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Auburn Foundation Skills and Knowledge Offered to Prisoners Are Helpful Discussion

Auburn Foundation Skills and Knowledge Offered to Prisoners Are Helpful Discussion.

This purpose of this discussion board is to demonstrate your learning of this module’s objectives and to demonstrate your knowledge of the history of the corrections system.This assignment aligns with Module 5, objectives 3, 5, 7, and 8.Module 5 (Chapters 13-16) Chapter 13: Institutional ManagementChapter 14: Institutional ProgramsChapter 15: Release from IncarcerationChapter 16: Making It: Supervision in the CommunityRespond to the following prompts it in at least 200 words. At the end of your response, provide at least one question or comment for further thought on the topic, for your peers to answer, to continue the conversation.DISCUSSION BOARD Part 1:(a) Read the Arizona Department of Corrections Classification Manual. (b) Respond to the prompt below in at least 200 words, and reply to two of your peers in at least 100 words, per response. Using your textbook, describe the importance of the classification process and how “objective classification” works. Describe one thing that resonated with you from the Arizona Department of Corrections Classification Manual and why.(c) Cite your source(s) using APA format. DISCUSSION BOARD Part 2:(a) Read the Federal Bureau of Prisons National Directory of Programs. (b) Respond to the prompt below in at least 200 words, and reply to two of your peers in at least 100 words, per response. Using your textbook, describe the major kinds of institutional programs that are offered in correctional institutions. Describe two programs from offered at the Federal Bureau of Prisons. (c) Cite your source(s) using APA format.Respond to at least TWO people in at least 100 words per response.
Auburn Foundation Skills and Knowledge Offered to Prisoners Are Helpful Discussion

Transportation Issue Portland. Paper details   Research into PDX scholar and PSU library( only 1 article and citation please) Presentations We Want To See City Issues Presentations Spring 21 You should think of the eZine as the culminating assignment of the year. As such it should ideally include all the skills and issues we have discussed this year. For example, statistical pictures help readers understand numbers and help quantify issues. Consider the following questions 1. What is the history of the issue you are exploring? In some cases the history goes back to Portland’s early years. 2. How does Portland’s response to the issue compare to other cities? Be careful here to think about comparators, for example, Portland is not really in the same league as LA or NYC due to it’s smaller size among other things. A better comparison would be a city with a similar size population. 3. Does Portland have a plan, like the Climate Action Plan that is directly related to your issue? (This will be true for some groups but not for all) 4. What do experts on your topic say/suggest?Transportation Issue Portland
HSA4170- Healthcare Financial Management. I’m working on a Health & Medical question and need guidance to help me study.

Assignment: You will create a formal PowerPoint (PPT) about your fictional Healthcare Business. You are preparing a presentation for your executive leadership team. The business plan must be related to the healthcare field (e.g., a doctor’s office, a home healthcare practice, a new hospital, etc.). This presentation requires correct grammar, punctuation, and APA format, including in-text citation and reference list. You are required to have a minimum of three (3) references and your references must come from any combination of refereed peer reviewed journal articles, textbooks, and or credible Internet sources. You will be answering the following organizational plan:
Organizational Plan (see Exhibit 25-3):

Describe your business. Name it. Describe your idea; purpose, mission, vision, background information, and description of the product and or service. The business must be related to the healthcare field (e.g., a doctor’s office, a home healthcare practice, a new hospital, etc.)
Physical location where service and/or equipment that will be provided
The department responsible for the budget
The division responsible for operations
The directly responsible supervisor
Composition of the overall management team

