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Assignment 1: Activity Graph

Assignment 1: Activity Graph.

Assignment 1: Activity Graph Due Week 3 and worth 120 pointsThis assignment consists of two (2) sections: a written project plan and a PowerPoint presentation. You must submit the two (2) sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment. Label each file name according to the section of the assignment it is written for.  Section 1: Written Project Plan Imagine you are a software engineer working on a fixed budget and you are tasked to develop a Web-based student registration system. This Web-based system allows students to register for classes, authenticate their credentials,  and select classes for which they are eligible to register. It also registers the students, prints a confirmation receipt, and prepares a registration invoice. You have been asked to provide senior management with a detailed summary, activity graph, and project plan of how you plan to execute the project.Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:Describe the development of the student registration project as a work breakdown structure of actions and transitions among these actions.Create an activity graph from the breakdown structure using Microsoft Visio or its open source alternative, Dia. Be sure to identify the time estimates and critical path in your submission. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.Write a project plan for this project which includes, but is not limited to, a risk analysis, task scheduling, and personnel staffing for the project.Provide a rationale for the decisions you made in your project plan to senior management.Section 1 of this assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.Include charts or diagrams created in MS Visio or Dia as an appendix of the project plan. All references to these diagrams must be included in the body of the project plan.Section 2: PowerPoint Presentation The senior management team has also requested that you present the plan in a concise presentation to the Board of Directors during the organization’s next operations meeting.Create a five to ten (5-10) slide PowerPoint presentation for the presentation to the Board of Directors in which you:Present the proposed plan documented in the written project plan.Include the key elements of the project plan (i.e., work breakdown structure, activity graph, risk management, project schedule, and project staffing).Include a justification of the decisions made in the proposed plan to senior management.Create bulleted speaking notes for the presentation to the Board of Directors in the Notes section of the PowerPoint. Note: You may create or assume any fictitious names, data, or scenarios that have not been established in this assignment for a realistic flow of communication.Use a professional technically written style to graphically convey the information.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Develop project plans and schedules that satisfy user requirements.Use technology and information resources to research issues in software engineering.Write clearly and concisely about advanced software engineering topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.Due Week 3 and worth 120 pointsThis assignment consists of two (2) sections: a written project plan and a PowerPoint presentation. You must submit the two (2) sections as separate files for the completion of this assignment. Label each file name according to the section of the assignment it is written for.  Section 1: Written Project Plan Imagine you are a software engineer working on a fixed budget and you are tasked to develop a Web-based student registration system. This Web-based system allows students to register for classes, authenticate their credentials,  and select classes for which they are eligible to register. It also registers the students, prints a confirmation receipt, and prepares a registration invoice. You have been asked to provide senior management with a detailed summary, activity graph, and project plan of how you plan to execute the project.Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:Describe the development of the student registration project as a work breakdown structure of actions and transitions among these actions.Create an activity graph from the breakdown structure using Microsoft Visio or its open source alternative, Dia. Be sure to identify the time estimates and critical path in your submission. Note: The graphically depicted solution is not included in the required page length.Write a project plan for this project which includes, but is not limited to, a risk analysis, task scheduling, and personnel staffing for the project.Provide a rationale for the decisions you made in your project plan to senior management.Section 1 of this assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.Include charts or diagrams created in MS Visio or Dia as an appendix of the project plan. All references to these diagrams must be included in the body of the project plan.Section 2: PowerPoint Presentation The senior management team has also requested that you present the plan in a concise presentation to the Board of Directors during the organization’s next operations meeting.Create a five to ten (5-10) slide PowerPoint presentation for the presentation to the Board of Directors in which you:Present the proposed plan documented in the written project plan.Include the key elements of the project plan (i.e., work breakdown structure, activity graph, risk management, project schedule, and project staffing).Include a justification of the decisions made in the proposed plan to senior management.Create bulleted speaking notes for the presentation to the Board of Directors in the Notes section of the PowerPoint. Note: You may create or assume any fictitious names, data, or scenarios that have not been established in this assignment for a realistic flow of communication.Use a professional technically written style to graphically convey the information.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Develop project plans and schedules that satisfy user requirements.Use technology and information resources to research issues in software engineering.Write clearly and concisely about advanced software engineering topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills. Click here to access the rubric for this assignment
Assignment 1: Activity Graph

