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Background And Objectives Of Bretton Woods Economics Essay

The thrust of an ideal international monetary system is anchored on three fundamental principles, namely: liquidity, adjustability and confidence. Liquidity implies adequate supply of monetary reserves of the preferred exchange base to sustain the growth of international trade and investment. Adjustability refers to operational measures that ensure the restoration of Balance of Payment (BOP) equilibrium, in event of distortions. Confidence in this context arises from the established measures to safeguard against systemic crisis/collapse (Eun and Resnick, 2009). All three principles weight equal importance in maintaining a functional, uniform international monetary system, such that an operational monetary system/ arrangement showing weakness in one or more of these three principles may perhaps fall under severe pressure, as seen in the development of the international monetary system from 1875 till date. For instance, the demise of the classical gold system in 1914 is traced to liquidity pressure. The adjustable peg system (Bretton Woods, 1944 to 1973) is largely attributed to weakness in the exchange base (US dollar) adjustability amongst other factors. The floating system has been associated with high volatility indicating a weakness in preventing systemic crises. The recent financial crises (from the Mexican crisis of 1994 to the current Greek debt crisis) and the rapid evolution in the world financial system have intensified the call for a revisit of the Bretton Wood agreement of 1944. Together with the pervasive volatility in the global financial system, under the current exchange rate agreement, a sound argument for the revival of Bretton Woods II is inferable, based on the historic stability enjoyed under the previous system. However, the success or otherwise of a reviewed Bretton Woods system is substantially dependent on the degree of modification to the core weakness – adjustability and confidence, observed in the earlier system. These core weaknesses form the basis of our discussion, and attempt to suggest an ideal framework for a new Bretton Woods system (Bretton Woods II) underway. This paper reviews the Background (Objectives and features) of Bretton Woods’s agreement, the achievement of the system, its failures and reasons for its demise. We also attempt to clarify the rationale behind the recent call for a revised Bretton Woods and we suggest the obstacles that could impede a successful implementation of a new Bretton Woods system. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES OF BRETTON WOODS The Bretton Woods fixed exchange rate system, was established as an international monetary framework after World War II. Watts (2008) argued that the primary focus was to come up with a currency system less rigid than the Gold Standard while providing similar stability. The Bretton Woods international monetary system became effective in July 1944, with the signing of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) agreement in the United States of America (US), Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. This period also marked the end of the World War II. Proponents of the system – H. D. White and J. M. Keynes, envisaged the need to; create an international reserve asset for payments and settlement (different from the earlier Gold Standard) for international transactions, promote consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems, arrange a pool where member countries would make contributions as well as give loans to member countries in need due to recurring balance of payment deficits. These rationale and agreement of Bretton Woods also formed the basis for the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) also referred to as World Bank, and the launching of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1945, with the responsibility of financing individual national development projects and the conduct of International monetary policies. Besides, the design of the Bretton Woods system was also instituted as a need for a departure from the weaknesses of the former Classical Gold Standard system. These weaknesses include: the cost associated with movement of gold in the execution of international trade transactions, the two way convertibility between gold and national currency, inadequate regulatory mechanisms – the Gold system was of greater benefit to countries that produced gold at the expense of the world economy, the inability to match the supply of gold with the world’s increasing need for liquidity amongst other factors. The objectives of the Bretton Woods system among others therefore include: Promotion of international monetary cooperation by establishing global monitoring agencies that supervise, collaborate and consult on monetary problems (Dammasch, 2001?). Foreign exchange Intervention: Central Banks of countries other than the US were given the task of maintaining fixed exchange rates between their currencies and the dollar. If a country’s currency was too high relative to the dollar, its Central Bank would sell its currency in exchange for dollar, thereby driving down the value of its currency. Conversely, if the value of a country’s money was too low, the country would buy its own currency; thereby driving up the price to ensures exchange rate stability and avoids competitive exchange depreciation. (U.S Department of State, 2010?) To eliminate foreign exchange restrictions and create an efficient system of payments for multilateral trade (Dammasch, 2001?). To this end, the key features of the Bretton Woods system are categorized under three broad caption namely; Monetary policy conduct, exchange base currency and external and internal imbalances. We summarize these features below: Monetary policy conduct The International Monetary Fund was created and given full responsibility of conducting international monetary policies. Exchange rates for other currencies were allowed to fluctuate within ±1 percent of their adopted values, with each