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Automatic Number Pate Recognition System Information Technology Essay

Automatic number pate recognition system is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read the license plates on vehicles. System might scan number plates at around one per second on cars traveling up to 100mph(160 km/h).they can use existing closed -circuit television or road-rule enforcement cameras, or ones specifically designed for the task. They are used by various police forces and as a method of electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and monitoring traffic activity, such as red light adherence in an intersection. ANPR can be used to store the images capture by the cameras as well as the text from the license plate, with some configurable to store a photograph of the driver. Systems commonly use infrared lighting to allow the camera to take the picture at any time of the day. A powerful flash is inclined in at least one version of the intersection-monitoring cameras, serving both to illuminate the picture and to make the offender aware of his or her mistake. ANPR technology tends to be region -specific, owing to pate variation from place to place. Some concerns about these systems have centered on privacy fears of government tracking citizens’ movements and media reports of misidentification and high error rates. However, as they have developed, the systems have become much more accurate and reliable. There is an increasing requirement to identify vehicles and track their location for a wide number of applications. These include: Congestion charging – Several major cities around the world levy a charge a drive within them Car park management – Using the number plate to identify the time of entry and departure of a Vehicle. Counter-terrorism – Monitoring the arrival and departures of vehicles at major ports. Literature Review Our literature survey mainly focused on automatic number plate system research papers and its existing system along with its application, image processing technique and neural network recognition. These can be clearly illustrated as follows: Automatic number plate recognition system Javaanpr existing open source code in sourceforge.net Thesis describing research, image processing and neural networking technique along with its algorithm in pdf on javaanpr on sourceforge.net Image processing technique ImageJ -api based on java language for digital image processing Image editor -api based on java language made for image processing JAI api -java advance imaging for image processing from sunmicrosystem at java.sun.com. Opencv- Digital Image Processing (text book from library) Neural networking technique Introduction to java neural network second edition by jfheaton at heatonresearch.com Some ocr samples using neuralnetworking at sourcecode.com and its explanation Study on nepali ocr research conducted by madan puraskar guthi(yala Maya Kendra) Ocr sample developed by Google based for Linux available for windows on dot net (tesseract) Jooneengine-java api on neural network not so well developed and efficient at http://www.jooneworld.com Kohenen -java api on self organizing map applied to compress jpeg image. Somdemo-sample java program for illustration how self organizing map works. Program iterately train to converge with identical color from random samples Artificial neural network text book available at library (low price edition from pearson education. Neural networks systematic introduction by Raul Rojas(from lectures at free university at Berlin and later at the university of Halle) Automatic Number Pate Recognition system a)javaanpr Javaanpr open source available at sourceforge.net worked as prototype for building our Nepali automatic Nepali number plate recognition system. It also contain thesis in pdf format prescribing image processing technique and neural networking technique along with its algorithm. It works well recognizing foreign number plates contained as sample in the site. It was beautifully coded applying sophisticated and specialized algorithms for image processing and neural network technique. It also used xml files to save and retrieve neural network training data. Figure: sample javaanpr at sourceforge.net For more information-http://sourceforge.net Image processing Technique a)ImageJ 1.42 ImageJ was first developed on class files now available on GUI interface. User can just process image using various buttons and entries if prescription is required .programmers can develop own macros and plugins to achieve its intended function if required and compile there within and run the code. It is capable of processing both 2D and 3D interactive image processing. Figure. ImageJ graphical window interface For more information: http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/ b) Image editor Image editor was also found during search for image processing tool. It is also based on java language and available as java API, now class file are available with GUI interface easing it’s its manipulation. Image editor api seems inefficient and not so capable for our intended operation and not so much researched. C) JAI api the java advance imaging(JAI) API further extends the java platforms (including the java 2D API) by allowing sophisticated, high -performance image processing to be incorporated into java applets and applications.JAI is a set of classes providing imaging functionality beyond that of Java 2D and the Java Foundation classes, though it is compatible with those APIs. JAI implements a set of core image processing capabilities including image tiling, regions of interest, and deferred execution.JAI also offers a set of core image