M3A REDO

M3A REDO. Paper details Create a policy that will ensure all external computers that connected to an environment are malware-free. This is a resubmit. I got a 0 for the previous submission of this assignment because of the following reason I got from my instructor: “This is a procedure, not a policy about procedures. Please check my email for instructions. Redo.” I attached an example here is what the instructor said as well: “Good morning class, I graded your assignment 2 and found out most of you did not know how to write a procedure. However, I did not deduct points for this mistake because it is your first time. In this course, we write a lot of procedures. In the attached, you will see the table of contents of the procedure for assignment 3. It shows what items are needed in the procedure. You need to expand and provide content for it. Remember, a procedure is a step-by-step guide to complete some type of tasks. Please let me know if you have any questions.”M3A REDO

History and the Constitution

assignment writing services History and the Constitution. I don’t know how to handle this Law question and need guidance.

Introduction
The U.S. Constitution has significant and complex history. Each marker that led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution is important in terms of understanding frame, philosophical ideologies, and public policy considerations. American constitutional law has a life of its own. It has expanded, retreated, and changed as the needs of those it serves have changed. In a manner of speaking, it lives out society’s ideals.
Let’s make some connections. Looking at the history of the U.S. Constitution, identify three areas of significance and how you think those areas impacted the direction of the U.S. Constitution. Do you feel the concerns were adequately addressed for the nation, at that time, and moving forward as a new nation? Fast-forwarding to today, do you feel the key protections in the Bill of Rights provide the foundation to strike a balance between individual rights and societal needs? Use criminal justice examples to support your positions and conclusions.
Discussion Objectives
The competencies addressed in this discussion are supported by discussion objectives.

Competency 1: Describe how historical problems were managed in the evolution of the U.S. Constitution.

Identify three areas of concern in a historical context that were addressed by the U.S. Constitution.
Determine how the areas of concern were addressed by the Bill of Rights.

Competency 5: Communicate effectively in writing.

Illustrate the balancing of individual rights and societal needs through the use of criminal justice examples