member in charge of maintaining its exchange rate within the range. Exchange Base Currency The US dollar was officially pegged to gold at $35 per ounce, while other currencies established a par value in relation to the dollar. The US dollar ($) replaced Gold as the reserve currency and was the only currency that was fully convertible to Gold. Unlike in the gold standard system where other currencies were fully convertible to Gold. Thus the Bretton woods system can be described as a “Dollar-Based Gold-Exchange Standard”. (Eun and Resnick, 2009). External / Internal Imbalances Under this system, member countries were permitted to change the par value of their currencies only in event of “fundamental imbalances” – temporary imbalances of payments, subject to meeting the requirements of IMF. The United States was instituted to run Balance-of-Payment (B.O.P) deficit under this system in other to ensure the supply of reserves (Dollars). ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM Although, the Bretton Woods system collapsed in the early 1970s, there is no doubt that its establishment made a significant and lasting impact to the world economy. The establishment of the system was influenced by the perceived accomplishment of the Gold standard before the First World War It therefore became an attempt to reinstate the stability in the Gold standard without its deflationary bias and inability to adapt to prevailing and changing circumstances. Hence while it was a system of fixed exchange rate, it provided for rates to be adjusted under circumstances of ‘fundamental disequilibrium’ (Robinson College Working Group, 1999). Thus the establishment of a pegged exchange rate system of international finance restored confidence in the world economy and subsequently an astonishing boom in the post war years. Eichengreen and Kenen (1994) reported that industrial production in Western Europe rose significantly by nearly 10 percent between 1945 and 1951. The introduction of capital account convertibility in 1959 also influenced the mobility of short-term funds across borders especially in Europe thereby rapidly increasing international portfolio investment and expanding world trade. It is also noteworthy to say that the Base Exchange currency provided enough liquidity to fuel the expansion. The Bretton Woods system established two strategic institutions i.e. the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) also referred to as World Bank. These two organizations still remain relevant forces in the world economy today long after the demise of the system that introduced them (Addison Wiggin, 2006). The creation of IMF facilitated international world trade expansion thereby promoting and sustaining high levels of employment and real income. Furthermore, the IMF, which was formed amongst many reasons to ensure exchange rate stability, was able to reduce foreign exchange restrictions among member countries by designing payment systems for multilateral trade. Moreover, member countries with balance of payment disequilibrium have had opportunity to fix such problems with the financial arrangement provided by the IMF. Likewise, the World Bank has solely become the most significant source of financial assistance to crumbling economies especially the developing nations with an average of $16 billion annual loans disbursed to member countries in need. THE REASONS FOR THE DEMISE OF BRETTON WOODS Despite the achievement of Bretton Woods in the 1950s and early 1960s, the international financial system came under severe pressure brought by increased capital mobility as it became convenient for investors to move capital to and from a country in anticipation of a possible devaluation. Therefore, the release of information of a possible devaluation could trigger a crisis. Weaker currency countries became unwilling to participate in exchange rate devaluation to correct balance of payment anomalies thereby giving rise to international monetary system rigidity and friction in the foreign exchange markets in the late 1960s. Also, the design of the whole Bretton Woods system was hinged on the political, economic and military strength of the United States (Eichengreen and Kenen, 1994) and hence made US the burden carrier of the whole system. However, as the recovery of other industrial countries became visible, the United State under Kennedy administration sought a revised arrangement with a balance partnership in the area of responsibility sharing with other industrial countries (apparently, the US was losing its influence on the system). This raised uncertainties about the future of Bretton Woods as warned by Triffin (1960) Moreover, the emergence of the third world countries and the involvement of developing countries in the late 1950s and early 1960s were not anticipated by the system since they were not part of the original plan in the 1944 conference. The need to integrate them properly became an issue the Bretton Woods system had to deal with. More importantly, a significant weakness in the Bretton Woods, according to Robinson College Working Group (1999), was its inability to provide for low-key adjustments in exchange rates as relative costs changed. This was evident in several balance of payment crises in the 1960s. Although the crises were not systemic but revealed the danger of relying on US balance of payment deficits to meet the global need for reserves (Triffin, 1960). This danger was exposed in 1971 when the US administration closed the gold window in an attempt to correct the exchange rate. Several later attempts to correct the imbalance in the exchange rate lowered the confidence in the dollar. A further devaluation was made by the US in 1973 but met a weak support as the foreign exchange market had little confidence in the fixed exchange rate system. Eichengreen and Kenen (1994) argue that this led to speculation against the dollar as European central banks pulled out of the foreign exchange market leaving the dollar to float. This marked the official end of the pegged exchange rate system of Bretton Woods. THE CASE FOR A NEW