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assignment 2, page 1

assignment 2, page 1.

Chapter 8 introduces governance issues and potential areas in which
blockchain technology can help empower citizens. Create a new thread,
choose one area from the material in chapter 8 in which blockchain
technology can enhance citizen engagement, and describe the current
problem and how blockchain technology could resolve or improve the
current situation. Write your discussion in a way that is accessible by
all readers – regardless of their political beliefs. In other words,
focus on blockchain, not politics. Then think of three questions you’d
like to ask other students and add these to the end of your thread. The
questions should be taken from material you read in Chapter 7, 8, or 9.
You’re not trying to test each other, but you are trying to start a
discussion.1 page 2 referencesI have attached the book as well
assignment 2, page 1

NURS 350 West Coast University Preventing Falls in Hospitalized Patients Questions.

PICOT is an acronym used to help develop clinical research questions and guide you in your search for evidence:P = Patient populationI = Intervention or issue of interestC = Comparison of interventions or comparison of interestsO = OutcomeT = Time frameFor example, you may wish to research the effects of interrupted sleep on cognition of ICU patients 65 or older.Using this PICOT model,In _________(P), how does __________ (I) compared to _________ (C) influence _________ (O) over ________ (T)?In ICU patients who are 64 or older, how does interrupted sleep (awakened one time or more in four hours) as compared to uninterrupted sleep influence the patient’s cognitive ability over 5 days?Assignment DirectionsBegin by selecting a topic in nursing or medicine that is of interest to you. Next, use PICOT to format possible research questions about that topic. Provide 3 possible PICOT research questions.TOPIC: EFFECTS OF HAND WASHING ON INFECTION CONTROL!!!Include the following:Title pageProvide a brief description of the topic and background information.Explain the significance of the topic to nursing practice.Provide 3 clearly stated PICOT questions.Your paper should: Be 2–3 pages (not including the title page and reference page)Use current APA format to style your paper and to cite your sources.
NURS 350 West Coast University Preventing Falls in Hospitalized Patients Questions

