Each of the following is a major category of abilities EXCEPT: – B) Creativity 2. In Deci’s theory of intrinsic motivation, the enjoyment gained from task-challenge decreases when: – b) External rewards for success are provided 3. A mechanistic organization exhibits: – d) all of the above 4. Goals most likely to be obtained are: – D) All of the above 5. Many researchers have criticized Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory because there is no clear evidence that: -d) all of the above 6. “Feedback,” in goal-setting theory, refers to: b) information 7. Which of the following is not a managerial implication of VIE theory? -d) reward all employees exactly the same. 8. Goal setting theory of motivation is similar to expectancy theory in that: – D) all of the Above 9. End of term grades are an example of which of the following reinforcement schedules? -D) Fixed Interval 10. According to equity theory, which of the following is an individual likely to do when he or she experiences a condition of inequity? -d) Any of the above 11. Attribution theory is an area of study: a) regarding the cognitive processes that people use to interpret the reasons their behavior 12.
A direct link between rewards and performance is absolutely necessary in order to motivate workers according to: -b) VIE theory 13. Underpaid piece-rate workers are most likely to: -d) none of the above 14. “Feedback,” in operant conditioning theory, refers to: -a) reinforcement 15. The natural tendency of an organization to break apart or differentiate as it increases in size is called: -c) entropy 16. Which reinforcement schedule produces behavior that is most resistant to extinction? b) variable interval 17. A worker’s belief that higher quantity of output will lead to an eventual promotion is called: – C) P=0 18. A person with a strong tendency to attribute success and failure outcomes to good or bad luck or to the simplicity/ difficulty of the task is known as being: -C) external locus of control 19. What causal attribution would a person form if the behavior observed were high in consistency, low in distinctiveness, and low in consensus? -a) Stable internal cause 20. Which characterizes high need for achievement people? d) a tendency to seek feedback on one’s performance 21. According to Locke’s goal-setting theory of motivation: -a) specificity of goals is related to performance 22. When trying to eliminate alternative explanations, the danger encountered when comparing groups that were not the same to begin with is known as the: B) Selection threat 23. When trying to eliminate alternative explanations, the danger encountered when the real cause was not the change you made but something else that happened during the experiment is known as the: -d) history threat 24.
Which of the following is true regarding individuals with an internal locus of control? -b) They tend to be self-motivated 25. Cognitive structures that group discrete bits of perceptual information in an organized fashion are known as: -c) schema 26. When discussing the expectancy theory, which term refers to the amount of satisfaction an individual anticipates receiving from a particular outcome? -d) none of the above 27. When discussing the expectancy theory, which term refers to an individual’s subjective belief about the relationship between performing a behavior and receiving an outcome. A) Instrumentality 28. In order to reduce the tension caused by inequity, an individual might exaggerate in her mind the importance of her level of education. This reaction is known as: -a) Cognitive distortion of inputs 29. Balancing integration and ____________________ within structural hierarchies is an important challenge facing managers. d) differentiation 30. According to the text, the best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is: -c) A systematic approach 31. Which refers specifically to the achievement of goals? -b) effectiveness 32.
People with an internal locus of control tend to: d) all of the above 33. The “big five” personality traits do not include:: -d) self-monitoring 34. The learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior is called: -b) shaping 35. Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called: -a) extinction 36. A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment is called: c) Perception 37. Internally caused behaviors are: a) those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual 38. An example of an extrinsic reward is: -d) an executive restroom key 39. Behavior which is observed as being different from the behavior which is usually demonstrated refers to: -c) distinctiveness 40. The more consistent a behavior, the more the observer is inclined to: -b) attribute to internal causes 41. The hygiene factors make up the continuum that ranges from: -a) No dissatisfaction to satisfaction 42. Which one of the following would Herzberg classify as a hygiene factor? -c) Company Policy 43.
Which of the following is a criticism of the motivator-hygiene theory? -d) all of the above 44. Which theory substitutes three core needs for Maslow’s five needs? -a_ ERG theory 45. McClelland’s theory of needs include all except: -b) need for existence 46. If a salaried employee is overpaid, equity theory would predict that: -c) quality and or quantity will increase 47. Goals set in MBO programs should be: -d) All of the above 48. Performance-based compensation is probably most compatible with: -b) expectancy theory 49. Which of the following refers to motivation to learn in order to get a promotion? d) an executive restroom key 50. Which management theory emerged from the Hawthorne studies at Western Electric? -c) human relations management 51. According to equity theory, psychological tension results from: -d) any of the above 52. Work specialization is the same as: b) Division of labor 53. Which of the following is a drawback of a small span of control? -C) It discourages employee autonomy 54. The matrix structure combines which two forms of departmentalization? -b) Functional and product 55. What is a major difference between a mechanistic model and an organic model? b) One has high formalization 56. The director of leadership at MIT’s Sloan School of Management said that technical skills may be enough to get MBA students by in their first few years of employment, but then ________ skills distinguish those whose careers soar. -d) Leadership and communication skills 57. Which of the following is an example of the affective component of an attitude? -d) anger at being unfairly accused of wrongdoing. 58. A high score in which dimension of the Big Five model predicts good job performance for all occupational groups? -C ) conscientiousness 59.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the Type B personality? -d) A type D can relax without guilt 60. According to Holland’s personality-job fit theory, what are consequences of a good fit between personality and occupation? -c) High satisfaction and low turnover 61. According to Hofstede, cultures that score ________ tend to emphasize laws and regulations. -b) High on uncertainty avoidance 62. What is the theory that suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused? – d) attribution theory 63.
You are on a team with two individuals who are “difficult. ” The work has been divided among the three of you and each time your team meets, Janet and Jim disagree about the progress of the team project. Janet is convinced that Jim’s lack of progress is because he is inherently lazy and not because of some overwhelming problem with the project itself. The truth seems to be that Janet is not doing her part of the work. What error or bias does Janet seem to be making? -c) Fundamental attribute error 64. Which one of the following would be considered a motivator in the two-factor theory? -d) responsibility 65.
James is an employee whose job it is to proofread legal documents. He is paid by the number of documents that he proofs. He discovers that he is paid substantially more than his colleagues, even though their jobs and performances are very similar. What is likely to be his reaction to this discovery according to equity theory? -c) The quality of documents he proofreads will increase 66. Gloria thinks that she is paid less than other workers in her division and feels extremely resentful. She starts taking long breaks and generally wasting time. Her actions were a result of her perceiving what kind of injustice? d) Distributive 67. Which of the following statements about people with positive core self-evaluations is true? -d) They tend to be more committed to their goals 68. The ________ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. -a) Mechanistic model 69. An important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the ________. -a) Employees level of performance 70. A company oriented around cost minimization is best served by which type of structure? – c) Mechanistic
the problem of stray dogs in China
the problem of stray dogs in China.
in the proposal topic, I want to talk about the problem of stray dogs in China, because sometimes the stray dogs will do harm to the person and people will harm the stray dogs because of the bad imagination though they don’t do anything.
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