processing operators including many common point, area, and frequency-domain operators. JAI is intended to meet the needs of all imaging applications. The API is highly extensible, allowing new image processing operations to be added in such a way as to appear to be a native part of it. Thus, JAI benefits virtually all Java developers who want to incorporate imaging into their applets and applications. JAI features Cross-platform imaging Distributed Imaging Object-oriented API Flexible and Extensible Device Independent Powerful High Performance Interoperable Initially program coding was done in JAI Later it becomes little inefficient and we again go for another programming method. For further information-http://java.sun.com d) Digital Image processing (text book from library) e) Opencv The OpenCV implements a wide variety of tools for image interpretation. It is compatible with Intel® Image Processing Library (IPL) that implements low-level operations on digital images. In spite of primitives such as binarization, filtering, image statistics, pyramids, OpenCV is mostly a high-level library implementing algorithms for calibration techniques (Camera Calibration), feature detection (Feature) and tracking (Optical Flow),shape analysis(Geometry, Contour Processing ),motion analysis (Motion Templates, Estimators ), 3D reconstruction (View Morphing),object segmentation and recognition (Histogram, Embedded Hidden Markov Models, Eigen Objects). The essential features of the library along with functionality and quality is performance. The algorithms are based on highly flexible data structures (Dynamic Data Structures) coupled with IPL data structures; more than a half of the functions have been assembler – optimized taking advantage of Intel® Architecture (Pentium®MMXâ„¢,Pentium® Pro, Pentium®III, Pentium®4). Why We Need OpenCV Library The OpenCV Library is a way of establishing an open source vision community that Will make better use of up-to-date opportunities to apply computer vision in the Growing PC environment. The software provides a set of image processing functions, As well as image and pattern analysis functions. The functions are optimized for Intel® Architecture processors, and are particularly effective at taking advantage of MMX›› Technology. The OpenCV Library has platform-independent interface and supplied with whole C Sources. OpenCV is open. Relation between Opens and Other Libraries OpenCV is designed to be used together with Intel® Image Processing Library (IPL) And extends the latter functionality toward image and pattern analysis. Therefore, OpenCV shares the same image format (IplImage) with IPL. Also, OpenCV uses Intel® Integrated Performance Primitives (IPP) on lower-level, if It can locate the IPP binaries on startup. IPP provides cross-platform interface to highly-optimized low-level functions that Perform domain-specific operations, particularly, image processing and computer Vision primitive operations. IPP exists on multiple platforms including IA32, IA64, And StrongARM. Source:-openCV reference manual.pdf Cmgui-wx-2(.net wrapper class) This openCV tool can be easily integrated with .net platform like c#, visual basic etc. Cmgui is an advanced 3D visualization software package with modeling capabilities.Cmgui is a part of CMISS, a mathematical modeling environment initially developed by the University of Auckland Bioengineering Institute.CMISS stands for Continuum Mechanics, Image analysis. Signal processing and System Identification. There are three major CMISS software packages. Broadly speaking the main areas each piece of software deals with are as follows: CM is used for computational modeling Unemap is used for signal acquisition and processing Cmgui is used for model visualization and manipulation For more information:-wiki/getting started with cmgui Neural Networking technique a) Introduction to java neural network by jeff heaton This book along with video lecture helped very much for us to understand neural networks and learn coding technique. It was published form Heaton research center and they have developed encog framework for neural network where programmer can build fast neural network prototype for fast testing and checking since easy and flexible. After parameters have been determined for best operation such as number of hidden layers and number of neurons in each layer coding can be done since it code will be inflexible for such modification. Book contained different chapters on various types of neural networks and also its application. Only first seven chapters are allowed to read online and rests are not. It provides all its source code on site which also helps in learning and testing. Same book is also available in c# language. For more information-http://heatonreasearch.com/ b) On the beginning of project research we also got OCR sample using neural network at sourcecode.com with explanation. It was written at c#, due to compiler problem I didn’t stress here much. c) Nepali OCR For us it was good news and opportunity to study research on Nepali OCR conducted by madan puraskar guthi. Different research papers were available on the site along with image processing portion code used to fragment Nepali character Image written on java. It deals with problem issues and complexity faced on Nepali character like devnagari font. For more information -http:// d) OCR engine tessaract by Google This was used by Nepali OCR for its processing and it supports many languages like Hindi, Nepali, Urdu, arabi etc. we didn’t research here much. Figure: segmented portion of Figure : Another segmented portion of For more information-make Google search for link d) joone engine joone engine as a api in