Material Culture: Pottery Essay. Introduction Historical museums have collected various materials that define the process of progression of a society. Historians have defined such materials as material culture. Although there are valid definitions of material cultures by various historical scholars, Brown defines it as a “study through artifacts of the beliefs- values, ideas, attitudes, and assumptions- of a particular community of society at given time” (1). The artifacts themselves are also described by the term material culture. In the context of the discussions of this paper, the later definition of material culture is adopted. Material culture, as a scholarly discipline of study, provides evidence of the development of human experience through the creation of physical objects. Such materials are created through a wide number of processes. Different types of material cultures include jewelry, sculpture, pottery, and basketry among others (Mansfield 246). The paper argues that material culture is descriptive of the social relations of people accredited with the creation of a particular type of tangible material. The argument implies that, by discussing the material culture of a given society, it also becomes possible to scrutinize the cultural composition coupled with various social attitudes of people who created the material artifacts. Consequently, by studying a myriad of physical objects created by a given group of people, their cultural functioning becomes also possible to unveil. Although the paper appreciates that there are different materials cultures, which can be deployed to depict the development of societies, this paper focuses only on the pottery with a particular concern going to its origin and evolution without negating its role on people’s lives. Origin of Pottery Since time immemorial, pottery formed an essential part of the cultural histories of people. Rice supports this line of view by further asserting, “Pots, raw materials, and the tools of their manufacture contributed a rich imagery and metaphors for the ineffable experiences of humankind, including the biblical creations of humans from clay, birth, life, death, and sexual experience” (2). A good example where pottery is associated with creation is the case of the South African cultural heritages in which people associate pots and other objects made form clay with vines coupled with birds while not negating the association of such objects with various cosmic struggles of the societies. While these associations may be indicative of the rich history of pottery as a cultural artifact, little is accomplished in terms of helping to scientifically analyze the reasons and how various pottery objects were created first in the human race long journey of survival. In this context, it is plausible to infer that a thorough analysis of the origin of pottery calls for more than simply correlating pottery artifacts to focus on explanations. Why then did pottery constitute one of the earliest material assemblages of people? The chronology of how pottery came into being in Asia may perhaps provide a possible response to the question raised above. In this region, Kuzmin attributes the emergence of pottery to environmental changes (112). The author further informs that it is possible that the art of pot making emerged first in Asia. For instance, it emerged in “South China (up to ~14,800 BP), the Japanese Islands (about 13,800-13,500 BP), and the Russian Far East (~13,300 BP)” (Kuzmin 114). Considering this assertion, it is evident that the relationship between the origin of pottery and climatic changes was not principally linear. In the case of East Asia, the need for processing various fresh products including mollusks, fish, and even plant products may have given rise to pot making. Kuzmin is inclined to this line of thought by further asserting, “an important feature is the quite non-uniform nature of the neolithization process in the eastern part of Asia where often, in 2 neighboring regions, pottery appeared at very different times: approximately 15,000-14,000 BP in south China and ~4000 BP in mainland Southeast Asia” (116). Considering this argument, it is crucial to note that pottery as a material culture may have been attributed to some cultural shift force. This driving force differs from one society and region to another. However, Asia remains iconic in having recorded the first pottery development in the history of the human race. Gravettian figurines are amongst the earliest ceramics. Some of the commonest known figurines include “those discovered at Dolní Věstonice in the modern-day Czech Republic” (Kainer 45). The figurines took the form of a woman without clothes dating between 29,000 to 25,000 BCE. “The earliest pottery vessel dates back to 20,000 BP after being discovered in Xianrendong cave in Jiangxi, China” (Wu and Goldberg 1697). Pottery is speculated to have been deployed in cookware. Additionally, there are pottery ware that was discovered in China and other parts of the world, which many historians contend that they also make some of the earliest assorted objects made from clay. They include vessels excavated “from the Yunchanyan Cave in the southern China, dated from 16,000 BCE and those found in the Amur River basin in the Russian far east, dated from 14, 000 BCE” (Wu and Goldberg 1698). In fact, by 2012, the earliest pottery work discovered in the entire world is the one discovered at Xianrendong Cave. It is believed to have been in existence for between 19,000 and 20,000 years. There have been discoveries of pottery in both Japan and China dating 12,000 to 18,000 years counting from 2012. During the era of Tang, China became a renowned nation in the exportation of porcelain. However, Koreans were already conversant with the usage of porcelain even in the early 14th century. Indeed, they took the art of porcelain to Japan in the early 17th century (Kainer 45). From this discussion, it is perhaps imperative to infer that many indications point at pottery to have originated from the Asian continent particularly in the nations of the Far East such as China, India, Korea, and Japan. Upon considering the developments in pottery work in other regions all over the world, Barnett and Hoopes assert, “the secret of making such porcelain was brought in the Islamic world and later in Europe when examples were imported from the East” (19). This assertion evidences further the positions that the art of pottery may have predominantly originated from nations in the Far East before spreading to other nations across the globe. In the light of the arguments raised above about the origin of the pottery making art, it is paramount to note that some regions in the world had their own distinct developments in the art. For instance, Sheumaker and Shirley note, “most evidence points to an independent development of pottery in the American culture, starting with the Archaic (3500-2000 BCE), and to their formative period (2000 BCE -200CE)” (36). Nevertheless, such cultures hardly developed porcelain stonewares and or glazes in their historic era. This exclusive case is significant since not all objects developed by people through their cultural history can be classified as pottery even though they involve a process similar to that adopted in making pottery products. Pottery only involves those objects made from stoneware, earth ware, and or porcelain. Evolution of Pottery People’s levels of technologies in making various cultural artifacts keep on changing so that primitive approaches are replaced by more advanced and quicker approaches. For the case of pottery, immense changes in the manner in which people shape and process pottery objects have been recorded since the art was discovered. In the early ages, people collected clay at riverbanks or even from other sources, spread it on a flat surface (typically a stone slab), and then pick inappropriate inclusions such as fragments of rocks. They would then ‘beat it’ using hands and tread it through their feet in the effort to make it consistent. With the consistent clay raw material, the shaping process would follow suit depending on their fancies. To harden it and perhaps ensure that the article made from the clay was non-porous, the primitive approach involved firing the articles in open kilns. The overall repercussion of firing article this way was, “such pottery became buff, drab, brown, or red forming imperfect firing becomes smoked, grey, or black” (Metcalfe 49). Noting these challenges, people began looking for better ways of processing products made from clay. One can trace the pre-historical process of making cultural artifacts and realize that, as time progressed, technical knowhow coupled with skill bases increased gradually and consistently in many nations across the globe. As these developments took place, the technical expertise for making earth ware products was not left behind. In the words of Barnett and Hoopes, in the area of pottery making, “methods remain of the simplest form…until some original genius of the tribe finds that, by starting to build up his pot on the flattened side of a boulder, he can turn his support to bring every part in succession under his hand” (27). This discovery culminated into the invention of the potter’s the wheel, a device that marked the beginning of mechanization of pottery making. Arguably, this innovation marked a period for the invention of new methods not only for processing clay but also for new methods for shaping it. The process of evolution of the art of making pottery