***Attached I will provide the book where you can see Exibit 25-3 on page 311.
HSA4170- Healthcare Financial Management

Functions of the Immune System | Dengue Fever Immunity

Functions of the Immune System | Dengue Fever Immunity. The function of the immune system is to keep contagious microorganisms, such as definite bacteria, viruses and fungi, out of the body, and to demolish any infectious microorganisms that do attack the body. The immune system is completed by a complex and imperative network of cells and organs that guard the body from infection (1). The organs of the immune system are called the lymphoid organs, which have an effect on growth, development, and the free of lymphocytes (a confident type of white blood cell) (2). The lymphatic vessels and blood vessels are main parts of the lymphoid organs, because they transmit the lymphocytes to different areas in the body and from different areas in the body. All lymphoid organs play a task in the making and also activation of lymphocytes. Layered Defense Organisms are protected by the immune system from infections with layered defenses of rising specificity. If these barriers were breached a pathogen, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific reaction. All plants and animals have Innate immune systems (3). If pathogens effectively evade the innate response, vertebrates have a third layer of protection, the adaptive immune system. The innate response activates the adaptive immune system. Surface Barriers The body of the human continuously faces attack from foreign invaders that can cause disease and infection. These invaders sort from living microbes , such as fungi, bacteria, parasites, and viruses, to dead toxins, drugs, and chemicals. As our luck, the body has many internal and external defenses that avoid most dangerous attackers from entering and causing damages. The physical layers that stay them at inlet commonly are referred to as the body’s 1st line of defense. The largest body organ is skin; is presents both a physical and also a chemical barrier against the outer environment. The skin makes a defensive cover that completely encloses around the body, shielding blood vessels, muscles, nerves, bones and organs. When tears or cuts in the outer surface of the skin, present an opening for infective organisms, glands under the skin, produce an enzyme that helps to destroy bacteria (4). Although areas of the body not covered with skin, do not unprotected. Mucous membranes, the wet layer of the respiratory system. They produce mucus, a sultry substance that catches irritants that enter through the nose. Innate immune system The cells that mediate immunity embody neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells, giant lymphocytes that are not T cells but are cytotoxic. all these cells answer macromolecule and saccharide sequences distinctive to microorganism cell walls and to alternative substances characteristic of growth and transplant cells. They exert their effects by means of the complement and alternative systems, with the cells they attack oftentimes dying by osmotic lysis or cell death (5). Their cytokines also activate cells of the nonheritable immune system. a vital link in immunity in Drosophila melanogaster is a receptor supermolecule named toll, that binds plant life antigens and triggers activation of genes cryptography for antifungal proteins (6). Humeral and Chemical Barriers Some microbes penetrate the body’s protecting barriers and enter the interior tissues. There they encounter a variety of chemical substances which will stop their growth. These substances embody chemicals whose protecting effects are related to their primary perform within the body, chemicals whose principal perform is to harm or destroy invaders, and chemicals made by present bacterium (7). Inflammation Inflammation is one in every of the primary responses of the immune system to infection. The symptoms of inflammation are redness, swelling, heat, and pain, that are caused by augmented blood flow into tissue. Inflammation is made by eicosanoids and cytokines, that are released by livid or infected cells (6). Eicosanoids embody prostaglandins that manufacture fever and the dilation of blood vessels associated with inflammation, and leukotrienes that attract bound white blood cells (leukocytes). Common cytokines embody interleukins that are chargeable for communication between white blood cells; chemokines that promote chemo taxis; and interferon’s that have anti-viral effects, like motion down supermolecule synthesis within the host cell. Growth factors and cytotoxic factors may additionally be released (7). These cytokines and alternative chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any broken tissue following the removal of pathogens. Complement System The complement system is a organic chemistry cascade that attacks the surfaces of foreign cells. It contains over twenty completely different proteins and is called for its ability to “complement” the killing of pathogens by antibodies. Complement is that the major humeral element of the innate response. several species have complement systems, as well as non-mammals like plants, fish, and some invertebrates (8),(9). Cellular Barriers Leukocytes (white blood cells) act like independent, acellular organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system. The innate leukocytes embody the phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils, and nerve fibre cells), mast cells, eosinophils, basophiles, and natural killer T cells. These cells identify and eliminate pathogens, either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing so killing micro organisms (10). Adaptive immune system Lymphocytes are available in 2 major types: B cells and T cells. The peripheral blood contains 20-50% of current humorocytes; the rest move within the lymph system. Roughly eightieth of them are T cells, V-day B cells and remainder are null or undifferentiated cells. Lymphocytes constitute 20-40% of the body’s WBCs (6). Their total mass is concerning an equivalent as that of the brain or liver. (Heavy stuff ) B cells are made within the stem cells of the bone marrow; they manufacture protein and superintend humeral immunity. T cells are non antibody-producing lymphocytes that are also made within the bone marrow but hypersensitised within the thymus and constitute the idea of cell-mediated immunity. the assembly of these cells is diagrammed below. parts of the immune system are changeable and may adapt to raised attack the invasive matter (11). There are 2 fundamental adaptive mechanisms: cell-mediated immunity and humeral immunity. Lymphocytes A white blood cell is a style of white corpuscle present within the blood. White blood cells help defend the body against diseases and fight infections. when the overall defense systems of the body have been penetrated by dangerous invasive microorganisms, lymphocytes help give a particular response to attack the invasive organisms (12). Killer T cells A large differentiated t cell that functions in cell-mediated immunity by attacking and essential amino acid target cells that have specific surface antigens (6). also known as cytotoxic t cell, killer cell. Helper T cells Any of varied T cells that, when stirred up by a particular matter, unharness lymphokines that promote the activation and function of B cells and killer T cells (13). B Lymphocytes and Antibodies A b cell identifies pathogens when antibodies on its surface bind to a particular foreign matter. This antigen/antibody advanced is preoccupied by the b cell and processed by chemical process into peptides. The b cell then displays these substance peptides on its surface MHC category II molecules (14). this combination of MHC and matter attracts a matching helper t cell, that releases lymphokines and activates the b cell. because the activated b cell then begins to divide, its offspring (plasma cells) secrete scores of copies of the protein that recognizes this matter (12). different adaptive immune system The alternative adaptive immune systems in vertebrates have several similarities, but dissent therein Lucien-rich-repeat (LRR)-based variable white blood cell (VLR) receptors are employed by bone vertebrates versus the Ig-based TCR and BCR employed by jawed vertebrates. bone vertebrates have 2 VLR sorts, VLRA and VLRB, the various repertoires of that are expressed by separate lymphocytes populations (15). Immunological Memory the capability of the body’s immune system to recollect AN encounter with AN matter owing to the activation of B cells or T cells having specificity for the matter and to react more swiftly to the matter by means that of these activated cells during a later encounter (6). Passive memory Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly prone to infection. many layers of passive protection are provided by the mother. throughout pregnancy, a selected style of protein, called IgG, is transported from mother to baby directly across the placenta, so human babies have high levels of antibodies even at birth, with an equivalent vary of matter specificities as their mother. Breast milk or colostrums also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the baby and defend against microorganism infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies (16). Active memory Long-term active memory is nonheritable following infection by activation of B and T cells. active immunity also can be generated by artificial means, through vaccination. The principle behind vaccination (also known as immunization) is to introduce AN matter from a microorganism in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that specific microorganism while not inflicting malady associated with that organism (17). Disorders of Human Immunity Some of the most devastating disorders which will affect the humanity are those that attack the very weaponry we’ve got against diseases, our immune system (7). These disorders can vary in severity from inflicting small rashes or a stuffy nose, to attacking important organs throughout the body, inflicting death. they can also come back from a variety of sources from the genetic passing down of traits, to infection from a malady. These immune system disorders comprise four categories: immunodeficiency, autoimmune, allergic and cancer. Immunodeficiency An immunodeficiency disorder is one in every of the many disorders that attack the immune system. In these disorders the immune system has problems that cause the system to not work correctly. again and again this can be owing to a genetic trait or congenital disorder (6). the most common immunodeficiency disorders are severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), also known as “bubble boy” disorder, Di St. George syndrome, and ig A deficiency (18). Motor vehicle Immunity Autoimmune disorders attack the immune system by tricking the body into thinking its own organs are foreign invaders. when this happens, the phagocytes and lymphocytes activate healthy tissues and organs and destroy them. Common autoimmune diseases are lupus, scleroderma, juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile rheumatism. The severity of AN disease can vary dramatically (19). Some could only cause localized swelling and inflammation by attacking the tissue within the joints, while others could cause death by attacking important organs. Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity refers to excessive, undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions made by the traditional immune system. Hypersensitivity reactions need a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host. Hypersensitivity reactions is divided into four sorts: type I, type II, sort III and kind IV, based on the mechanisms involved and time taken for the reaction (20). Physiological Regulation Hormones can act as immunomodulators, sterilisation the sensitivity of the immune system. as an example, female sex hormones are famous immunostimulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases like autoimmune disease strike women preferentially, and their onset typically coincides with pubescence. in contrast, male sex hormones like testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive. alternative hormones appear to control the immune system yet, most notably luteotropin, endocrine and alimentation (21),(22). Manipulation in medication The response is manipulated to suppress unwanted responses ensuing from autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection, and to stimulate protecting responses against pathogens that mostly elude the immune system (see immunization). immunosuppressive drugs are used to control autoimmune disorders or inflammation when excessive tissue harm occurs, ANd to stop transplant rejection once an transplantation. anti-inflammatory drug drugs are typically used to control the effects of inflammation. Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; but, these drugs can have several undesirable facet effects, like central obesity, symptom, osteoporosis, and their use should be tightly controlled (23). Lower doses of anti-inflammatory drug drugs are typically used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such asmethotrexate or Imuran. Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the response by killing dividing cells like activated T cells. However, the killing is indiscriminate and alternative perpetually dividing cells and their organs are affected, that causes harmful facet effects. immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporine stop T cells from responding to signals correctly by inhibiting signal transduction pathways (24). What is dengue fever? Dengue fever is a malady caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. it’s AN acute malady of sudden onset that typically follows a benign course with symptoms like headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen glands , and rash. Signs and Symptoms Many folks, especially kids and teenagers, could expertise no signs or symptoms throughout a mild case of dengue fever. when symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to ten days once the person is bitten by AN infected dipteron (25). Signs and symptoms of dengue fever most typically include: Fever, up to 106 F (41 C) Headaches Muscle, bone and joint pain Pain behind your eyes You might also experience: Widespread rash Nausea and puking Minor trauma from your gums or nose Most people recover within per week or so. In some cases, however, symptoms worsen and may become grievous. Blood vessels typically become broken and leaky, and the number of clot-forming cells in your bloodstream falls (25). this will cause: Bleeding from the nose and mouth Severe abdominal pain Persistent puking Bleeding under the skin, which can appear as if bruising? Problems along with your lungs, liver and heart Clinical Course The characteristic symptoms of breakbone fever are sudden-onset fever, headache (typically situated behind the eyes), muscle and joint pains, and a rash (25). The alternative name for breakbone fever, “break-bone fever”, comes from the associated muscle and joint pains. The course of infection is split into 3 phases: febrile , critical, and recovery. The febrile part involves high fever, typically over forty °C (104 °F), and is associated with generalized pain and a headache; this sometimes lasts 2 to seven days. At this stage, a rash occurs in 50-80% of those with symptoms. It occurs within the initial or second day of symptoms as flushed skin, or later within the course of malady (days 4-7), as a measles-like rash. Some petechiae (small red spots that do not disappear when the skin is pressed, that are caused by broken capillaries) can appear at this point, as could some gentle trauma from the secretion membranes of the mouth and nose. The fever itself is classically biphasic in nature, breaking so returning for one or 2 days, though there is wide variation in however typically this pattern truly happens (26). Causes Transmission Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aides mosquitoes, particularly A. aegypti. These mosquitoes sometimes live between the latitudes of 35° North ANd 35° South below an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). They bite primarily throughout the day. alternative genus Aedes species that transmit the malady embody A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis and A. scutellaris. Humans are the primary host of the virus, but it also circulates in anthropoid primates. AN infection is nonheritable via a single bite (27). infectious agent Replication Once inside the skin, breakbone fever virus binds to Langerhans cells . The virus enters the cells through binding between infectious agent proteins and membrane proteins on the Langerhans cell, specifically the C-type lectins known as DC-SIGN, mannose receptor and CLEC5A. DC-SIGN, a non-specific receptor for foreign material on nerve fibre cells, seems to be the main purpose of entry. The nerve fibre cell moves to the nearest node (28). Meanwhile, the virus ordination is replicated in membrane-bound vesicles on the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum, wherever the cell’s supermolecule synthesis equipment produces new infectious agent proteins, and the infectious agent RNA is traced (26). Severe malady It is not entirely clear why secondary infection with a unique strain of breakbone fever virus places folks at risk of breakbone fever hemorrhagic fever and breakbone fever shock syndrome. the most wide accepted hypothesis is that of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). the exact mechanism behind ade is unclear. it may be caused by poor binding of non-neutralizing antibodies and delivery into the incorrect compartment of white blood cells that have eaten the virus for destruction. there is a suspicion that ade is not the only mechanism underlying severe dengue-related complications, and various lines of analysis have implied a role for T cells and soluble factors like cytokines and the complement system (25). Diagnosis Diagnosing dengue fever is tough, as a result of its signs and symptoms is easily confused with those of alternative diseases like malaria, swamp fever and enteric fever. Your doctor can seemingly raise concerning your medical and travel history. make sure to explain international visits thoroughly, as well as the countries you visited and the dates, yet as any contact you will have had with mosquitoes. bound laboratory tests can observe proof of the breakbone fever viruses, but test results sometimes come too late to assist direct treatment selections . (25),(27) Classification The World Health Organization’s 2009 classification divides dengue fever into 2 groups: uncomplicated and severe. The 1997 classification divided breakbone fever into undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, and breakbone fever hemorrhagic fever. breakbone fever hemorrhagic fever was divided additional into grades I-IV. Grade I is that the presence only of easy bruising or a positive bandage test in someone with fever, grade II is that the presence of spontaneous trauma into the skin et al, grade III is that the clinical proof of shock, and grade IV is shock so severe that pressure and pulse cannot be detected. Grades III and IV are noted as “dengue shock syndrome (27). Prevention All control efforts ought to be directed against the mosquitoes. it’s important to take control measures to eliminate the mosquitoes and their breeding places. Efforts ought to be intense before the transmission season and through epidemics (25),(27). (1) stop dipteron bites: (a) breakbone fever Mosquitoes Bite throughout the Daytime – defend Yourself from the Bite (b) Wear full-sleeve clothes and long dresses to cover the limbs. (c) Use repellents – care ought to be taken in victimisation repellents on young kids and elders. (d) Use dipteron coils and electrical vapor mats throughout the daytime to stop breakbone fever. (e) Use dipteron nets to safeguard babies, old folks et al who could rest throughout the day. The effectiveness of such nets is improved by treating them with permethrin. Curtains also can be treated with insecticide and decorated at windows or doorways, to repel or kill mosquitoes. (f) Break the cycle of mosquito-human-mosquito infection. Mosquitoes become infected once they bite people that are sick with breakbone fever. dipteron nets and dipteron coils can effectively stop more mosquitoes from biting sick folks and help stop the spread of breakbone fever. (2) stop the multiplication of mosquitoes: Mosquitoes that spread breakbone fever live and breed in stagnant water in and around houses. (a) Drain out the water from desert/window air coolers (when not in use), tanks, barrels, drums, buckets, etc. (b) remove all objects containing water (e.g. plant saucers, etc.) from the house. (c) All stored water containers ought to be unbroken lined in any respect times. (d) Collect and destroy discarded containers within which water collects, Treatment There aren’t any specific treatments for dengue fever. Treatment depends on the symptoms, variable from oral rehydration therapy reception with shut follow-up, to hospital admission with administration of intravenous fluids and/or insertion. a decision for hospital admission is often based on the presence of the “warning signs” listed within the table on top of, especially in those with preexisting health conditions (27),(29). Conclusion Three immune parts interact to provide a confluence of symptoms that outline DHF/DSS. breakbone fever virus initially infects immature nerve fibre cells through the mediation of DC-SIGN. Infected nerve fibre cells contribute to pathological process through production of metalloproteases and cytokines (30). Downstream of nerve fibre cells T-cells become activated and generate the very cytokines concerned in tube-shaped structure leak and shock in addition to activating soul cells. protein enhancement is mediated by Fc receptors that are conspicuously on mature nerve fibre cells. infectious agent replication mediated by antibodies is increased 100-fold. in addition their effects on breakbone fever replication, antibodies to infectious agent epitopes cross react with cell a supermolecule that has the result of stimulating CD8 soul cells and production of cytokines and anaphylatoxins. Anaphylatoxins is generated directly through infectious agent proteins or through formation of AN antibody-complement advanced. Anaphylatoxins in turn can alter the reactivity of T-cells. Functions of the Immune System | Dengue Fever Immunity