BRETTON WOODS Every international financial frameworks in the past evolved in response to prevailing economic circumstances of its times. In fact, major international financial architectures were developed as a result of one major economic down turn or the other. For instance, Eichengreen and Kenen (1994) argued that the devastating depression of the 1930s and the ruinous effect of the World War II gave birth to Bretton Woods Conference of 1944 which introduced fixed exchange rate regime. Similarly, the substantial pressure on fixed exchange rate regime, brought by increased capital mobility in the 1960s led to the collapse of the Bretton woods system of exchange rate and ushered in a new monetary order, this time a floating exchange rate regime. It is therefore not surprising , in lieu of the turmoil the global economy is going through to see world leaders advocating for the reintroduction for Bretton Woods as a replacement for the current exchange rate arrangements. The campaign for a new Bretton Woods has come from several regions, leaders and policy makers but not limited to the following: In September 2008, French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, opined that a new Bretton woods must be reconstructed from the scratch based on his perceived high volatility in the exchange rates of major currencies of the world. His call was repeated in January 2010 at the Economic World Summit. In October 2008, British Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, advocated for a new international financial architecture emphasizing on the continuation of globalization and free trade rather than the initial strategy of the system: a fixed exchange rate system. He also continued his call in March 2009, requesting for a reform and granting of extended power to international financial corporations like IMF. This is believed, according to him, to have the support of President Obama of the United States of America. In March 2009, Dr. Zhou Xiaochuan, the governor of the People’s Bank of China, embraced the proposition of John Maynard Keynes, which advocated for a centrally managed global reserve currency “that is disconnected from individual nations and is able to remain stable in the long run, thus removing the inherent deficiencies caused by using credit-based national currencies”. Bearing the difficulty of getting a suitable global reserve currency in mind, he advocated for a gradual shift to Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) as a substitute. An NGO, Choike, campaigned for the establishment of ‘international permanent and binding mechanisms control over capital flows’. Italian Economics Minister, Giulio Tremonti, called for the overhauling of the dollar as the base currency of a new Bretton Wood system. It is worth mentioning that the call for a new Bretton Woods system has been on since the mid 1990s with the complexities of the Mexican financial crisis created by the fear of contagion effect on other emerging markets. Bordo (1995) observed that the problems associated with floating exchange rate system since the abandonment of bretton woods include high transactions cost for businesses, excess volatility, and prolonged misalignment of the exchange rates of major currencies. Eichengreen and Kenen (1994) also based their call for a new Bretton Woods system on the aforementioned problems of floating rate system. He further suggests that a more managed system based on co-ordinated monetary and fiscal policy and exchange rate target zones will revive the record of stable and rapid growth, low interest rates, and relatively low inflation of the Bretton Woods regime. In more recent times however, the world has witnessed massive financial blows ranging from the subprime mortgage crisis in the US to the Greek sovereign debt crisis. More than before, these crises have exposed the problems of excess volatility, and high transaction costs for businesses. The time relationship between floating rate system and deregulation of financial sector opened way for a more interconnected global system i.e. globalization. This explains why the current financial crises became a global phenomenon rather than a regional problem. It has therefore become apparent that a need to forestall a global recession of the magnitude of the recent crisis and a need to devise an early warning signalling system in a more regulated international financial environment is responsible for the call for a new Bretton Woods system in the last two years. Hall and Eaglesham (2008) consider this as the basis for backing a new Bretton Woods by the British and French government. They claim Britain and France want a better resourced International Monetary Fund to be watchman and carry out early warning functions for the global financial system. Furthermore, the fear of persistent volatility in currency is heightened by the dollar carry trade which has poured money into the emerging markets. Dr. Zhu Min of the People’s Bank of China maintained that such international rate parity discrepancy may soon trigger huge volatility with some unpredictable consequences if there is a mass withdrawal of funds from the emerging market (Tett, 2010). Also, Simon Derrick of Bank of New York Mellon in Watts (2008) contends that extreme volatility in foreign exchange market clearly has a huge potential to do damage to investors who are not properly hedged and to people who are trying to forecast budgets. Hence the need for a system with more controls on the foreign exchange market. The free market global economy has been blamed for the failures of financial markets and financial institutions all over the world and since a global consensus on individual national regulations may be difficult to achieve, many political economists have also come to terms with and have suggested the need to go back to Bretton Woods with some modifications that will cope with the changing world. Interestingly, one of the possible reasons for a renewed call for Bretton Woods system could be the shift by the world industrialised nations from their commitments to poverty alleviation in