products has been characterized by various shaping process. Hand building was the most primitive way and perhaps the method used to shape some of the oldest pottery products recoded in the history of pottery making. In its simplest form, hand building involves making coils or balls of clay and then stacking them together to form the desired shape. Slip is then used to fill in the spaces and the depressions formed by the coils or the body of the ball. The article can be decorated either before or even after firing has been done. As argued before, the invention of the potter’s the wheel made this process more rapid. The main processes for making a pottery article using throwing approach (a process aided by the potter’s wheel) are centering, opening, flooring, pulling, and trimming. Similar to the primitive methodologies of shaping pottery articles, the process of throwing has its dominant challenges, which prompted people to invent new approaches to shaping articles. Ashmore and Sharer support this argument by informing, “Considerable skills and experience are required to throw pots of an acceptable standard, and while the wares may have high artistic merits, the reproducibility of the method is poor” (11). This argument implies that the process is only appropriate for earth wares having radial or vertical lines of symmetry. However, the technique is used even today since thrown clay articles can undergo further modifications such as an attachment of the handle, for instance, in the case of a clay cup. Such modifications mean that the attached parts would have weaker bonds since they are made differently through different processes in some cases. For this purpose, injection molding evolved as an alternative method of shaping pottery products since irregularly shaped objects would be made in a single process and at the same time. Hence, challenges of weak bonding were offset. The use of alternative forming processes such as RAM pressing, pressure casting, slip casting, and deployment of the roller-head machine are all indicative of a rich history of the evolution of pottery making processes. In the modern pottery making processes, there have been incredible developments in the methods of improving the quality and even the life of the pottery products. Some of these approaches were widely unknown in the early times. For instance, the earliest pottery products were not glazed. Essentially, glazing is the application of “a glassy coating on pottery, the primary purposes of which decoration and protection are based” (Metcalfe 48). In fact, a tremendous evolution in pottery decoration processes and practice has been registered with time. While the earliest pottery was not decorated and, (if decorated, it was through an incision), modern decoration includes the coloring or formation of pottery with immense shape complexities for decorative purposes among many other techniques. Firing has also tremendously improved so that it has become possible to prevent blackening of clay products upon firing as was the case while firing through open or pit kilns. This case has been partly made possible by developments of electric kilns and gas kilns among other firing techniques. From the discussion of this section, it is clear that the art of pot making has evolved in almost every aspect. Deployment of machinery has completely altered the range and shape of products that can be made from clay. This progress has resulted in the reduction in the processing time thus truncating into increased productivity. Nevertheless, some of the ancient approaches in the making of pottery items have been retained, for instance, the employment of strings in the cutting of clay during the shaping process. Role of Pottery on People’s Lives Any material culture is significant in the lives of people since it provides and makes new items and objects for use in the daily life of people available to help in easing certain tasks, which would otherwise be tedious. For instance, basketry material culture provided a means for making the carrying of loads easier. Pottery as a material culture made it possible for people to make items such as cups, religious articles, bowls, and even pitchers in the earliest times. In the modern day, pottery is a central aspect of the society since many materials used in the construction industry such as roofing tiles, floor tiles, bathrooms, and toilet accessories among others are pottery-based. Some tourist souvenirs and wind chimes among others are also pottery-based. Pottery is also a noble source of employment among many people. For instance, in America, the mid 19th century formed a major period for pottery experimentation. Many organizations adopted pottery-making processes such as slip molding to manufacture various pottery products that were meant for mass consumption. Such large-scale manufacturing endeavors meant that people drawn from the societies neighboring the manufacturing organizations were hired to provide the much-needed labor. This advantage resulted in a rapid economic endowment of people particularly by noting that, in the early 19th century, production processes were principally labor intensive. A good example of a large-scale manufacturing organization in the early 1800s was the commercial earth ware company established by Joseph Henderson and David Henderson in 1828 at New Jersey. The company was later renamed in 1833 as the American pottery manufacturing company (Sheumaker and Shirley 81). Apart from employing a large number of people, the evolution of pottery material culture has led to the availing of a large number of materials for construction and interiors design. This accessibility makes living rooms more appealing to people. From the above-raised arguments, it is evident that pottery is an integral facet shaping the developments of global societies since the Stone Age era. From cookery wares, water transportation containers, to ornamental items, world’s civilization has depended on potters coupled with their trade for collective progression. In this light, Kainer further posits, “without such pots; many civilizations would have found a challenging progression ahead of them” (49). The argument means that material culture is an integral element of people without which life would be immensely difficult. Indeed, at societal face value, pottery is not only depictive of various functions it is meant to accomplish but also a “work of arts in its own right” (Rice 87). The developments of new styles of pottery works took place in response to various economic technical and or social requirements by the evolving societies. Consequently, “pottery is closely integrated with developments of several different civilizations from the earliest times up to the present day” (Barnett and Hoopes 66). Various decorative forms adopted by different cultures in their pottery products explain the cultural heritages of such people. Therefore, pottery is important in people’s lives since it is a symbol of the cultural history of different people coupled with serving the principal purposes of reflecting the significance and values attached to material culture by different societies across the globe. Conclusion Various cultural aspects can define the process of evolution of a society. Material culture is one of such aspects through which the studying of the technological characteristics of the methodologies and skill levels for the production of cultural materials has enabled historians to have a chronological account of the evolution of a society under study. As highlighted in the paper, through the analysis of the historical accounts of pottery, most indications point at the likelihood that the art pottery may have originated from the Far East nations. Irrespective of the lack of precision for the place where pottery making first originated, the paper maintained that the pottery material culture had undergone tremendous evolution processes with hand making being one of the most primitive ways of forming pottery wares. Formed pottery wares resulted in bettering people’s lives both socially and economically particularly with the onset of mass manufacturing of pottery wares. Works Cited Ashmore, Wendy, and Robert Sharer. Discovering Our Past: A Brief Introduction to Archaeology. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 2000. Print. Barnett, William, and John Hoopes. The Emergence of Pottery: Technology and Innovation in Ancient Society. New York, NY: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995. Print. Kainer, Simon. “The oldest pottery in the world.” Current World Archaeology 3.1(2003): 44–49. Print. Kuzmin, Yu. “The origin of pottery in East Asia and its relationships to environmental changes in the late glacial.” UAiR 52.2(2010): 112-119. Print. Mansfied, Rudi. “Introduction: matter unbound.” Journal of material culture 8.2(2003): 246-251. Print. Metcalfe, Charles. “Ash Glaze Research.” Ceramic Review 202.17(2003): 48-50. Print. Prown, David. “Mind in matter: an introduction to material culture theory and method.” Winterthur portfolio 17.1(1992): 1-19. Print. Rice, Prudence. Pottery Analysis – A Sourcebook. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. Print. Sheumaker, Helen, and Teresa Shirley. Material culture in America: understanding everyday life. New York, NY: Free Press, 2004. Print. Wu, Zhang, and Cohen Goldberg. “Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China” Science 336.6089(2012): 1696–1700. Print. Material Culture: Pottery Essay
Determine the crosses / progeny and indicate phenotype and genotype.