University of the People Reading and Writing About Literature Book Report

online assignment help University of the People Reading and Writing About Literature Book Report.

Textbook: Reading and Writing About LiteratureRead and annotate Chapter 7 “Writing about Plays” (115-134). Become familiar with the elements of drama, and keep the “Director’s Question for play analysis” (118) in mind while reading Trifles and Othello. After reading and analyzing Trifles, study the student essay analysis (131-134). I. Integrate and cite 3 quotesII. Summarize the gist of the play (in your own words)III. RESPONSE SECTIONWriting prompt:1. If you were to write an essay analyzing Trifles, what specific topic would you choose and what specific scene supports your claim? Respond in one brief paragraph. Use complete thought (metacommentary) and sentence structure.2. Like Sarah Johnson, you are welcome to choose a topic and focus of your discussion. Sarah chose moral ambiguity, so don’t choose that topic (132).NOTE: Do NOT use the same scene and theme as a fellow peer. First come first serve. It will be a good idea to complete this assignment as soon as possible. Example of a response: If I were to compose an essay analyzing Susan Glaspell’s Trifles, I would focus on sisterhood and use the scene when County Attorney said… (122). **Then add 3-4 more sentences showing me what you mean and why it matters.III. Pose a critical questions and respond to a peer who has NOT been responded to yet, and answer their critical question.Reminders…Always introduce the author and the title of his/her work.Avoid using 2nd person at all times.Use MLA citationIntegrate quotes (as needed)That’s it :)Thank you :)For book access go to And log in
University of the People Reading and Writing About Literature Book Report