hope for easy and efficient coding we consider but it seems unworthy for project work. For beginner liking to test some xor operations and similar may find at least satisfactory otherwise unworthy. For more information-http://www.jooneworld.com/docs/engine.html e)Kohenen This sample also seems beautiful in understanding self organizing map or kohenen network. Here it is used to compress jpeg image. It was programmed on seven packages. For more information-http: // f) som demo This sample tries to converge iteratively with similar colors from randomly scattered pixel colors based on Euclidean distance method. Figure: som before training Figure: som after training For more information-link available at reference http://www.ai-junkie.com/ann/som/ g) Artificial neural Network text book (library) h) Neural network systematic introduction (by Raul Rojas) This book is good for understanding neural network systematically and based on lectures at free university at Berlin and later at the University of Halle. For more introduction-reference at http://www.wikipedia.com/selforganisingmap Figure: sample kohenen neural network (3D kohenen feature map) Source: http://rfhs8012.fh-regensburg.de/~jfroehl/index.html Anpr system application around world Police enforcement Germany On 11 March 2008, the Federal Constitution Court of Germany ruled that the laws permitting the use of automated number plate recognition systems in Germany violated te right to privacy. Hungary Several Hungarian Auxiliary Police units use a system called Matrix Police in cooperation with the police. It consists of a portable computer equipped with a webcam that scans the stolen car database using automatic number plate recognition. The system is installed on the dashboard of selected patrol vehicles (PDA based handled versions exists as well) and is mainly used to control the license plate of parking cars, as the Auxiliary Police doesn’t have the authority to order moving vehicles to stop. If a stolen is found, the formal police are informed. United Kingdom The UK has an extensive (ANPR) automatic number plate recognition CCTV network. Effectively, the police and security services track all car movements around the country and are able to track any car in close to real time. Vehicle movements are stored for 5 years in the National ANPR Data Centre to be analyzed for intelligence and to be used as evidence. USA In the USA, ANPR systems are more commonly referred to as LPR (License Plate Reader or License Plate Recognition) technology or ALPR (Automatic License Plate Reader/Recognition) technology. One of the biggest challenges with ALPR technology in the US is the accuracy of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR)-the actual identification of the characters on the license plate. From time to time, states will make significant changes in their license plate protocol that will affect OCR accuracy. They may add a character or add a new license plate design. ALPR systems must adapt to these changes quickly in order to be effective. In addition to the real-time processing of the license plate numbers, some ALPR systems in the US collect data at the time of each license plate capture .Data such as date and time stamps and GPS coordinates can be reviewed in relation to investigations and can help lead to critical breaks such as placing a suspect at a scene, witness identification, pattern recognition or the tracking of suspect individuals. Average Speed cameras Another use of ANPR in the UK, Italy and Dubai (UAE) is for speed cameras which work by tracking vehicles ‘ travel time between two fixed points ,and therefore calculate the average speed. These cameras are claimed to have an advantage over traditional speed cameras in maintaining steady legal speeds over extended distances, rather than encouraging heavy braking on approach to specific camera locations and subsequent acceleration back to illegal speeds. UK The longest stretch of average speed cameras in the UK is found on the A77 road in Scotland, with 30 miles (48 km) being monitored between Glasgow and Ayr. Italy In Italian highways has developed a monitoring system named Tutor covering more than 1244 km (2007). Further extensions will add 900 km before the end of 2008. The Tutor system is also able to intercept cars while changing lanes. Traffic control Many cities and district have developed traffic control systems to help the movement and flow of vehicles around the road network. This had topically involved looking at historical data, estimates, observations and statistics such as: Car park usage Pedestrian crossing usage Number of vehicles along a road Areas of low and high congestion Frequency, location and cause of road words The UK Company Traffic master has used ANPR since 1998 to estimate average traffic speeds on non-motorway roads without the results being skewed by local fluctuations caused by traffic lights and similar. The company now operates a network of over 4000 ANPR cameras ,but claims that only the four most central digits are identified , and no number plate data is retained. Electronic toll collection Ontario’s 407 ETR highway uses a combination of ANPR and radio transponders to toll vehicles entering and exiting the road. Radio antennas are located at each junction and detect the transponders, logging the unique identify of each vehicle in much the same way as the ANPR system does. There are numerous other electronic toll collection networks which use combination of Radio frequency identification and ANPR. These include: Bridge pass for the Saint John Harbor Bridge in Saint John New Brunswick City link
TU Time Value of Money Affecting the Evaluation of Alternatives Discussion.