The ku80 and p53 genes both
encode proteins that are involved in repair of DNA damage in human cells.
Mutations to these genes have been associated with some human cancers. You
would like to determine if the Ku80 and p53 proteins functionally interact with
one another and have decided to use Drosophila, which has homologous of
both these genes, as a model system to address your question. The Drosophila
Ku80 gene is on chromosome 2. There is a mutant allele of the Ku80 gene
available which is recessively lethal. It is maintained in a balanced stock
over an SM6, Cy balancer chromosome. You have males and females of this
balanced stock available to you. The p53 gene is on chromosome 3. There is a
viable mutant allele of p53 available in a homozygous stock which is also
homozygous for a recessive mutation (e) at the ebony body locus which is also
on chromosome 3. You have both males and females of this double mutant stock.
In addition to the two stocks mentioned here, you also have access to both
males and females of the double balancer stock from question 1. In order to
test for potential functional interaction between the Ku80 and p53 proteins, Yu
need to generate a stock that contains both these mutations. Your goal is to clearly outline
a series of crosses that will allow you to generate a new stock that is
heterozygous for the ku80 mutant allele over the SM6, Cy balancer and
homozygous for p53 and e. In other words, your desired stock of males and
females will have the genotype: ; ku80/SM6, Cy ; p53, e/p53, e. For each cross
you carry out CLEARLY indicate the genotype of each parent, and the genotype
and phenotype of any selected progeny you wish to continue to work with. You
only need to show the genotype and phenotype of your selected progeny (not
every possible progeny class). Hint: You will require multiple crosses to
achieve your goal. Some can be done in parallel (i.e. not dependent on each
other) while others will be dependent on progeny from a previous cross.
Remember that male Drosophila do not have recombination (no
crossing-over). Also keep in mind that if you are going to select a particular
progeny class for further work, they must be phenotypically distinct from all
other progeny classes or you would never be able to actually select them! (15
Determine the crosses / progeny and indicate phenotype and genotype