Object-Oriented, Event-Driven and Procedural Programming Report

Object-Oriented, Event-Driven and Procedural Programming Report. Introduction Software development entails the use of programming paradigms to develop codes to meet a given programming problem. Over the years, several paradigms have arisen with the main being machine code, procedural programming, object-oriented programming, and event-driven programming. Machine codes are the most basic programming paradigms and involve the representation of instructions in term of numbers. For a general programmer, utilizing machine codes is cumbersome and almost impossible when developing large software. Procedural programming involves following a predetermined path that describes the task that a program should accomplish and the procedures to complete this task. This paradigm operates by instructing the computer what to do as well as how to go about accomplishing the specific task (Nørmark, 2011). The need of large and complex software led to the development of object-oriented programming as well as event-driven programming. Object-oriented programming is a paradigm that utilizes data structures referred as objects that interact with each other to accomplish a given task. EDP on the other hand is a paradigm in which the program flow is partially dependent on user interaction. Features and Examples of OOP and EDP All programming languages used in OOP share several features. The first feature is that they utilize objects and classes in code development. An object is a unit of information that contains procedures referred to as methods, as well as data fields referred as attributes (Schach, 2006). Classes define the methods and properties of an object. The data fields (attributes) hold the properties of an object, while the methods of an object are the procedures that force the object to carry out a specific function. The second feature common in OOP languages is encapsulation. Encapsulation involves packing together the data that describes the object together with the instructions that outline data manipulation (methods) (Farell, 2011). The third feature inherent in OOP is inheritance. Inheritance denotes the grouping together of classes in a hierarchical manner according to their similarity in functions. Inheritance means that an existing object offers a foundation for other objects that share the same characteristics and behavior. The final feature in OOP is polymorphism. Polymorphism is where by different results are produced in program execution depending on the type of object that is sent to the function (Purdum, 2013). It denotes the setting up of a line of interaction for different types of entities (objects). Examples of OOP include Java, C , Actor, Eiffel, Smalltalk and Python. While these program approach programming differently, they all share all the features described. Event-Driven Programming is a paradigm that depends on either external or internal events in order to determine the program flow. External events include the click of a mouse or the hitting of a keyboard key (Nørmark, 2011). EDP shares some features with OOP that include the use of variables, procedures, classes and objects. Apart from these features, EDP has two other distinctive features, a main loop and an event handler. One feature common in EDP is the presence of a main loop within the code. The main loop constantly runs during program execution and identifies the appropriate events after which a function activates depending on the event. The second and final feature is an event handler. An event handler is a subroutine that listens to specific events and activates a function as specified by classes and objects within the program (Schach, 2006). Examples of EDP include JavaScript, PHP, ActionScript, and Visual Basic. Advantages of OOP and EDP over pure PP Object-Oriented programming has several advantages over pure Procedural Programming. The first advantage is that OOP and EDP allows for faster software development. Objects and classes used in OOP allows for reusability of code as needed unlike Procedural Programming that requires rewriting for each instance of use. The second advantage is that OOP allows for easier debugging. Unlike PP that requires a fully completed code for execution, OOP allows execution of independent classes. This allows for easier identification and debugging of errors (Nørmark, 2011). OOP also results in improved productivity of software development. EDP allows for the acquisition of single instances of events such as mouse clicks or key presses to execute a program (Nørmark, 2011). The user is isolated from the internal processes required to accomplish a task and is only responsible for initiating the events needed by the program. Procedural Programming on the other hand only utilizes in-built instruction and cannot accept external instructions once executed. The user needs to specify each instruction required to execute the program. Comparison between OOP and Visual Logic Visual logic is an example of structured programming, an earlier version of procedural programming. It uses flowcharts to write program codes. Due to its nature, it lacks several features common in OOP. First, OOP relies on objects that contain both its attributes as well as its methods in one cohesive package. The object can then carry out a given task once a requested by the user. Visual logic however is a structured system that follow a predetermine path as detailed by the flow chart (Schach, 2006). OOP also allows for data hiding, in that access to some data only accessible to a given part of the program and is restricted to all the other parts Visual Logic on the other hand follows a straight part and does not allow for diversions in the code. Finally, OOP allow the use of an object in different parts of the program or the modification of the object for a completely different program. Visual logic requires writing a code for each essential aspect repeatedly as needed. Example of a Class and an Object in an OOP code The simple example below, written in Java, highlights the use of classes and objects in an OOP code and their relationship to each other. 1 public class MyGarden 2 { 3 private String plantName; 4 //method to set the plant name 5 public void setPlantName (String name) 6 { 7 plantName = Roses; //store the type of plant 8 } //end method setPlantName 9 10 //method to retrieve the plant name 11 public String getPlantName() 12 { 13 Return plantName; 14 } 15 //Display message to the Gardener 16 Public void displayMessage() 17 { 18 //this statement calls getPlantName to get the name of the plant that MyGarden holds 19 System.out.printf(“Welcome to my garden forn%s! n”, 20 getPlantName() ); 21 } //end method DisplayMessage 22 23 }//end class MyGarden In this example, the class MyGarden provides for several methods that lay out the task required (print out a sentence) and the mechanism to do so. The class MyGarden has an attribute in the form of the instance variable plantName. The methods in this code are setPlantName and getPlantName. The first method establishes the name of the plant (sets the attribute) while the last method retrieves the attribute in order to print it out to screen. This code can be a part of a program utilized in a flower shop the sells various plants growing in the seller’s garden. The attribute and methods applies for other uses such as in a class describing the cost for the plants or to define another attribute such as another plant e.g. lilies. Conclusion Due to the divergence of computer use and the need for larger and complicated programs, programming paradigms have been continuously evolving. In modern times, Object-Oriented programming and Event-Driven Programming are the most used programming paradigm. These paradigms allows the user to be isolated from the internal workings of the program and can accepting multiple and complex instructions as needed. These programs also allow for reusability of codes and as such, different programs may use the same codes similar functions. These advantages led to the decline of procedural programming in favor of OOP and EDP. References Farell, J. (2011). An Object-Oriented Approach to Programming Logic and Design (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Nørmark, K. (2011). Overview of the four main programming paradigms. Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University Press. Purdum, J. (2013). Beginning Object-Oriented Programming with C#. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. Schach, S. (2006). Object-Oriented and Classical Software Engineering (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Object-Oriented, Event-Driven and Procedural Programming Report