History and the Constitution

Globalization’s Impact on Poverty

Globalization is the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade. The term is most closely associated with the term economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, the spread of technology, and military presence. It can also be reffered to a process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world’s markets and businesses. This process has speeded up dramatically in the last two decades as technological advancement make it easier for people to travel, communicate, and do business internationally. Understanding the current status of globalisation is necessary for setting course for future. For all nations to reap the full benefits of globalisation it is essential to create a level playing field. On the other hand, Poverty is the lack of basic human needs, such as clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them. Poverty is additionally seen as a state of mind and a lifestyle- more than just a lack of materials. It is a state of deprivation and insecurity. Poverty can also mean deprivation in the well-being of an individual and comprises many dimensions. It includes but not limited to low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. livelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services inadequate housing; unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. There are two types of poverty namely; Absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty quantifies the number of people in a certain population below a fixed real poverty threshold .it is a level of poverty as defined in terms of the minimal requirements an individual needs to afford minimal standards of basic needs like food, clothing, health care and shelter. Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. Impacts of globalization on poverty in less developed countries According to chandrasekaran Balakrishan( 2004), Globalisation is a buzzword that is seen to have dominated the world since the 1990’s of the last century with the end of the cold war and the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the global trend towards the rolling ball. The frontiers of the state with increased reliance on the market economy and renewed faith in the private capital and resources, a process of structural adjustment spurred by the studies and influences of the World Bank and other International organisations have started in many of the developing and less developed countries. Globalization has therefore depicted both positive and negative results; as the less developed countries economies are greatly influenced by the developed nations Globalisation and Poverty: Globalisation in the form of increased integration through trade and investment is an important reason why much progress has been made in reducing poverty and global inequality over recent decades. But it is not the sole reason for the unrecognised progress. Good national polices , sound institutions and domestic political stability also matter. Despite this progress, poverty remains one of the most serious international challenges we face up to 1.2 billion of the less developed countries, 4.8 billion people still live in extreme poverty. But the proportion of the world population living in poverty has been steadily declining and since 1980 the absolute number of poor people has stopped rising and appears to have fallen in recent years despite strong population growth in less developed countries. If the proportion living in poverty had not fallen since 1987 alone a further 21.5million people would be living in extreme poverty today. Globalization generally reduces poverty because more integrated economies tend to grow faster and this growth is usually widely diffused. As low-income countries break into global markets for manufactures and services, poor people can move from the vulnerability of grinding rural poverty to better jobs, often in towns or cities. In addition to this structural relocation, integration raises productivity job by job. Workers with the same skills–be they farmers, factory workers, or pharmacists–are less productive and earn less in developing economies than in advanced ones. Integration reduces these gaps. Rich countries maintain significant barriers against the products of poor countries, inhibiting this poverty-reducing integration. (World Bank Policy Research Report). Â Â One possible solution for such a crisis remains the closer integration of countries through trade. Brought about by enormous decreases in transportation and communication costs as well as the break down of many artificial barriers of trade, globalization of industry provides developing countries with the resources and capital to aide economic problems. By “increasing the integration of national economies into expanding international markets (Todaro 796),” less developed countries are provided the opportunity to advance through the outside purchase of technology and industry as well as the trade that follows. Globalization also produces winners and losers, both between countries and within them. Between countries, globalization is now mostly reducing inequality. About 3 billion people live in “new globalizing” developing countries. During the 1990s this group grew at 5 percent per capita compared to 2 percent for the rich countries. The number of extreme poor (living on less than $1 per day) in the new globalizers declined by 120 million between 1993 and 1998. However, many poor countries–with about 2 billion people–have been left out of the process of globalization. Many are becoming marginal to the world economy, often with declining incomes and rising poverty. Clearly, for this massive group of people, globalization is not working. Some of these countries have been handicapped by unfavorable geography, such as being landlocked and prone to disease. Others have been handicapped by weak policies, institutions, and governance; yet others by civil war. (Chandrasekaran Balakrishan(2004). The positive aspect of globalization Globalization has created the concept of outsourcing. Work such as software development, customer support, marketing, accounting and insurance is outsourced to less developed countries like Tanzania. So the company that outsourced the work enjoys the benefit of lower costs because the wages in less developed countries is far lower than that of developed countries. The workers in the developing countries get employment. Developing countries get access to the latest technology( Prabhakar P illai). Increased competition forces companies to lower prices and in the long run benefits the end consumers in the third world countries. An example is the telecommunication industry, where many many international firms have ventured in the local market and as a result there has been increased competition thus lowering of calling rates. Increased media coverage draws the attention of the world to human right violations. This leads to improvement in human rights. For instance civil wars in Sudan, DRC Congo and many other less developed countries has led to the drawing of humanitarian support from world bodies like the UN agencies who provide basic needs and security during such periods. In addition, Globalisation has brought in new opportunities to less developed countries. Greater access to developed country markets and technology transfer hold out promise to improved productivity and higher living standard. The improved standards of living means improved wellbeing of the population. in the less developed countries. The negative effects of globalization Less developed countries have outsourced manufacturing and white collar jobs. That means less jobs for their people. This has happened because manufacturing work is outsourced to developing nations like China where the cost of manufacturing goods and wages are lower. This in turn has led to increased poverty in this countries due to limited job opportunities .Programmers, editors, scientists , accountants and other professionals have lost their jobs due to outsourcing to cheaper locations like india. Globalization has led to exploitation of human labor. Prisoners and child workers are used to work in inhumane conditions. Safety standards are ignored to produce cheap goods. This has led to working in risky environments which endangers their health thus they use more of their little income on health . so instead of acquiring other basic needs they instead channel all the resources on acquiring health care thus increased poverty. The competition in the job market due to globalization has led to Job insecurity. Earlier people had stable, permanent jobs. Now people live in constant dread of losing their jobs to competition. Increased job competition has led to reduction in wages and consequently lower standards of living. Due to globalization, people work from internet in various locations hence reducing the opportunity to enable others work. Globalization has led to the exploitation of less developed countries . this is because, Companies have set up industries causing pollution in countries with poor regulation of pollution. This has led to air, water and soil pollution. Thus poor health among the inhabitants of such countries. This reduces the productivity of the people and thus poverty sets in. Another negative aspect of globalisation is that a great majority of less developed countries remain removed from the process. Till the nineties the process of globalisation of less developed economies was constrained by the barriers to trade and investment, liberalisation, investment and financial flows initiated in the nineties have progressively lowered the barriers to competition and hastened the pace of globalisation countries. Conclusion Though globalization does not on average increase inequality within countries, it disguises the reality that there will be specific winners and losers in each society. Good social protection policies can be a key factor in helping people prosper in this more dynamic environment. Therefore, for the Less developed countries to have a stake in the global economy, they have to concentrate on five important areas to achieve their goals. The areas like technological entrepreneurship, new business openings for small and medium enterprises, importance of quality management, new prospects in rural areas and privatisation of financial institutions. The manufacturing of technology and management of technology are two different significant areas in the country.