DeVry University Week 1 Letter to Myself Childhood Dilemma Discussion

DeVry University Week 1 Letter to Myself Childhood Dilemma Discussion.

I’m working on a writing Other and need guidance to help me study.

Letter to MeIn his song by this name, country singer and songwriter Brad Paisley writes his childhood self a letter, giving the little guy some pieces of advice based on experience.Remember the assignment you completed during the first week of this course? You were asked to explore the first time you remember resolving a dilemma in terms of right versus wrong. This week, as we wrap up the session, please revisit that assignment. You are now an adult speaking with the child you were, with the benefit of all of your hard-won wisdom between then and now.In a short (one-to-two page), informal letter using your Week 1 Assignment’s childhood dilemma as a starting point, please tell the child you were what would’ve helped you then that you know now. Maybe it’s a lot. Maybe it’s not much at all. This is not a research-based essay, as you’ve already spent the past 7 weeks using philosophers and course concepts as support. This one is all you. Be the adult you wish you’d had on your side (or if all went well, maybe be like the one you did have on your side), and take your offering of advice about right and wrong as seriously as you would if you were offering it to an actual living child. It would be a good idea to consult the personal system of ethics you worked on for the discussion last week as you go, to make sure you haven’t missed anything from your own heart and mind that would help. I will also once accepted include the first letter. CriteriaPointsDescriptionCentral Idea10Original dilemma, solution, and influences are clearly summarized, using appropriate and engaging detail. Make sure to consult your Week 1 Assignment so that you are not reinventing the wheel. Based on this summary, thoughtful adult advice is offered to the child in letter form. Development10This assignment does not have a thesis or essay structure per se as it is a letter, but there should be direct connections between dilemma, solution, influences, and adult advice to child.Grammar, Mechanics, and Style5Grammar refers to correct standard American usage; for example, subject and verb agreement and correct parts of speech. Mechanics refers to correct idiomatic usage; for example, capitalized proper nouns, word choice, and word order. Style refers to dynamic writing that avoids passive constructions and maintains the reader’s interest via generous use of detail.
DeVry University Week 1 Letter to Myself Childhood Dilemma Discussion

Analysis And Comparison Of Diageo And Sab Miller Marketing Essay

essay writing help This case study aims to analyse, compare and contrast strategic financial management of Diageo plc and SAB Miller plc. The analysis also identifies and explores the factors which are responsible for the current financial position and development of both the companies and critically evaluate the factors involves in future growth, development and change. To evaluate the performance of each company and compare them the financial analysis tools used are SWOT, the profit impact of market strategy (PIMS) and some comparison continued thereafter. In the end there is a conclusion for taking the summary of involved companies into consideration as to which company can be concluded to be more successful. Diageo plc Diageo is known for one the of world leading manufactures in liquors market. It is manufacturer of branded beer, premium spirits and wine products. Diageo market its premium alcohol beverages in more than 180 markets around the world. Its 17 brand range comes in the top 100 premium distilled spirits brands worldwide. Diageo produces premium spirits under brands including Smirnoff, Johnnie Walker, Captain Morgan, Baileys, J

Brochure design with teaching plan and research trials for two psychiatric drugs

Brochure design with teaching plan and research trials for two psychiatric drugs. Paper details Dear writer, Please make sure the brochure’s format must be appropriate for a third grade reading level. Pamphlets were attractive and addressed all aspects including doses, side effects and directions on administration. Please provide references (as many as needed) in different files for each brochure. Thank you!Brochure design with teaching plan and research trials for two psychiatric drugs