poor countries. The commitment of G8 countries to fighting extreme poverty in poor countries has suffered setback because of the need to bail out their financial institutions and stabilize their local economies. According to Otsch (2009), the same mainstream politicians who gave tax holiday to financial investors, legislated to allow high-risk financial transactions in their economies and even had to divert tax payers’ monies into stabilizing the financial system after the bust, are now interested in a system that fosters international cooperation instead of destructive competition among national economies. POTENTIAL BARRIERS TO THE RE-INTRODUCTION OF A NEW BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM The maintenance of stable exchange rate achieved during the first Bretton Woods system could be attributed not only to the agreement finalised by Bretton Woods conference alone, but of two other exceptional factors resulting from the second World War (Eichengreen and Flandreau, 1997). They argued that one of such factors was the limited international capital mobility through capital controls. At that time, this control was effective because of restrictions on international banking legislated in response to the Great depression and international bond markets were yet to recover from the sovereign defaults of the 1930s. Besides, there was a singular and common need for growth resulting from post war reconstruction and catch-ups. Countries were more concerned on how to stimulate rapid growth in their economies having lost almost a decade as a result of the depression. Under these circumstances, countries felt little need to engage in discretionary monetary and fiscal policies that might have undermined the currency pegs. In view of these considerations, a re-introduction of a new Bretton Woods in present times might prove challenging. With the proliferation of various financial instruments, the impact of rapid development by emerging markets, the rising powers of the eastern world and the diffusion of global economic power, as opposed to the original system where the US denominated the world economy, a number of challenges could be highlighted. First, the political drive for economic cooperation and global consensus is less compelling now than it was at the wake of Bretton Woods Conference of 1944. It is crucial to note that for reforms in international monetary system to work, countries have to unanimously agree on terms and objectives as regards their national economic policies and outcomes. However, this is currently absent and maybe difficult to attain in the pursuit of a new Bretton Woods. Each country is more concerned with the safety and growth of its national economic and political sovereignty. In the words of former Managing Director of IMF, Michel Camdessus -“countries must make a greater effort to understand the economic policies of other countries and that they must listen to the judgement of others about their own national policies. It also means that they must take a more enlightened view of their own national interests, recognizing that it is in their own self-interest to take the interests of other countries into account.” (Dammasch, 2001?) Secondly, globalization has in the last few decades increased capital mobility. This was said to have culminated into the collapse of the original Bretton Woods system. Due to lesser restrictions on capital control, and with other currencies being pegged to the US dollar, the result was massive pressure on the dollar which eventually led to the fall of the Bretton Woods system. However, with the present deregulation of the financial markets and the free flow of capital, reverting to a fixed exchange rate system will be a herculean task. Thirdly, the domination of the Bretton Woods institutions i.e. the IMF and World Bank, by western powers poses a challenge in the area of support from the emerging markets. Currently the US has about 17 per cent of the Fund, the European Union 32 per cent, altogether constituting about 50 per cent of the total voting rights (Wolf 2008). With such level of authority, emerging economies like China, India, Brazil, South Africa, etc might find it unattractive to participate. A new agenda for a Bretton Woods that works must recognise the potentials of rising economies. Lastly, power shift from the West to East is certainly going to impact on the governance of a new bretton woods. Rachman (2008) argued that the original bretton woods was basically formed by the US and UK being the world economic giants at that time. Obviously there are many more countries namely the G7, G8, G20 and so on competing to take on the wheel of power as opposed to the past. Such power tussles if not amicably resolved would cause a serious impediment towards the creation of a new system. CONCLUSION The recent events in the global financial and economic system have exposed how deficiently the financial system was structured over the last 50 years. The rise of a lucrative market economy and its domino (risky) effect in the foreign exchange market, stock and other financial market, commodity markets, etc has triggered a global depression that has raised an increased determination for a change to a new version of Bretton Woods Systems. Nonetheless, any system that must meet the demand of a much developed financial world must consider crisis management, institutional reforms, and financial regulation and must be capable of predicting the future directions of markets with a strong purpose of preventing systemic crisis. As mentioned earlier, the success or otherwise of any re-invented Bretton Woods system is hinged on the fundamental principles of adjustability and confidence. Finally however, considering the obstacles to a re-introduction of a new Bretton Woods, the different circumstance(s) that culminated into Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944 and the protracted nature of the recent crises, a new Bretton Woods may be far-fetched.
Contamination essay. I need help with a Science question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

