, usually a central bank, guaranteeing loans and extending credit when an institution is no longer creditworthy. The term especially applies to a country’s central bank lending to other banks when they have become or are becoming insolvent. This is done to prevent bank runs and stabilize the wider economy. At the international level, the International Monetary Fund acts as a lender of last resort to sovereign states that are facing insolvency. In the Free Banking Era, private banks or even very wealthy individuals operated as lenders of last resort.
The term can also apply to private institutions that specialize in extending credit to very high-risk customers. These institutions charge a high rate of interest and only appeal to persons and organizations that are not otherwise creditworthy. Financial Supervision.
The BSP supervises banks and exercises regulatory powers over non-bank institutions performing quasi-banking functions. The main contents of financial supervision. Mainly include: The establishment of supervision of financial institutions; to balance business assets of financial institutions supervision; Supervision on the financial market, such as Market access , market financing, The market rate of interest.
Among them, the Commercial Bank Regulation is the focus of regulation. The main contents include mergers, bank business scope and market access mechanism, Risk control , liquidity management, Capital adequacy ratio The deposit protection, and Crisis management Etc. Management of foreign currency reserves.
The BSP seeks to maintain sufficient international reserves to meet any foreseeable net demands for foreign currencies in order to preserve the international stability and convertibility of the Philippine peso. Foreign currency reserves are funds held in international currencies by a country’s central bank. Depending on the strength of its foreign reserves, a country can control the value of its own currency by either increasing or decreasing the demand for it through the sale or purchase of foreign currencies.
Foreign Currency Reserves Help Prevent Depreciation Countries will “defend” their currency to ease downward pressure in relation to international currencies. For example, the U.S. will prevent the dollar from depreciating by selling part of its euro or yen reserves on the international foreign-exchange market. This can help keep the dollar from declining in value in relation to these currencies. Determinants of Foreign Currency Reserves
The accumulation of foreign currency reserves by a country depends upon the following factors: 1.The robustness of the economy 2.The proportion of GDP from traded and non-traded sectors 3.The amount of capital inflows and outflows 4. The nature of returns obtained from international currencies
Determination of exchange rate policy. The BSP determines the exchange rate policy of the Philippines. Currently, the BSP adheres to a market-oriented foreign exchange rate policy such that the role of Bangko Sentral is principally to ensure orderly conditions in the market. Other Activities. Being the banker, financial advisor and official depository of the Government, its political subdivisions and instrumentalities and GOCC’s.
Analyzing Arizona’s Language Development Approach
13 slide digital presentation, including presenter’s notes with documentation of resources and a title slideP
art 1: Terminology
Explain Arizona’s definition of an English learner (EL).
discuss the distinctions between the following instructional program
models: ESL, bilingual, sheltered English instruction, and structured
English immersion (SEI).
Part 2: Four Principles of Arizona’s Language Development Approach
Briefly describe Arizona’s Language Development Approach and the synthesis of the research around ELLs.
Explain student agency and its importance in the instruction of ELLs.
Explain each of the four principles of Arizona’s Language Development Approach.
Discuss components of Arizona’s approved research-based SEI models: Newcomer, Pull-Out, Two Hour, 50-50 Dual Language Immersion.
Part 3: Assessment and Placement
the process used to determine ELL program eligibility, placement, and
reassessment, including the use of the Home Language Survey and
Arizona’s English language proficiency assessment.
Identify the standard accommodations available to ELLs for assessment.
Support your deliverable with a minimum of three scholarly resources.