Buying Decisions of Consumers Evaluation Essay

Table of Contents Product Features Brand Name Price Social Influences References Since the introduction of the first Blackberry Smartphone in 2002, the Smartphone market has tremendously grown from a backdrop of information explosion. Park (2011) claims that the number of people who use Smartphones have tremendously grown to about one in every three adults. This increased the demand for Smartphones heralded the expansion of the Smartphone market. Chow and Chen (2012) project the global shipment of Smartphone gadgets to increase to about one billion, by the year 2015. The increased adoption of Smartphones in the mobile phone market has come at an opportune time because feature phones are becoming increasingly obsolete. Feature phones have traditionally dominated the mobile phone market, but because of the increased demand for new applications among mobile phone users (and the sophistication of software engineering), feature phones are slowly phasing out, to give way for the adoption of Smartphones. Since Smartphones have infused new features and technologies that were earlier nonexistent in feature phones, the factors informing its adoption greatly differ with those that affect the adoption of feature phones. Indeed, Smartphones are able to perform even the most sophisticated tasks (normally a reserve for computers), while feature phones were only able to perform basic tasks such as calling and text messaging. Therefore, from the increased adoption of new applications in Smartphones, the gadgets have penetrated a new category of customers, tech-savvy customers. Considering the adoption of Smartphone is a new and emerging trend, it is critical to point out that most research studies investigating the adoption of Smartphones have done so by viewing Smartphones as a specialised tool, such as Smartphones for clinical purposes. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, researchers like Cheong and Park (2005) disagree with this view because they see the adoption of Smartphones, not for specialised purposes but rather, for general purposes. According to Hutt (2009), the purchase of a Smartphone (for any consumer) highlights an information cascade, which also stems from a decision-making pattern, where decisions from people of influence affect consumers’ purchase decisions. For example, before a consumer decides to buy a Smartphone, he considers other buyers’ decisions (creates awareness regarding other buyers’ decisions) and infers a specific message from what is known by previous buyers (Hutt 2009). Ilyas (2006) contends that the decision to buy a Smartphone is normally dependent on the level of satisfaction a customer experiences when the purchase ends. Before consumers make the decision to purchase the product, Ilyas (2006) believes that consumers experience several cognitive processes including “recognition, search information, evaluation, and ultimately the purchase decision” (p. 4). The provision of feedback regarding the customer’s user experience may follow this process. Varying psychological and market factors normally affect a customer’s buying experience. However, these factors do not always show similar results for different customer groups. Indeed, different consumers have different tastes, preferences, motivations, and lifestyles that affect their decisions to buy a Smartphone. For example, some consumers are always willing to buy Smartphones at a premium, while others are hesitant to do so. We will write a custom Critical Writing on Buying Decisions of Consumers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, some consumers are always looking out for good quality Smartphones in the market, while others do not see this need. Park (2011) believes that most of these consumer dynamics represent varying customer characteristics. “Brand conscious, price conscious, quality conscious, recreation conscious, innovation conscious, confusion over choice, impulse, and brand” (Chow and Chen 2012, p. 44) further characterise these characteristics. From the complexities and dynamics informing consumers’ buying decisions, the importance of understanding the factors that affect consumers’ buying decisions is very important. Product Features Product features distinguish different products, not only in the Smartphone market, but also in other competitive markets as well (Kupiec and Revell 2001). In the Smartphone market, a product feature denotes a product’s attribute that is capable of satisfying a specific consumer need. This need is satisfied from using the product’s feature. Sexton (2007) posits that today’s rapidly changing market has proved that different features bring different levels of satisfaction for every Smartphone user. Indeed, as Chow and Chen (2012) demonstrate, “in this new era, phones now feature with wireless connectivity, a built-in Web browser, application installation, full programmability, a file management system, multimedia presentation and capture, high-resolution displays, several gigabytes of storage and location and movement sensors” (p. 45). Chow and Chen (2012) say, besides the above features, users also look for the best operating systems and cameras when making their decision to purchase Smartphones. In this regard, Chow and Chen (2012) say the most popular operating systems for Smartphone users are “Symbian, RIM Blackberry, Apple iPhone, Windows mobile, Google’s Android, and Linux” (p. 46). Each operating system manifests its uniqueness, based on the different backgrounds they hail from. Not sure if you can write a paper on Buying Decisions of Consumers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oulasvirta and Wahlstrom (2011) add that Smartphone consumers normally select phone attributes that provide them with the specific benefits they are looking for. He also adds that most of these attributes reflect consumer personalities (Oulasvirta and Wahlstrom 2011). Therefore, Smartphone users select phones that mirror their personalities and add value to their lives, depending on how much importance they attach to integration. Wickliffe and Pysarchik (2001) also say consumers use phone attributes to make the distinction between competitive brands and Smartphone brands that marketers impose on them. Marketers similarly acknowledge this distinction and create advertisements that highlight a phone’s attribute to influence a consumer’s ability to substitute a phone’s attribute for another (Puth and Mostert 1999). Comprehensively, product features influence consumer buying decisions. Brand Name In today’s globally competitive market, companies cannot underrate the importance of product differentiation. Indeed, portraying brand superiority adds to a company’s profitability (within several competitive brands). Indeed, researchers have affirmed the importance of brand superiority in improving a product’s value among its customers. Mei and Dean (1999) admit, brands also communicate a product’s knowledge structures that are cognisant of the product’s brand superiority. Brand names therefore improve a product’s value by simply appealing to the consumer’s cognitive perception. Therefore, when a product comes from a respectable brand, consumers automatically attach the same value to the product. Different companies advertise different product attributes in their branding strategy. Some companies package their products to be superior in quality, while others package their products as ‘pocket friendly.’ Some Smartphone manufacturers even package their products as reliable brands that withstand even the toughest environments. Recent years have seen Smartphone companies package their phones as durable items. Consumers have tested such attributes through experiments like dropping a phone on concrete, to see if it cracks. People have broadcast such experiments in social media sites including YouTube (and the likes). Branding helps to package such product attributes (such as durability) to create a perception that such products portray the conveyed message. For example, as portrayed in the above example, a company’s branding strategy may hinge on durability. Therefore, whenever consumers see a given brand, they immediately assume the product is durable. A company may similarly brand its products to be reliable and therefore, whenever companies expose consumers to the given product, consumers assume it is reliable (Chow and Chen 2012). Some phone companies have successfully managed to brand their products as such, and are attracting a huge user base. Some technology companies like Apple Incorporated have successfully managed to brand their products as having superior quality and reliability. Apple Incorporated has also successfully managed to market its brand as innovative and therefore, whenever customers purchase Apple iPhones, they expect it to have some ‘innovative attribute’ that other brands do not have. Srinivasan and Till (2002) define the value of brands as brand equity. Dodds and Monroe (1991) add that brand equity plays a big role in brand building. The advantages of successful brand building are obvious to companies because companies have been able to develop sustainable competitive advantages through this process. This works when consumers have a successful perception of specific brands in the market. Since the early 2000s, companies have identified their most important assets to be their brand names. Chow and Chen (2012) affirm this observation by saying “In the recent aggressive competitive marketplace, the most critical success element for companies is the brand name, that were being used in a product, and further stated that the brand names are considered the last source of differentiation for the companies’ products and services” (p. 50). According to Khasawneh and Hasouneh (2010), brand names have a strong impact on consumer’s buying decisions because they affect their product evaluation process, which later informs their buying decisions. Therefore, through branding, Smartphone companies have been able to differentiate their products from the competition. Nonetheless, at this point, it is crucial to say, brand names do not only denote ‘names,’ they could also mean symbols, terms, or designs. Many companies have benefitted from introducing brand extensions. Many companies have adopted this strategy to benefit from brand knowledge. In other words, new products that stem from a successful branding campaign experience a low failure rate and low marketing costs. Comprehensively, consumers are likely to be attracted to successful brand names in the market. In turn, companies gain from brand recognition (in the short-term) and brand loyalty (in the end). Price For a long time, researchers have investigated the effect of price on consumer buying decisions. These researchers later say price plays a big role in the consumer decision-making process because price acts as a monetary value for the trade of goods and services (Chow and Chen 2012). In this regard, Nagle and Holden (2002) claim that price remains a key concern for consumers, before they make any purchase decision (not only within the Smartphone market). The price of a Smartphone normally affects the behavioural intentions of consumers. Price also has a close association with a product’s brand because price defines a product’s image. Market researchers have always said that consumers perceive high pricing to mean high product quality, while low pricing denotes low product quality (Chow and Chen 2012). For purposes of conceptual convenience, it is pertinent to understand that pricing models divide into two groups: low priced goods and highly priced goods (Smith and Carsky 1996). As explained in this paper, highly priced Smartphones have a very keen emphasis on the product’s image. Therefore, consumers who purchase such highly branded products also want to enjoy the positive product image that comes with the high pricing. Such consumers are also willing to pay a premium so that they have a premium product of high quality. Ordinarily, such a consumer group is willing to buy a Smartphone (expensively) for its perceived high quality and status. When such consumer groups form the biggest part of the market, such a market is price inelastic. Consumers purchase low-priced Smartphone because of their perceived value. Such groups of consumers are more wary of the utility they are going to derive from such purchases than the perceived status they derive from the same. Such purchase decisions therefore centre on utilitarianism (perceived value for the price). Consumers who make purchase decisions using this strategy always look for lowly priced Smartphones or substitute some brands for others because of their perceived value (Chow and Chen 2012). Despite the decision-making clusters adopted by each consumer group described above, Aaker and Keller (1990) still believe that both consumer groups (high-end and low-end) believe that high product prices reflect premium quality, while lowly priced Smartphones reflect inferior quality. These findings reflect similar findings done by Etgar and Malhotra’s (1981). Indeed, Etgar and Malhotra’s (1981) affirmed that consumers would always perceive products with high quality to have a superior quality and low-priced products to have a lower quality. However, this perception may not always be true in the Smartphone market considering there may not be much difference in product features or quality of different bands (from completely different price categories). However, Chow and Chen (2012) admit that if a Smartphone is highly priced and the product quality relatively meets the consumers’ expectations, the consumer may still be willing to pay a premium for the specific product. Chow and Chen (2012) say the proliferation of Smartphone brands in the phone