How contaminated were/are fish and other seafood items as a result radiation from this accident? (i.e. Is it safe to eat the local fish? How about fish from other areas of the Pacific?) Find and summarize the methods and results of 3 primary research articles or scientific literature reviews. Each summary should be no more than 3 sentences as shown below. A full reference for each article summarized must be provided as shown below. Completely made up example to show formatting: Researchers tested the levels of cesium-137 in some species of fish caught at 10 different locations along the coast of California. Results showed that no samples contained cesium-137 attributable to Fukushima at a level above that which considered safe by the EPA. Thus, there does not appear to be a threat to humans in consuming this fish species.

Reference: Cure, M. and Curie, I. 2017. Analysis of cesium-137 levels in the tissues of some random fish species that Dr. Reber made up. Journal of Hypothetical Science 1:44-4
Contamination essay

Lynn University Unharvested Poem Analysis.

Explicate this poem, “Unharvested” by Robert Frost:A scent of ripeness from over a wall. And come to leave the routine road And look for what had made me stall, There sure enough was an apple tree That had eased itself of its summer load, And of all but its trivial foliage free, Now breathed as light as a lady’s fan. For there had been an apple fall As complete as the apple had given man. The ground was one circle of solid red. May something go always unharvested! May much stay out of our stated plan, Apples or something forgotten and left, So smelling their sweetness would be no theft.As discussed in class, explicating a poem involves a detailed analysis of the text, anexplanation of how the details contribute to the meaning and effect of the poem as awhole. You need to look up and think about each reference or unusual term, and besure you understand each line. Your essay should include a statement of what youthink the poem’s meaning or “message” is, and why you reached that conclusion, basedon the specifics of the text. You can organize your essay any way you choose; for example, you do not have tostart off with a summary of what the poem means. What you must do is account for allparts of the poem, and show how each of them relates to the others and adds to theoverall effect.* * * * *Your essay should be approximately 1,000 words in length; it cannot be less than 800words or more than 1,200. Format the essay in accordance with the instructions postedon MyLearning (“Format for Essays Submitted in Response to the WritingAssignments”).Be sure to provide concrete examples from the poem; when you use quotations, cite tothe specific line numbers. If you use any source other than the text of the poem,provide an appropriate citation to that other source. At the end of the essay, provide alist of the work or works cited, using the MLA format and including a ref
Lynn University Unharvested Poem Analysis

Complete 2 Student Success Discussions 9 (TRIDENT)

Complete 2 Student Success Discussions 9 (TRIDENT). I’m studying for my Communications class and need an explanation.


Have you ever been stereotyped based on your appearance or group membership? If so, what was the stereotype and how did it make you feel?
Have you ever unintentionally perceived or treated a person in terms of a group stereotype rather than as an individual? What assumptions did you make about that person? Was that person aware of, or affected by, your stereotyping?

This course is considered to be an important course for our students at the University. Therefore, your feedback is important in evaluating whether modifications should be made.

What did you like best about this course?
What do you think would improve this course?

Complete 2 Student Success Discussions 9 (TRIDENT)

Hands-on Activity5B: DNS Request and DNS Response

i need help writing an essay Hands-on Activity5B: DNS Request and DNS Response.

PurposeThis activity will help you see how your computer sends a DNS request for a Web site you never visited, before it can create an HTTP request packet to display the Web site on your browser. We will use WireShark for this activity.You must use your own computer at home to complete this assignment.Directions1. In your command prompt, type the command – ipconfig /all – to find your computer’s IP address and DNS Server. Write these information down.2. Go back to your command prompt and type – ipconfig/flushdns . This command will empty your DNS cache,3. Launch your WireShark and enter/type – ip.addr==xxxx.xxxx.xxxx.xxxx (use your computer’s IP address that you obtained in step 1) in the Filter to capture packets sent and received by your computer only. Look at Figure 5-25, p. 157, to see the Filter box.Take a snap shot of this screen. Open a new WORD document. Copy/paste this screen shot to the document.4. Start packet capture in WireShark.5. Open a browser and visit www.ietf.org6. Stop packet capture after the Web page is loaded. Take a snap shot of this screen, and copy/paste in the same WORD document created in step 3. This screen shot should be similar, but not identical, to Figure 5-23 on page 157. Remember each computer has its own unique setting.7. Write a short essay (3 – 4 paragraphs) describing your project results and explain the contents of your screen captures. Answer the 3 questions in the Deliverables, page 157. The 2 screen shots and answers to these questions are important subsets of this project.8. Upload your WORD document in Blackboard using the submit link below. GradingThis assignment is worth 50 points and will be graded for completeness and accuracy. I will look for 2 screen captures and answers to the 3 questions on the Deliverables, page 157. I will look for 3-4 paragraphs which describe your project results.
Hands-on Activity5B: DNS Request and DNS Response