Understanding Fatigue and the Implications for Worker Safety

Introduction Workplace safety requires a systematic approach that includes an understanding of risk factors and identification of hazards. Worker fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for both acute and cumulative injuries. Fatigue and incomplete recovery can lead to decreased capacity that can result in an increased risk of injury and a decline in work efficiency (Kumar 2001, de Looze, Bosch, and van Dieën 2009, Visser and van Dieën 2006). In addition, fatigue contributes to accidents, injuries and death (Williamson et al. 2011). Over $300 million in lost productivity time in US workplaces can be tied to fatigue. Significantly reducing the incidence of fatigue-induced workplace injuries and lost productivity depends on the accurate and timely detection of fatigue to allow for appropriate intervention. Although the term fatigue is commonly used, it has come to refer to many concepts in occupational safety and health. In order to manage and mitigate fatigue and the associated risks, it is essential to understand the different types and components. Fatigue is generally accepted as resulting in the impairment of capacity or performance as a result of work. However, fatigue is multidimensional, either acute or chronic, whole body or muscle level, physical or mental, central or peripheral. In addition, it includes a decline in objective performance, as well as perceptions of fatigue. Of added importance are the roles of sleep and circadian function. Each of these aspects of fatigue do not occur in isolation, but interact to modify worker capacity and injury risk. Both mental and physical fatigue can result in poor decision making, which may result in an acute injury (Williamson et al. 2011). The risk of injury is dependent on both the injury mechanism and the characteristics of the work being performed. Parameters of importance in the development of fatigue, and subsequent risk, include the length of time-on-task between breaks, work pace, and the timing of rest breaks (Williamson et al. 2011). Researchers have postulated that through delineation of the quantitative details of relevant variables, appropriate interventions and injury control can be developed (Kumar 2001). How to best quantify workplace conditions, particularly physical exposures experienced by the worker, remains an open research question (Kim and Nussbaum 2012). Current approaches to fatigue monitoring and detection often rely either on fitness-for-duty tests to determine whether the worker has sufficient capacity prior to start work, monitoring of sleep habits, or intrusive monitoring of brain activation (using electroencephalography (EEG)) (Balkin et al. 2011) or changes in local muscle fatigue (using electromyography (EMG)) (Dong, Ugaldey, and El Saddik 2014). While there is no single standard measurement of fatigue, there are numerous subjective measurement scales and objective measurement techniques that can be adapted for workplace use. Recent advances in wearable technologies also present an opportunity for real-time and in-the-field assessment of fatigue development. Why should we care about fatigue? Fatigue in the workplace is often described as a multidimensional process, which results in a diminishing of worker performance. It results from prolonged activity, and is associated with psychological, socioeconomic and environmental factors (Barker and Nussbaum 2011, Yung 2016). From an occupational health and safety perspective, fatigue must be managed and controlled since it has significant short-term and long-term implications. In the short-term, fatigue can result in discomfort, diminished motor control, and reduced strength capacity (Björklund et al. 2000, Côté et al. 2005, Huysmans et al. 2010). These effects might lead to reduced performance, lowered productivity, deficits in work quality, and increased incidence of accidents and human errors (Yung 2016). Fatigue can also result in longer term adverse health outcomes, including, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome (Yung 2016) and reduced immune function (Kajimoto 2008). It can be seen as a precursor to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) (Iridiastadi and Nussbaum 2006). “These outcomes have been associated with future morbidity and mortality, work disability, occupational accidents, increased absenteeism, increased presenteeism, unemployment, reduced quality of life, and disruptive effects on social relationships and activities” (Yung 2016). The safety impacts of fatigue are best evidenced in the transportation domain. In the U.S., an estimated 32,675 people died in motor vehicle crashes in 2014 (2015a). In 2013 there were 342,000 reported truck crashes that resulted in 3,964 fatalities and ~95,000 injuries (2015b). While these crashes often result from several factors, it is estimated that driver-related factors are the leading cause for 75-90% of fatal/injury-inducing crashes (Craye et al. 2015, Stanton and Salmon 2009, Medina et al. 2004, Lal and Craig 2001). The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that about 20% of all crashes are fatigue-related (Strohl et al. 1998) and 60% of fatal truck crashes can be attributed to the driver falling asleep while driving (Craye et al. 2015). Drowsy driving increases crash