First discussion question is: Does the time value of money affect the evaluation of organizational alternatives? If so, how?Second discussion question is: Discuss the importance of finance in an organization. Emphasize how your opinion has changed since the start of this class.Please make sure to follow the rules and requirements below for these 2 discussion posts:Each discussion post has to be well written and organized, and between 300 to 500 words, no more than that. Your discussion posts should be fully supported by scholarly citations. Use at least 4 references for each discussion question. Use Google.scholar.com to help you find supporting materials if necessary. Please make sure all comments are supported. Failure to cite where you got information can be considered a form of plagiarism.
TU Time Value of Money Affecting the Evaluation of Alternatives Discussion

York University Views Over Monetary Policy Over the Last Eighteen Months Questions

York University Views Over Monetary Policy Over the Last Eighteen Months Questions.

Choose 4 of 6 to answer 
1. Why do you think there has been a shift in how people want monetary and fiscal policy to be conducted?  For example why has modern monetary theory gotten so much traction over the last few years and what is it about neoclassical economics discussed in class that has moved some people to take a hard second look at how monetary policy has been conducted in the past?  Can you envision monetary policy taking a more active role in the economy as stated by such theories as the modern monetary theory?  Why or why not?
2. Discuss how the Yetman and Rowe technique was used to explain whether the central bank was targeting inflation as seen in Dr. Hejazi’s PhD thesis.  Why is this technique useful for monetary policy formulation?  How can the technique show if inflation or output has been targeted or not?
3. Do you think it is possible and advisable for the Bank of Canada to have a dual mandate of targeting inflation and output?  Provide an example of how this could be done and what are some of the challenges of getting us there.  In this regard, do you believe that the central bank should follow rules or discretion?
4. What do you think the views of monetary policy has been over the last 18 months?  Do you think the central banks around the world have done a good job in warding off a great recession?  Is there anything you wished they had done differently?  How has monetary policy become more global in your view?  Do you think there should be more collaboration between central banks?  Has need for this collaboration become more or less pronounced?  Why or why not? 
5. Tell me if you agree with the following:  “Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell says the central bank can help assess risks to banks from climate change but that addressing the broader issue is up to private companies and elected officials, underlining that U.S. central bankers are not climate policy makers.”  List support for or against this statement.  How would different schools of thought answer this question?
6.  What are the determinants of the term structure of interest rates?  What does the shape of the term structure tell us about future movements in the economy?  Can we do anything to change the term structure of interest rates?  If so, can we always avert a recession or stop and overheating economy from happening based on the shape of the term structure?
https://www.usnews.com/news/business/articles/2021… This link may helpful for question 5 
York University Views Over Monetary Policy Over the Last Eighteen Months Questions

Galen College of Nursing History of the Social Movement Presentation

essay writing help Galen College of Nursing History of the Social Movement Presentation.