Financial Performance of Hydrogenics Corporation

Hydrogenics Corporation Part I: Introduction Brief Description of Hydrogenics Corporation: Hydrogenics is a developer and manufacturer of hydrogen generation and fuel cell products based on water electrolysis and proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Hydrogenics is divided into two segments: Onsite Generation and Power Systems. Onsite Generation is headquartered in Oevel, Belgium. The Onsite Generation business segment is based on water electrolysis technology, which involves the decomposition of water into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) by passing an electric current through a liquid electrolyte. The resultant hydrogen gas is then captured and used for industrial gas applications, hydrogen fueling applications, and is used to store renewable and surplus energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Hydrogenics HySTAT electrolyzer products can be used both indoors and outdoors. The Power Systems business segment is based on PEM fuel cell technology, which transforms chemical energy resulting from the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen into electrical energy. (Edgar) Its HyPM products can handle electrical power outputs ranging from 1 kilowatt to 1 megawatt. The company also develops and delivers hydrogen generation products based on PEM water electrolysis. Objective of the paper: The objective of this paper is to analyze the financial performance of Hydrogenics using various financial statements and ratios from years 2012 and 2013. By reviewing these documents, as well as the past and present environment, we can better understand the efficiency and predict the company’s profitability. Summary of Findings: The analysis performed show that Hydrogenics Corporation has been tapping a new market, which replaces fossil fuels with Hydrogen Cells. This is a market that helps in sustainability and at the same time increases the knowledge of the customers about the effects of fossil fuels. The process is expensive but after a careful analysis we can say that the company is slowly and steadily repaying their loans and borrowings. This is a good sign of a sustainable future. The trend analysis shows us that the financial statements are more or less improving or staying constant. Part II: Firm, Industry and Environment Brief Description of The Company and Its Management: Hydrogenics is the worldwide leader in designing, manufacturing, building and installing industrial and commercial Hydrogen generation, Hydrogen fuel cells and MW-scale energy storage solutions. While our leadership comes from our technology, our success is the result of one essential ingredient – the human one. It’s our people, our engineers, our experts who are accelerating a global “power shift” to a cleaner energy future. Daryl Wilson was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer in December 2006, bringing a varied 25-year background in technology and industrial management to the company, including operations, manufacturing, human resources, research, product development, organizational change and turn-around experience. Prior to joining Hydrogenics, he held senior leadership positions at Royal Group Technologies, Zenon Environmental, Toyota and Dofasco. Competitive Environment: We can Analyze Hydrogenics Corporation to Porter’s Five Point Analysis. The five points of the analysis are Threat of New Entrants, Bargaining Power of Suppliers, Threat from Substitute Products, and Rivalry amongst existing players. New entrants in Industrial Electrical Equipment brings innovation, new ways of doing things and put pressure on Hydrogenics Corporation through lower pricing strategy, reducing costs, and providing new value propositions to the customers. Hydrogenics Corporation has to manage all these challenges and build effective barriers to safeguard its competitive edge. They can tackle this problem by innovating new products and services. New products not only brings new customers to the fold but also give old customer a reason to buy Hydrogenics Corporation ‘s products and also by building economies of scale so that it can lower the fixed cost per unit. All most all the companies in the Industrial Electrical Equipment industry buy their raw material from numerous suppliers. Suppliers in dominant position can decrease the margins Hydrogenics Corporation can earn in the market. They can tackle the bargaining power of suppliers by building efficient supply chain with multiple suppliers and also by experimenting with product designs using different materials so that if the prices go up of one raw material then company can shift to another. Buyers are often a demanding lot. They want to buy the best offerings available by paying the minimum price as possible. This put pressure on Hydrogenics Corporation profitability in the long run. This problem can be solved by by rapidly innovating new products. Customers often seek discounts and offerings on established products so if Hydrogenics Corporation keep on coming up with new products then it can limit the bargaining power of buyers. New products will also reduce the defection of existing customers of Hydrogenics Corporation to its competitors. When a new product or service meets a similar customer needs in different ways, industry profitability suffers. This can be tackled by increasing the switching cost for the customers. If the rivalry among the existing players in an industry is intense then it will drive down prices and decrease the overall profitability of the industry. Rivalry can be avoided by building a sustainable differentiation. Economic Climate and Outlook: Hydrogenics has the potential to grow in the field of sustainability in the future. They are developing a broader range of products at various power levels, aiming for more attractive solutions and better economies of scale for our customers. As a global corporation, Hydrogenics are subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in global economic conditions. Economic conditions in leading and emerging economies have been, and remain unpredictable. Hydrogenics has recently opened a new branch in California to spread its operations. Other Factors: Hydrogenics announced that it will supply six heavy-duty fuel cell power modules to GTI and Trans Power for a set of Class 8 Navistar drayage trucks scheduled to be deployed in Southern California early next year. The trucks are part of the California Air Resources Board’s “California Climate Investments” program, meant to enable the acceleration of low-carbon technology in commercial trucking applications. The major setbacks would be the government regulations in California and the restrictions on the use of the hydrogen fuel cell power and the heavy investments involved. Part III: Balance Sheet Analysis From the balance sheet of Hydrogenics Corporation, the direction observed from 2012 to 2013 for each of the balance sheet item shows that the total assets of the company have decreased mainly because of the decrease in cash and short-term investments and the account receivables which both are the current assets of the company. From the common size balance sheet, it can be seen that the cash equivalents have reduced from 31.1% to just 29.5% and the overall current assets have reduced by 3%. The liability of the company has also decreased and the reasons behind the reduction are in the current liabilities of the company, which includes the warranty provisions, deferred revenue, and the warrants of the firm. The account payable for the company was 27.6% of the total assets in 2012 which increased in 2013 to 32.9% but the overall current liabilities reduced by 6% of the total assets. The liquidity of the company as also explained in the notes provided can be predicted from the path observed in the balance sheet figures especially the current assets and the current liabilities of the company. Considering that both have reduced, the current liabilities have reduced at a higher percentage, which has resulted in better liquidity for the company as the formula divides the current assets by the current liabilities. The current ratio has increased but the quick ratio has decreased. This is because the quickest forms of current asset i.e. the cash and its equivalent has decreased relatively. Overall, the cash flow liquidity is either improving or staying consistent. The equity section of the balance sheet shows a major part of the retained earnings going away from the company and is rather a deficit for the firm for the two years under consideration and this may be because the funds are used for the investment purposes. This gap has decreased from 803.4% to 861.9%. For the year 2013 the receivable allowance has increased from 124 to 139, which is not in harmony with the account receivable of the company. Though the account receivable for the company has decreased which is a good sign that majority of the receivables have been dissolved, the slight increase in the allowance shows that the customers might have