risk by 600% over normal driving (Klauer et al. 2006). For many years, a succinct definition of fatigue has been sought after (Aaronson et al. 1999). In our estimation, there is no simple and standard definition for fatigue. For example, our statement above: Fatigue in the workplace is often described as a multidimensional process, which results in a diminishing of worker performance, while true, is not sufficient to describe fatigue, since there are many other conditions that may result in a diminished worker’s performance (e.g., motivation). Perhaps, more importantly, there are several other factors that impact our ability to determine one standard definition: Workplace fatigue development mechanisms differ significantly according to the occupation type. For example, in manufacturing, the focus is typically on physical/muscle fatigue or related to the shift schedule, and in transportation drowsiness and sleepiness are often the root-causes for driver fatigue. Given the complexity of the human body, a single mechanism unlikely explains fatigue under all conditions, even for a single task and fatigue type (i.e. muscle fatigue) (Weir et al. 2006). No one definition can explain the complex interactions between biological processes, behavior, and psychological phenomena (Aaronson et al. 1999). It is unlikely that a single theory can be used to explain all observations of performance deterioration (Weir et al. 2006). Thus, we cannot provide a single definition of fatigue in this paper. Instead we refer the reader to Yung (2016, p.14) for a summary of multiple example fatigue definitions from various domains. Measuring and Quantifying Fatigue In this section, we divide how fatigue is measured according to cognitive and physical functions respectively. Talk about PVT and reaction time as the main standards for sleep-related fatigue There are several important cognitive characteristics that are typically assed in the context of fatigue. These include: a) arousal, b) alertness/ attention, c) cognitive control, d) motivation, and e) stress. Arousal is commonly measured in transportation safety studies since it aims at assessing sleep deprivation, an important root-cause for trucking crashes (especially at night) (Philip et al. 2005, Strohl et al. 1998). Measures of arousal include heart rate, electrodermal response (EDR), pupil dilation and self-report questionnaires (Yung 2016). Alertness and attention are important in translating sensory and work-related inputs into actionable items. They can be measured using gaze direction, EEG, validated scales, and questionnaires. The third characteristic, cognitive control, has to do with the time taken to process information, and thus, reaction time is perhaps the most commonly used measure for evaluating it. The fourth characteristic is perhaps the hardest to measure since motivation cannot be assessed except through questionnaires and validated scales. Stress can be assessed through a number of measures which include heart rate variability, blood pressure and body postures (Yung 2016). The reader should note that the measures for quantifying mental fatigue include intrusive monitoring systems (e.g. EEG and blood pressure monitoring systems), non-intrusive measures (camera systems to detect gaze direction), and somewhat subjective measures (questionnaires and scales). Table 1 provides a summary of physiological and physical indicators of fatigue. Table 1: Typical Physiological and Physical Indicators of Fatigue Development Measurement Direction of Change with Fatigue Heart rate Increases with physical fatigue Heart rate variability Decreases with mental fatigue (for root-mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD)) Increased Low Frequency / High Frequency (LF/HF) power ratio Electromyography Decrease in mean power frequency Increase in root mean square amplitude Strength Decrease in maximum exertion Tremor Increase in physiological and postural tremor Pupil dilation Increases with mental fatigue and drowsiness Blink rate Increased percentage eyelid closure over the pupil, over time (PERCLOS) Reaction time Increased reaction time and lapses (using psychomotor vigilance task (PVT)) Performance Increase in errors and task completion time Force variability Increase in variability with physical fatigue Subjective assessment Increase in ratings of discomfort and fatigue On the physical side, electromyography is one of the most commonly used evaluation tools for muscle fatigue in a laboratory setting. The gold standard is to detect cellular and metabolic changes through blood sampling techniques (Garde, Hansen, and Jensen 2003). Since these approaches are intrusive, some researchers attempt to detect symptoms of physical fatigue. These symptoms include an impairment in postural control (Davidson, Madigan, and Nussbaum 2004), increased sway (Davidson, Madigan, and Nussbaum 2004), and joint angle variability (Madigan, Davidson, and Nussbaum 2006). Additional symptoms include an increase in exerted force variability (Svendson et al. 2010) and increased tremor (Lippold 1981). Note that these symptoms can be observed through the use of check sheets, visual inspection (manual and/or through cameras), and self-reported questionnaires among other tools. In our estimation, most methods described above are of limited use in practice since