This assignment requires that you construct a PowerPoint (or similar) presentation that explores the ethics behind a social justice cause or movement. Select a social justice movement and discuss how at least two moral concepts listed below have been or could be used to create social change.Your presentation must address the following:Briefly explain the history of the social movement.What social problem are activists hoping to solve?What is their ethical motivation for joining together to elicit social change?Include at least TWO of the following moral concepts:EmpathyBeneficenceNonmaleficenceAutonomyFairnessJusticeMotiveConsequencesFree WillDeterminismPunishmentNatural RightsContractarian RightsEquityDutyWelfarismRetributivismSpeciesismHave at least 7 slides (including title and reference). Use the book as a reference and list it at the end of the presentation. You may include graphics or other visual aids to enhance your presentation.(USLO 4.1)RubricEthics and Society Project Grading RubricEthics and Society Project Grading RubricCriteriaRatingsPts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSocial Justice Movementsview longer descriptionthreshold: 30.0 pts30.0 ptsExcellent discussion of social justice movement’s history and social problem20.0 ptsIncomplete discussion of social justice movement’s history and social problem10.0 ptsUnclear discussion of social justice movement’s history and social problem5.0 ptsMissing discussion of social justice movement’s history or social problem0.0 ptsNo discussion of social justice movement’s history or social problem or did not submit assignment30.0 pts This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMoral Concepts and Social Changeview longer descriptionthreshold: 40.0 pts40.0 ptsTwo moral concepts effectively articulated30.0 ptsTwo moral concepts not effectively articulated20.0 ptsOnly one moral concept effectively articulated10.0 ptsOnly one moral concept not effectively articulated0.0 ptsNo moral concepts present or did not submit assignment40.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeApplication of Information Resources10.0 ptsAchievement Level 5Student’s writing is supported with at least one scholarly source. Examples of scholarly sources are journal articles, assigned readings, textbooks, lectures, course materials, or authoritative websites5.0 ptsAchievement Level 3Student’s writing is supported with a non-scholarly source0.0 ptsAchievement Level 1No application of resources or did not submit assignment10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength10.0 ptsAchievement Level 5At least 7 slides, including 1 title slide, and 1 reference slide7.0 ptsAchievement Level 4Between 4–6 slides, including 1 title slide, and 1 reference slide5.0 ptsAchievement Level 33 or fewer slides, including 1 title slide, and 1 reference slide0.0 ptsAchievement Level 1Did not submit assignment10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAPA10.0 ptsAchievement Level 5Formatted according to APA guidelines with no errors. Error free APA formatted in-text citations and post-text references.7.0 ptsAchievement Level 4Formatted according to APA guidelines with few/minor issues. Several APA formatting errors but includes both in-text citations and post-text references.5.0 ptsAchievement Level 3Formatted according to APA guidelines with multiple issues. Missing either in-text citations or post-text references.3.0 ptsAchievement Level 2Significant issues present in the formatting of the title page. Missing both in-text citations and post-text references.0.0 ptsAchievement Level 1Did not submit assignment10.0 ptsTotal Points: 100.0
Galen College of Nursing History of the Social Movement Presentation

Strategic family therapy

Strategic family therapy.

You have learned that Mr. Potts does not drink alcohol in the mornings. He does not binge drink, and he does not drink on Tuesdays. He does, however, drink the other 6 days of the week. Mrs. Potts explains his pattern of drinking Monday through Friday with his partners as stated in the scenario, but he does not drink at home on those days. She also informs you that he does drink on Saturdays at home, often starting in the afternoon and passing out by dinnertime. He has a history of being loud, frightening, and angry when under the influence of alcohol. You also learn that Mr. Potts’s father was a winemaker from Italy. Your supervisor, Officer Rexford, suggests that you apply your knowledge of issues surrounding alcoholism and alcohol addiction to this case and write a memo to him. The memo should include the proper headings: “To,” “From,” “Date,” and “Re:.” The docket number and probation case file number should be included in the “Re:” section. You are beginning to determine whether Mr. Potts has an issue with alcohol that needs to be further addressed.In the memo, do the following:Submit the assignment in the format of a memo.Include the proper headings: “To,” “From,” “Date,” and “Re:.” The docket number and probation case file number need to be included in the “Re:” section.Apply the facts of Mr. Potts’s case to the definitions of alcoholism and alcohol addiction.Apply these facts to the differences between alcohol use and abuse.Apply these facts to the DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse.Apply these facts to the disease model of alcohol abuse.Apply these facts to the role genetics and heredity may play in the transmission of alcoholism from one generation to another.Please submit your assignment.
Strategic family therapy

How does information systems have on creating an organization competitive strategy?

How does information systems have on creating an organization competitive strategy?.

Apa format writing based on APA MANUEL 6TH EDITION APA PROPER CITATION IN PAPER APA SCHOLAR VALID REFERENCES 2 0R MORE Reference in ABC’s order New Discussion for this week is below: write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. Conduct research online regarding the role that strategic information systems (SIS) have in creating an organization’s competitive strategy. Discuss specifically how the SIS integrates the organizational strategic vision and accomplishes a competitive advantage for the organization. Provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Thanks
How does information systems have on creating an organization competitive strategy?

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