defaulted on their payments or there might be some serious concerns which would have made it regard as allowance for doubtful debt. This can be supported by the fact that the sales for the year increased by 33.81% as compared to the previous year and the higher sales signifies more customers. The contingencies and the guarantees of the company are shown in the notes section of the financial statements. The note 20 shows the commitments of the firm and it signifies the importance of rent and operating leases. Lease is a topic that is of interest to the investor because it adds to liability and expenses of the company. Operating lease is where the lessor allows the lessee to use the asset for something specific. Rent is a form of operating lease and a commitment, which involves rules and regulations and hence shall be disclosed in the notes to add transparency for the users of financial statements. The commitment section classifies the operating leases in terms of the premises, office equipment and the vehicles. The contingencies on the other hand refers to the future event that cannot be predicted with certainty but is likely to have an impact on the financial statement and shall be disclosed in the notes so that the investors can use the information in making informed decisions. The company identifies the indemnities with the directors which will require some charges to be paid and might have an impact on the financial statement and performance of the company. Note 23 talks about the guarantees of the company and it totalled to $7,614, which is a huge amount to be reported in the financial statements. The company has paid cash security worth $2,024. If there is a failure to comply by the company’s deadlines, chances of losing this security is high and would be reported in the notes to make the users of the financial statements make informed decisions. Part IV: Income Statement Analysis Hydrogenics Corporation has two departments or segments, Power Systems and Onsite Generation. It is seen in the Discussion and Analysis section that both the locations are expecting to gain substantial profits from multiple markets. Onsite Generation shows us that the expected increase in their sales will come from the increasing demand for hydrogen that is used for fuel and for an alternative energy source. Power Systems has also created a different energy by using hydrogen instead of fossils. The majority of the sale is coming from the need for different backup energy for telephone systems and transportation. Also the military has a large market for Power Systems as well, considering that the military adapts quickly to new technology. Both the segments have explained that their markets for all of their products are projected at least a few billions each. In 2012, Hydrogenics reported $31,697 of revenue sales and in 2013 their revenues increased to $42,413. This is due to an increase in sale of the products from one of the segments. In 2012 Onsite Generation had accomplished $27,336 in revenue, while in 2013 they had reported revenues of $24,078. Power Systems had only shown revenue of $4,361 for the year. This was much lower than the revenue that Onsite had reported for the year. The difference was about $23,000. In the upcoming year, Power Systems had shown $18,335 as their revenue. Power Systems had a significant increase in revenue from 2012 to 2013. The change in revenue for Power Systems from 2012 to 2013 is around $14,000. This scenario of the increase in revenue for at least one segment of Hydrogenics Corporation is a positive factor for the profitability and success of the company. In contrast, the change in revenue for Onsite Generation was not positive. The decrease in revenue from 2012 to 2013 was not substantially different from the previous year to the next. Onsite Generation had shown revenues of $27,336 in 2012 and $24,078 for 2013, a difference of 3,000. Amongst both the segments, Onsite has shown to generate most of the revenues for 2012 and 2013. Power Systems had submitted a significant amount of the total revenues in 2013, while in 2012 Power Systems only reported a part of the total revenues of the year. Onsite Generation has said that the increase in the revenues for the year 2012 was mainly accounted by the increase in orders and the explanation for the decrease in revenue margins during the year 2013 is because there were not as many orders being placed and completed. Also Onsite said value of the euro is much lower than before. The euro had a 10% decrease from the year 2012. That is lesser than the US Dollar. Gross profit in 2013 was 16% of total revenues. Onsite also said that despite the cut in costs of the products they manufacture, they saw a fall in revenue during 2013. Power Systems said that the 330% increase in the revenues that they incurred was mainly because the revenue was being received in a different period for the contracts that had been completed previously. Power systems had a 46% of gross profit turnover from total revenues, which is due to the high number of customized projects that produced an even bigger gross margin. Power Systems looks like the part of Hydrogenics that needs to be focused on for production of specific, custom products. Hydrogenics also hopes to have an increase in demand for the products, which is mainly based on if the government will or will not increase spending the hydrogen energy as a source of alternative energy. Hydrogenics states that the economy conjuncts heavily on the positivity of its sales. Part V: Cash Flow Analysis This is analysis of Hydrogenics statement of cash flows. It is marginally unnatural that the differences and highs and lows in the net income and the cash equivalents are not in alignment. Also, the operating and financing sections show some normality of a type of company that may be steering attention away from their statement of cash flows. There is also a net loss shown in the operating activities for both the years, and a net gain in financing activities both years, which usually shows signs that the company has to take out loans to cover their deficit. This is marginally true for the company, although there are some redeeming factors that bring in the idea that Hydrogenics might be worth the investment in the future if it can keep its stability. In the operating section, there is also a net loss. The majority of the loss for both the years is shown from the income statement, which we discussed earlier. The next big item for both years is the increase of $15,138 in the year 2012 and then the decrease of $6,629 in 2013 in deferred liabilities. Since we are assuming that this is unearned revenue, this could have to do with contracts that they had in recent times come into. As the years go on, it is predicted that the deferred liabilities would go lower as and when they are fulfilled. The same thing has happened with accounts payable but on a relatively small scale. They borrowed a small amount of money in 2012, but paid a larger amount back in 2013, presumably for previous years. Spending on inventories was double in 2012 than what it was in 2013. This could be for two obvious reasons. First, they may have made their inventory and are ready to ship it. Another reason is that they did not keep up with demand as shown in the income statement. Hydrogenic Corporation’s receivables made promising progress. While they increased in 2012, there was a decrease in 2013. That being said, Hydrogenics is good at staying on top of the firms that they lend credit to. In other non-cash items, there was a profit in 2013 in liabilities for compensation indexed to share price, which could be correlated to their stock value increasing. Overall, the deferred liabilities are the biggest part of the operating section. The biggest advantage of deferred liabilities in 2012 offset its larger net loss in 2013 by turning into service revenue. In the investing section, there is not a lot going on. There are some capital expenditures. There was also a small amount spent on intangible assets. This seems to just be upkeep of their plant assets and maybe their patents. It is possibly the case that a lot of their spending on plant assets and intangible assets happened in the past, when they were just getting started. The financing section does show a net increase for both the years, which as I stated previously, is generally a sign of heavy borrowing. While there is some long-term borrowing, a lot of the gain is coming from the sale of common stock. This is usually a form of borrowing, as Hydrogenics is going to have to pay for dividends once they have a net income. Something to consider in this scenario, is that the sale of that much common stock could mean that other investors are also interested in Hydrogenics. Despite their downward key point, investors are still buying Hydrogenics Corporation’s stock, and the value of the stocks is even rising. The next biggest number is the increase in long-term debt for both years. This is where the company starts to get a little risky. They are paying for their long-term