they are either invasive (and will be resisted by individuals/unions) or rely on visual inspection performed by an observer. Perhaps, more importantly, each observational and measurement technique also focuses primarily on one main risk factor, such as posture or force, or a combined set of factors but for a repetitive task, such as the NIOSH work practices guide (Waters et al. 1993). This fails to capture the interactive nature of many fatigue precursors as well as the variability of the work performed. In addition, these methods do not take into account the characteristics of the individual, beyond general anthropometric and demographic attributes, such as height and age. One important consideration is that the application of these methods in field studies and practice have also been limited by the question: “can we detect if fatigue (or its symptoms) has occurred?” Note that this question is binary with a yes/no answer. However, it is well understood that fatigue is a process that occurs as a function of loading, time and exertion and is not an end point. From a safety perspective, a more interesting question is: “Can we predict when fatigue will occur for a given worker based on their schedule, environment and job tasks?” If this can be done, then fatigue management will progress from a reactive state (equivalent of the personal protective equipment state in traditional hazard control theory) to higher/safer levels of engineering controls, substitution and/or perhaps elimination through modeling and scheduling. The increasing availability of pervasive sensing technologies, including wearable devices, combined with the digitization of health information has the potential to provide the necessary monitoring, recording, and communication of individuals’ physical and environmental exposures to address this question (Kim and Nussbaum 2012, Vignais et al. 2013). In the following section, we describe some of the research and commercially available products that are used for predicting/monitoring fatigue development. Predicting Fatigue Development Models for fatigue development are not new, but the existing models are often incomplete. Models for predicting/understanding how humans fatigue have received significant attention over the past few decades in the fields of aviation, driving, mining, and professional athletics. In the transportation areas (i.e. aviation and driving), the models originated from efforts to model the underlying relationships between sleep regulation and circadian dynamics (Dinges 2004). Dinges (2004) present a survey of the biomathematical models used in this area. There are also some surveys on driver fatigue detection models, see e.g. Wang et al. (2006). However, based on our interactions with one of the larger trucking companies in the U.S., these models do not offer answers to the following question: “Given the massive data collected on each truck that include indirect indicators of fatigue, e.g. lane departures and hard brakes, and individual characteristics of each driver, can we predict how each driver will fatigue for a given assignment, traffic condition and weather profile?” With the advent of big data, this is the direction that is needed for fatigue development in the trucking industry. One can make parallels for aviation and military applications. In mining, there are commercially available products that claim to predict fatigue among mine workers. The authors did not have the chance to test these products and thus, we cannot verify/validate these claims. However, if true, this system will be a significant contribution to mining safety. Based on the above discussion, there are several important observations to be made. First, there has not been much independent research verifying the claims made for any commercial products. Thus, practitioners should use them with caution and in tandem with their current safety methods. Second, there have been only limited attempts to perform inter-disciplinary research in fatigue development. Thus, the current approaches are domain-dependent and are often incomplete since they consider only a few precursors. There needs to be a systematic move towards utilizing big data analytics as a mechanism to harness the massive amounts of data that is being captured on our equipment, workers, etc. The research challenge is to ensure that we are asking the right questions prior to considering what the technology can (or cannot) provide. Third, it is somewhat inexplicable that the manufacturing safety community is significantly behind other safety domains. We believe that there is a significant opportunity for both researchers and practitioners in examining how other disciplines are managing fatigue. General Strategies for Fatigue Management and Mitigation There are several somewhat recent publications that detail how to manage physical and/or mental fatigue indicators (Hartley and Commission 2000, Caldwell, Caldwell, and Schmidt 2008, Williamson et al. 2011, Williamson and Friswell 2013). These studies have presented the typical hazard control recommendations, which include administrative and engineering controls that can reduce/mitigate the development of fatigue. Practitioners should also consult the documentation from Transport Canada on Developing and Implementing a Fatigue Risk Management System (https://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/ca-standards/14575e.pdf). Typical interventions include: rest (for physical fatigue), sleep (for alertness), modified work-rest schedules, and limits on the cumulative hours worked in a week (or shift changes). While these strategies are effective for population averages/overall, they do not address the weakest link in the workforce (i.e. those most likely to fatigue and/or get injured). We see much work needed in this area. Concluding Remarks In this paper, we have provided an overview of some of the current issues in fatigue detection/ management research and practice. Based on our review of the literature, we offer the following advice to safety professionals: Transportation Safety Professionals: There is a significant body of research that highlights the impact of lack of sleep (e.g. from sleep apnea and/or scheduling), night driving, weather (e.g. cloudy or rainy), and work-rest schedules on fatigue development. In general, less sleep, night driving, bad weather and frequent changes in the work-rest schedule are more detrimental to transportation safety. To mitigate these risks, the routing/scheduling can be modified to alleviate some of these precursors. In addition, wearable sensors and on-vehicle systems (e.g. lane departure and hard brake detection sensors) can provide real-time indicators of fatigue development in driving. The data from these sensors can be used through simple dashboards that provide the dispatcher with information on which drivers are at risk. The dispatcher can then force these drivers to rest if fatigued (and sleep in-cabin at a truck stop if necessary) since a short break/nap can help mitigate these effects. Manufacturing Safety Professionals: Fatigue has been shown to be a precursor to risky behaviors and long-term injuries. It is also associated with a diminished performance and, therefore, can result in significant quality problems. Based on our discussion with several safety managers from large automotive companies, we have learned that it is often easier to “sell” safety projects to upper management when it is combined with quality improvement initiatives. The rationale is simple to management since they can see a return on investment (ROI) on these projects when compared to a softer objective (reducing/eliminating the probability of a safety problem that has not occurred before). In addition, we challenge practitioners to categorize their at-risk populations (e.g. unexperienced workers, obese and/or elder workers, etc.). These workers cannot be modeled by existing ergonomics and safety models that consider an average worker. Thus, a dashboard and sensors that monitor their absenteeism, quality of their work and/or complaints can be used to trigger appropriate interventions. Mining Safety Researchers: The technology with fatigue monitoring (and more general safety) in mining has evolved significantly over the past decade. There are several commercial products that allow for active monitoring, scheduling, and equipment safety checks. To our knowledge, at least one major equipment manufacturer has released a safety systems suite that incorporates all these data sources to present a clear picture of a worker’s fatigue and distraction risk. We did not test the validity of these claims and therefore, we ask safety practitioners to ask for system demos and ensure that this particular system meets their needs. A word of caution: fatigue detection systems do not mitigate and/or eliminate fatigue. In addition, we urge safety professionals to embrace the role of technology and its potential to redefine safety from a one system fits all to an individualized approach. For researchers and educators, we believe that there is a sufficient body of literature that suggests that our community is headed to individualized safety models. To develop these models, there needs to be an emphasis on managing large amounts of data, revisiting our old models and ensuring that we can offer data-driven interventions for safety/ergonomics problems. In essence, our field is moving towards individualized models and evidence-based interventions. Acknowledgments This research was partially supported by the American Society for Safety Engineers (ASSE) Foundation grant titled “ASSIST: Advancing Safety Surveillance using Individualized Sensor Technology”. Bibliography 2015a. Crash Stats: Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities in 2014. edited by U.S. Department of Transportation – National Highway Traffic Safety Adminstration. Washington, DC: NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2015b. “Large Trucks: 2013 Data (Traffic Safety Facts. DOT HS 812 150).” National Center for Statistics and Analysis, accessed 06/01. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812150.pdf. Aaronson, Lauren S, Cynthia S Teel, Virginia Cassmeyer, Geri B Neuberger, Leonie Pallikkathayil, Janet Pierce, Allan N Press, Phoebe D Williams, and Anita Wingate. 1999. “Defining and measuring fatigue.” Image: the journal of nursing scholarship 31 (1):45-50. Balkin, Thomas J., William J. Horrey, R. Curtis Graeber, Charles A. Czeisler, and David F. Dinges. 2011. “The challenges and opportunities of technological approaches to fatigue management.” Accident Analysis

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