market has further intensified the price perception among Smartphone buyers because it has become increasingly difficult to distinguish one brand from the other. Consumers are therefore using product pricing to distinguish one brand from the other. Most of the cognitive or buying decisions formulated by the buyers purely stem from perception. From this background, Khasawneh and Hasouneh (2010) claim that it is very crucial for Smartphone companies to stop ignoring the impact of pricing decisions on their products because price has been proven to affect consumer buying behaviour. The importance of pricing decisions on consumer purchasing behaviour manifests in the online shopping phenomenon where consumers are willing to pay a premium (high prices) for the convenience and security offered on online shopping. Chow and Chen (2012) also agree that 90% of customers use price constructs to scrutinise different products from different companies. Customers do so frequently. Comprehensively, price constructs denote a psychological phenomenon that appeals to consumers’ cognitive processes and buying decisions. Comprehensively, this persuasion improves the sales margin. This happens through the exploitation of consumer willingness to pay (especially for high-end products). Therefore, among all the marketing mixes exploited by marketers worldwide, pricing is a very critical tool for appealing to customer willingness to buy products. Comprehensively, in the context of this study, pricing is one factor that determines consumer-buying decisions when purchasing Smartphones. Social Influences Social influences border on the ability of a person to influence the activities of another person. This influence occurs through the ability of a person to influence the attitudes, feelings, and thoughts of others. This may occur either intentionally or unintentionally (through the interaction with other people). The main influences in social interactions come from media sources, friends, and people from other spheres of influence (such as colleagues). Social influences thrive on the perception among customers regarding the perception of other people towards them. This group of customers also thrives on having a sense of belonging to a specific social group or class. A research group in America claims that peer influences are the primary source of influence in social interactions (Chow and Chen 2012). Secondary influences are the media and parents. However, today, the role of the media in defining consumer tastes, fashion, and interests regarding a specific brand is increasingly strong (from the influence of the media and other sources of influence, consumers learn the skills, knowledge and attitudes relevant for consumption). Nelson and McLeod (2005) draw a sharp distinction between conformity, power, and authority, which manifest whenever the influence of social interactions occurs as the main influence for consumer buying behaviour. Mourali and Loroche (2005) say conformity always manifests when consumers make buying decisions so that they meet the expectations of other people. However, power is a way of exerting one’s influence over people to gain control and determine the overall outcome of their interaction. Those who wield this power often perceive authority as a legitimate power. Power and authority are therefore strong influences regarding the way consumers make their purchasing decisions because people derive their actions from the word of other people. This is human nature. For example, among teenagers and other young people, researchers affirm that both males and females seek their fashion advice from friends and other people of influence in their lives. Therefore, depending on the fashion preference of these people, consumers are bound to follow the same fashion preference as their peers. The same pattern occurs during the decision-making process to purchase Smartphones from phone manufacturers. Consumers are then motivated to buy phones that their friends approve and have. A recent research by Mourali and Loroche (2005) showed customers who purchase Smartphones as the greatest consumers of social networking applications (such as Facebook and Twitter) because of the ability of such applications to ease social interactions. Consequently, Smartphone users use these applications to stay in touch with their friends and other people of influence in their lives. Through such applications, the influence of peers, friends and colleagues in informing consumer buying decisions remains strong (even though indirectly). Motivated by the willingness of people who have the same school of thought, feelings, and attitudes, Smartphone users are motivated to seek phones that enable them to stay in touch with one another within their circles of influence. Through this sphere of influence, social interactions influence consumer-buying decisions. Hutt (2009) claims that another issue affecting a buyer’s decision to purchase a Smartphone stems from the direct benefits that the customer enjoys from the purchase. This effect is normally realised when the direct benefits to be enjoyed from the purchase stems from the reactions or opinions of other people regarding the purchase. Therefore, unlike the ‘informational effect’, the direct benefits effect does not depend on changing one’s information. For example, if a prospective Smartphone buyer intends to make a choice regarding which type of operating software to use, he would potentially consider the user base for every type of software available in the market (Android, windows, and the likes). The size of the user base therefore influences the consumer experience when using such a phone (often, the user experience improves with operating systems that have a wide user base because of an increase in applications). The logic behind the selection of applications that have a wide user base stems from the expansive array of willing users to help a frustrated user through online support (Cheong and Park 2005). Through this logic, it is easier to understand the reasons for the large consumer base that android Smartphones have around the world. It is also easier to understand why it is more economical for Smartphone developers to develop more applications for an expanded audience, rather than a small audience. From the above consumer decision-making frameworks, evidently, many factors affect consumer buying behaviour. Product brand name, price, social interactions, and product features are among the most notable factors influencing the way consumers make the decision to purchase Smartphone. Almost all consumer groups feel motivated by at least one factor (among the above) to make their purchase decision. Depending on the demographics of the consumer group, price, brand name, social interactions, and product features are bound to affect consumer purchase decisions in the Smartphone market. References Aaker, D