Essay On The Impact Of Organ Donation

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The Impact Organ Donation Has on the United States and Iran’s Survivability An innovation that has developed the standard of human survival is organ donation. According to the Cleveland Clinic, “Organ donation is the process of surgically removing an organ or tissue from one person (the organ donor) and placing it into another person (the recipient). Transplantation is necessary because the recipient’s organ has failed or has been damaged by disease or injury.” Organs and tissues that can be transplanted are determined by the donor’s medical history. Although organ donation is highly beneficial and has an immense impact on human survival, not all countries are as advanced in organ donations like the United States. Iran and some second world countries (third world countries also) are not only lacking advancements, but also some people living there do not believe in western technology due to their religion. By these people declining and not believing that organ donations are acceptable, benefits like an extended life are taken away. Even though Iran’s culture and scientific advancements play a major role in why their rate of survivability is lower than the United States, economic factors in organ donations also play a critical role. Studies have verified several situations of organ donations to work out well and some situations not as much. At the end of the day, organ donations may seem morally correct to one and not to another. The United States is more accepting to organ donations; therefore, the U.S. has developed a much higher standard of human survival. The question being answered in this paper is how has organ donation impacted the United States and Iran’s survivability? Throughout the paper, organ donation will be inspected through the economic perspective to better understand the impact organ donation has on the United States and Iran’s survivability. The first place we will inspect the economic impact of organ donation is the United States. The United States, for the most part, is in favor of organ donations. As we all know, humans should all have the equal opportunity to healthcare. However, in the United States, when it comes to organ donations, whoever can purchase the organ gets it. Now, this can only happen if the donor and recipient are a match along with several other requirements. Economically, living donors in the United States have the upper hand. They possess the ability to put the price they want on the organ they are donating. Patients in need of the organ then have to compete for the organ. Patients start to bid and whoever has more money gets the organ. People that have been waiting on the list for years may have their life practically taken away from them because they aren’t financially able to pay for the transplant. Putting a price tag on one’s life seems unfair. Costs of an organ donation first depends on the type of organ that is being donated. “Giving an organ costs on average $5,000, but can be as much as $20,000.” (Revere, 2014). The only way to speed up the process of donating an organ would be if the person donating the organ is a family member. Now doctors may see organ donations differently than donors and recipients do. According to Dr. Alan L. Glass, M.D., there are about 5,000 patients waiting for a heart; however, across the nation there are about 2,500 heart transplants a year. This means that about 15-20 percent of patients will die waiting. Doctors encourage people to become donors because not only will organ donations save possible lives, it will also bring doctors more income by performing more operations. The wait patients must go through also gives the doctors a challenge by trying to keep them not only alive, but also still remain a nominee for the possible organ in the future. In Iran, organ donations work quite differently. Just as many people are in need of an organ, however their chances of actually having the transplant take place is minimal. Many people living in Iran do not believe organ donations are morally correct causing very few operations to take place. However, the few that believe it is okay rarely get their request granted. Over time, Iran has been able cut down their wait list. Reducing the wait list caused the price of obtaining an organ like a kidney to drop. According to Rachel Kaplan, a kidney cost $4,500 in Iran. This might not seem too bad; however one must take into consideration the fact that people living in Iran typically do not earn as much money annually compared to the average American. Donors in Iran tend to have a different thought process compared to donors in the United States. Iranian donors typically donate their organs in thought of the financial benefits. They do not take into consideration the possible health risk with donating. Most of the recipients in Iran are not even eligible for an organ due to health issues. This is mostly caused by the less developed living conditions people live in. Organ donations still have had an overall increase on Iranian people’s survivability. Even though organ donation has impacted both the United States and Iran in their own unique ways, they both have been impacted in a positive way which has increased people’s survivability. The United States and Iran can improve in the process of organ donations by making it more obtainable for the financially unstable. Although making organ donations more obtainable for the financially unstable would be a positive factor for the most part, donors and doctors would lose money because of this. Lacking organs could be later solved in the United States by 3D printing. In Iran, 3D printing will not be available for a while because they are not as advanced as the United States. However, once the United States becomes familiar with the 3D printing of organs, they can help Iran in creating artificial organs by possibly supplying them with some money. Maybe one day in the future organ donation will be conveniently acceptable for people throughout the whole entire world. References Bramstedt, Katrina. (2014). Buying and Selling Organs Would Create an Economic Class War. The New York Times, Pages 1-1. Cleveland Clinic. (2016). Organ Donation and Transplantation. Cleveland Clinic, Pages 1-1. Fry-Revere, Sigrid. (2014). Why should donating an organ cost so much? CNN, Pages 1-1. Healthcorps. (2016). Organ Donation: A Doctor’s Perspective. Healthcorps, Pages 1-1. Kaplan, Rachel. (2016). How much does a kidney cost in Iran? Arutz Sheva 7, Pages 1-1. Nathan, Howard. (2003). Organ donation in the United States. American Journal of Transplantation, Pages 1-13. Larijani, Bagher. (2004). Ethical and legal aspects of organ transplantation in Iran. Science Direct, Pages 1241-1244. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy and Yalom’s Therapy Model Essay