debt in small proportions as shown in the payments account, but eventually they are going to have to pay all the debt back that they have accumulated. Overall, the statement of cash flows for Hydrogenics reinforces the idea that they are setting foot in a growing industry and might leap in value soon. The most profitable thing that they perform as of now is keep margins low and start trying push their product to make some income. A lot of the losses are stemming from the fact that they are about to go commercial with their products. The loss for 2013 year may seem worrisome, however this is just the start of making the retraction for its customers. Part VI: Ratio Calculation Of Financial Statements A. Liquidity / Asset Ratios Liquidity ratios measure a company’s ability to meet short-term debt obligations. Hydrogenics Corporation’s current ratio has increased in 2013 as compared to 2012. The ratio was 1.30 in 2012 and up to 1.40 in 2013. This means that Hydrogenics had been meeting its short-term obligations. In 2013, quick ratio was 0.80, and 0.88 in 2012. Generally, the higher the quick ratio the greater the company’s liquidity and Hydrogenics Corporation’s quick ratio for the past three years has been significantly lower than 1.0. This means that they are having difficulties in funding current liabilities. The quick ratio was much smaller than the current ratio because a large portion of current assets was associated to inventory. Hydrogenics Corporation’s cash flow liquidity ratio has been going downward over the past two years, moving from 0.44 in 2012, down to 0.11 in 2013. It also makes short-term creditors to think of potential liquidity problems. Hydrogenics Corporation’s daily inventory held has decreased from 164 days in 2012, to 155 days in 2013. This indicates that inventories are spending less time in warehouse than it has in the past. The average collection period has increased. They were at 58 days in 2012, and 41 days in 2013. Decreasing average collection period could indicate that Hydrogenics has become more efficient in its collection efficiency over the years. Since average collection period decreased, their receivables turnover increased. Hydrogenics daily payables outstanding were 73 days in 2012, and 38 days in 2013. They extended days to delay their payment and conserve cash that could arise from better terms with vendors. Since Hydrogenics Corporation’s cash conversion or their ability to convert product into cash inflows improved for the past two years. It was 149 days in 2012 and 158 days in 2013. Improving cash conversion cycle has a positive impact on firm performance over time and liquidity over time. Hydrogenics Corporation’s fixed asset turnover ratio increased from 22.60 in 2012 to 25.10 in 2013. An increasing trend in fixed asset turnover ratio is not desirable because it means that the company has more money used in fixed asset. The declining trend means the company is over investing in their property, plant and equipment. It would appear that Hydrogenics has established an increase in investment to approach and manage fixed assets but it would be better if they reduce their property, plant and equipment. Like the fixed asset turnover, they showed an increase in change in total asset turnover, but marginally lesser. It was 0.76 times in 2012 and 1.10 in 2013. Increasing in total asset turnover ratio usually indicates stability with the asset categories composing total assets. Hydrogenics looks like they B. Leverage (debt) Ratios Leverage ratios are important to the financial analyst because it measures the extent of the firm’s financing, as it is associated to debt. Hydrogenics Corporation’s leverage ratios show the trend of Hydrogenics a positive debt ratio in 2013. Hydrogenics is showing the amount of debt and risk decreasing over the past two years. This means that the company is profitable. Hydrogenics Corporation’s had a debt ratio of 89.70% in 2013 and 84.60% in 2012. Hydrogenics showed small increases in long-term debt to total capitalization from 2012 to 2013. It reported 23.00% in 2012 and 26.80% in 2013. Long-term debt is used for the firm’s permanent financing, and as stockholders’ equity increased, their long-term debt will also increase. Debt to equity ratio measures the riskiness of the firm’s capital structure that is supplied by creditors and investors. Hydrogenics Corporation’s debt to equity decreased from 2012 to 2013, which shows that they had a lesser degree of risk. Compared to 2012, there was a 3.20 times decrease in 2013. The ratios have decreased somewhat for Hydrogenics from 2012 to 2013, which means they are stable on capital structure. When the ratios are decreasing, creditors and investors do not have to worry about Hydrogenics Corporation’s financial situation. Hydrogenics showed that times interest earned ratio has decreased over the years. Although it decreased, a lower times interest earned ratio is not beneficial. Hydrogenics reported 15.90 times in 2013, and 37.10 in 2012. The cash interest coverage ratio measures how many times interest payments can be covered by cash flow from operations before interest and taxes. It was higher in 2013 (1148.00 times) than it was in 2012 (366.70 times). In 2013, the company improved its ability to cover interest payments from operating profits and cash from operations than what it was in 2012. The fixed charge coverage has decreased from 9.17 times in 2012 to 4.67 times in 2013. Hydrogenics Corporation’s cash flow adequacy has increased over the past two years, reported 6.90 times in 2013 and 1.59 times in 2012. The company covered annual payments of debt, capital expenditures, and dividends well. To satisfy Hydrogenics Corporation’s leverage ratios, Hydrogenics should be concerned with covering the principal payments with cash generated in large amounts by the company. C. Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios show overall efficiency and performance of how Hydrogenics did over the past two years. Gross profit margin, operating profit margin, and net profit margin represent the company’s ability to convert sales dollars into profits at different stages of the analysis. Hydrogenics increased their gross profit margin and decreased their operating profit margin and net profit margin in 2013, which shows that Hydrogenics was able to control the growth of operating expenses. Hydrogenics also increased their cash flow margin. Cash flow margin is important because it shows the relationship between cash generated from operations and sales. Although, the company’s cash flow margin increased, the company had a lower margin than net profit margin. This is a negative result in generation of cash. Return on total assets and return on equity (ROE) are ratios that measure the overall efficiency of the firm in managing its total investment in assets and ingenerating return to shareholders. Hydrogenics reported 22.20% of ROA that is decreased compare to 2012. In 2013, ROE reported 144.60%, so they had poor return to shareholders as compared to the previous year. Cash return on assets increased in the year 2013, which represents the firm’s cash-generating ability of assets was much better than the past year. The company’s profitability ratios was different than that of the industry average. The company did make a lot of changes. They made changes of decreasing and increasing simultaneously over the past two years, so it will be easy to maintain a stability around the company’s efficiency ratios. Earnings per share are net income for the period divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Hydrogenics reported 1.04 in 2013 as compared to 1.74 in 2012. It is not good to decrease the earnings per share because investors always look for companies with steadily increasing earnings per share. Hydrogenics should maintain the result of market ratios since the company is working to sustain its market ratios. Part VII: Summary and Conclusion Sustainability industry is a good investment for the future and in the long run. There is heavy money involved and requires a lot of technology. Hydrogenics can be sustainable as long as they are paying their debts. After going through the above analysis, it is safe to safe that they are slowly and steadily paying their debts off and also have good dividend returns for their investors which assures us that the company’s finances are in a good standing. In conclusion I would like to say that the sustainability sectors requires a lot of investments and with the right technology, Hydrogenics will be a world leader and may also be a monopoly in the market. Part VIII: References Global Leader In Hydrogen Tech and Applicable Solutions. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.hydrogenics.com/about-the-company/who-we-are/ http://fernfortuniversity.com/term-papers/porter5/analysis/2358-hydrogenics-corporation.php “Hydrogenics.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 June 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogenics.

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