Table of Contents Theory Group Membership Aims and Objectives Process Structure Conclusion Reference List A number of approaches have been developed by various theorists and psychologists in order to help at managing psychological disorders. Cognitive behavior group therapy and Yalom’s therapy model are considered to be one of the most reliable approaches to evaluate problems within dysfunctional emotions and behaviors. In this paper, these two models will be analyzed and evaluated in terms of their similarities and differences: the essence of Yalom’s model and cognitive behavior group therapy model, their objectives and structures, and group membership. Theory Cognitive behavior group therapy, also known as CBGT, is an approach that is used during the group therapy in order to treat different variants of social phobia. CBGT is one of those models, which can be used in treatment under certain inpatient settings (Christner et al., 2007, p. 509). Yalom’s therapeutic model assumes that interpersonal interaction is essential for the success of group therapy. Yalom himself suggested that change through group therapy is a complicated process that is facilitated by interplay of human experiences, which he considered as the therapeutic factors. The theory of cognitive behavior group therapy is based on the ability to conceptualize information for each member of the group and the group as one whole. It is necessary to identity the problem that causes psychological problems and working on the problem so as find workable solutions based on the problems. This model utilizes the Socrates’ way of knowledge unlike the Yalom’s model because the therapists have a desire to know much about the client using the technique of questioning. It is also based on educational model of doing things with the assumptions that all behaviors and attitudes adopted by individuals are all acquired through learning process (Montgomery, 2002, p. 34). In cognitive behavior group therapy, the goals of the entire process are set in accordance to the existing problems. It is then that thinking behaviors that are at the center of the behavior problem are modified. On the other hand, Yalom based his practice on the importance of therapeutic factors in finding solutions to psychological problems. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the factors include instilling hope in the patients in order to help them manage their own problems. Therefore. in terms of theory, the two models are different in their own fundamental principles that guide their functionality to the patients. Group Membership The two models tend to be joined by the fact that both of them place much emphasis on the importance and relevance of here and now theory in group therapy. Concerning group membership, I can note that with cognitive behavior group therapy it can be applied to a group of people only. Membership is limited to the one therapist to provide services to a number of clients. This can even be done over computer programs. In cognitive behavior group therapy, emphasis is not put much on the number of members attending the sessions with the therapist. It works because the interaction between the therapist and the patients, and the patient and the patient actually matters in the success of the approach. To a greater extent, cognitive behavior group therapy is a collaborative process between the patients and their therapist. In other terms, if there is no cordial relationship between the two, then the approach cannot work at all (Yalom and Leszcz, 2005, 153). This is unlike the case in the Yalom’s therapy model; whereby the whole thing is a group affair whereby the larger the numbers the better the clients benefit because they need each other’s experience so as to find solutions to psychological problems affecting them. Therefore the number of clients attending the sessions in this model really matters to the success of the approach. Yaloms model does not need so much the collaboration between the client and the therapist. In terms of composition of members it is clear that Yalom’s model uses certain criteria in the selection of membership. For instance, exclusion criteria are often used in the selection process (Yalom and Leszcz, 2005, p.153). Inclusion criteria are also adopted in the model, basing on the level of motivation between members. This is unlike the situation in the cognitive behavior model. But overall, both models of behavior change have membership and the involved members, who attend the therapy sessions for them to find solutions to their psychological problems. We will write a custom Essay on Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy and Yalom’s Therapy Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aims and Objectives Looking at the aims and objectives of both models, it is vital to underscore the fact that both models aim at improving the behavior of the clients through the psychological processes (Callahan, 2004, p.502). They therefore help the client to overcome psychological problems that threaten their existence in the world. Cognitive behavior group therapy model can be looked at to be targeting a patient-therapists communication and patient-patient communication as well in order to help solve psychological problems within the group and provide them with a chance to fight against their social phobia. The Yalom’s model can be considered to be focused on creating a group environment to facilitate sharing of experiences between the clients in order to learn from each others experiences and solve their own psychological problems. Process Structure In terms of process and structure of the models, it is important to point out that Yalom’s model is organized in the way that the groups form the basic structure of the model. The clients with psychological problems are involved in certain group activities for their own benefits. Group participation in this model is greatly enhanced by creating the necessary cognitive structures and further clarification of misconceptions (Callahan, 2004, p.502). However, in this model, group cohesiveness is emphasized because of the benefits, which are inherent to the group members. According to the proponent of this model, cohesiveness is a precondition for the success of the therapy, because it determines the functionality of the other therapeutic factors. Some of them are doomed not to work if this precondition is not adequately addressed. This structure is not the same as that of cognitive behavior group therapy, whereby group cohesiveness is not a precondition for the success of the therapy. In this approach, the members do not enjoy the love and warmth of the other group members. The sense of belonging and unconditional acceptance in not found in the process of cognitive behavior group therapy because lack of this cohesiveness. In group therapy and Yalom’s model, the clients in groups are likely to reach high levels of self-awareness unlike in the other case. This is through such important techniques like feedback that mainly imparts on the life of others, who are in the same group. This cannot be the same in the cognitive behavior group therapy (Corey 2005, p.461). Furthermore, in Yalom’s model form of therapy, patients are thoroughly questioned and after the one discovers what he needs in life. It enables one understand a reality on issues such as death, this form obesity form according to enable one to understand how freedom and responsibility go hard in hard. Yalom includes one specialist and an individual faced with a problem. One person is thoroughly questioned unlike for CBT where we can have a group of people therapy 6- 10. Not sure if you can write a paper on Cognitive Behavior Group Therapy and Yalom’s Therapy Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to there is no fixed life for an individual. In Yalom’s form of therapy, the individual with a problem is the only one who meets with the therapist unlike for the CBT whereby we can have a group that can consist of six people or more. Another difference is that in Yalom’s model, one is asked questions and the help he gets depends on the evaluation made by the therapist (Corey, 2005, p.153). In terms of process, it is important not to overlook the fact that, in both models, the feedback is provided and is quite essential for the personal development of each client. There is also the issue of giving out to receive in both models in the sense that in Yalom’s model one has to understand the value of giving before having the intrinsic drive to share out experiences with others and at the same time gain from others. In the cognitive behavior model it becomes inevitable for the client to be willing to give out information after a cordial relationship is established with the therapist (Corey, 2005, p. 490). In both models, there is the imparting of information to the clients. This is normally through instructional methods, giving of advice and making suggestions to the clients. In both models, there is evidence of the therapist instilling the aspect of hope in the clients. This is very essential to keep the clients in the process of therapeutic change. Without hope in the process, most clients would fall out before they archive the desired results. In Yalom’s model, faith is itself a therapeutic process and can facilitate change in the behavior of the client. Conclusion In conclusion, it is important to note that the two models of psychiatry under consideration share things, which are in common and differ in a number of areas as it has already been mentioned. The success of each of them remains attached to the commitment of both the client and the therapist in the process. The interpersonal process within a group has had a considerable impact on me personally. Firstly, I have gained a lot in terms of self-awareness from both the group and even from the outside. From inside the group, I was able to interact with all the group members, and we had a very cordial relationship that facilitated openness to one another. I could not believe hearing what some of my friends were revealing to me. From this interaction, I can say that I have been able to discover more about myself as an individual than I used to be in the past before the therapy. Outside the group, I managed to open up well to inside the group and was able to discover much about my behavior. During the therapy, I was involved in numerous group discussions too much, and it turned out to be very useful to me. These group discussions were very free, and everybody was willing to give out his/her own contribution; such activities were actually too exciting, because as it was necessary, each shared own experiences and emotions (Christner, et al., 2007, p.359). It was very easy to respond to the questions from the group members and ask them more questions that helped to disentangle some mysteries. Through this kind of feedback, it was so easy to find solutions to some of the behavior problems that I had. Another important issue to mention is all about the appearance in the group activities. I can say that my presence in the group was easily noticeable by other group members. Through the processes in the therapy, I also understood better what is actually required in terms of the group process. Now, I better comprehend the issues, which are important for the success of the entire process: they are the composition of the group and proper selection of its members. Now, I am in the better informed position concerning the issue of group organization that should be planned on a high level (Christner, et al., 2007, p. 150) and participation of the members and this have had an impact on my organizational skills. I am also able to form a group in the same setting and help the members go through the process successfully in order to get solutions to their psychological problems. The theory that I have learnt concerning psychological problems was easily applied in my real life situation. By this, I mean that I experienced instances of rising anxiety within me. For instance, when there was an intense argument within the group members concerning an obvious issue. I was feeling anxious and I have gradually been able to manage the anxiety by applying the theories I have learnt toward the end. I never clued with any one in the group and other with me in the result of understanding of own feelings, values, and anxiety. During the group activities, I cannot fail to mention that I managed to express emotions that I have not experienced in the past. For example, there is a group member, who gave out a very strong revelation, and I can tell that I was really feeling for her just because of what she has had to go through. The way, she brought out the story, got into me so much that I was feeling that I was the one going through the same situation. My experience helped me to comprehend one simple idea that has been already suggested by many other scholars: interpersonal-psychodynamic group therapy is considered to be a really powerful means and approach for those, who want to improve own life and get rid of past problems (Callahan, 2004, p.491). In general, I can conclude by noting that the group therapy, I went through, has greatly impacted on my life in a very positive way as far as psychological development is concerned. I have achieved self-improvement by means of the process of interaction with both the group members and outside the group. Reference List Billow, R. (2005). Bion Today. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 55(4), 613-23. Callahan, K. L., Price, J. L., and Hilsenroth, M. J. A Review of Interpersonal-Psychodynamic Group Psychotherapy Outcomes for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy 54(4), 491-519. Christner, R. W., Stewart, J. L., and Freeman, A. (2007). Handbook of Cognitive-Behavior Group Therapy with Children and Adolescents: Specific Settings and Presenting Problems. New York, NY: Routledge. Corey, G. (2005). Theory and Practice of Counselling and Psychotherapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole. Joyce A., S., Piper W.E., and Ogrodniczuk J. S. (2007). Therapeutic Alliance and Cohesion Variables as Predictors of Outcome in Short-Term Group Psychotherapy. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 57(3), 269-97 Montgomery, C. (2002).Role of Dynamic Group Therapy in Psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8(1), 34-41. Yalom, I. D. and Leszcz, M. (2005). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books

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