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Ashworth College Aerobic versus Anaerobic What Is the Difference Discussion

Ashworth College Aerobic versus Anaerobic What Is the Difference Discussion.

Needs to be sent in two different docs one discussion 1 an discussion 2 I’ll send The students responded when I get them AssignmentDue DateFormatGrading PercentAerobic Versus Anaerobic: What is the Difference?Day 3(1st post)Discussion4Energy SourcesDay 3(1st post)Discussion4Energy Spectrum of ExerciseDay 7Assignment8Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.Learning OutcomesThis week students will:Analyze how aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism affects optimal energy transfer.Explain the advantages of having diverse sources of energy.Analyze the body’s energy systems and their contributions to exercise intensity and duration.Evaluate the effectiveness of the energy spectrum of exercise in the formulation of optimal training regimens.IntroductionOur ability to move depends on how well our bodies are able to use food to release the energy required by our muscles. This week we will examine the body’s diverse energy systems and how they work together to extract energy from food in order to transfer that energy during rest and the stress of exercise. We will also evaluate the effectiveness of anaerobic and aerobic processes in the performance of exercise activities. Additionally, we will analyze how specific energy systems in the body contribute to the duration and intensity of sport-specific exercise activities.Required ResourcesREQUIRED TEXTKatch, V., McArdle, W., & Katch, F. (2015). Essentials of exercise physiology. (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.vitalsource.com/Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Energy TransferChapter 6 Human Energy Transfer During Physical ActivityMULTIMEDIAFilms Media Group. (2010). Exercise. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database in the Ashford University Library.Accessibility StatementPrivacy PolicyGarner, S. (Writer & Producer), & Tilson, L. (Director). (2003). Energy systems in the body [Video segment]. In M. McAuliffe (Executive Producer), Principles of training: Preparing for a purpose [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.Accessibility StatementPrivacy PolicyRees, R. (Director). (2013) Cell respiration [Streaming video]. Retrieved from the Films on Demand database.Accessibility StatementPrivacy PolicyThomas, S. E., & Noubani, F. (Writers). (2014). Cell metabolism and respiration[Streaming video]. Retrieved from the Films on Demand database.Accessibility StatementPrivacy PolicyRecommended ResourcesARTICLESHall, K.D. (2010). Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 298(3):E449-66. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00559.2009Hall, K.D., Sacks, G., Chandramohan, D., Chow, C.C., Wang, Y.C., Gortmaker, S.L., & Swinburn, B.A. (2011). Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. The Lancet, 378(9793):826-837. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60812-XKabasakalis, A., Tsalis, G., Zafrana, E., Loupos, D., & Mougios, V. (2014). Effects of endurance and high-intensity swimming exercise on the redox status of adolescent male and female swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(8): 747-756. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2013.850595Powers, S.K., Nelson, W.B., & Hudson, M.B. (2010). Exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans: cause and consequences. Free Radic Biol Med, 51(5):942-50. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.12.009Scott, C.B. (2011). Quantifying the immediate recovery energy expenditure of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 25(4):1159-63. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d64eb5Scott, C.B., Littlefield, N.D., Chason, J.D., Bunker, M.P., & Asselin, E.M. (2006). Differences in oxygen uptake but equivalent energy expenditure between a brief bout of cycling and running. Nutr Metab (Lond), 3:1.Scott, C.B., Fountaine, C. (2013). Estimating the energy costs of intermittent exercise. J Hum Kinet, 38:107-13. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2013-0050WEBSITESCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/index.html.Accessibility StatementPrivacy PolicySports Fitness Advisor. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.sport-fitness-advisor.com/Accessibility Statement does not exist.Privacy PolicyHWE 340 Exercise and PhysiologyWeek Two GuidancePlease click on the PowerPoint symbol to download this week’s lecture, or click hereto open a PDF version of the lecture.Remember, all work is checked for plagiarism. I will remind the class of this, because it happens and when it does, it puts your integrity and grade at risk. Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.Aerobic Versus Anaerobic: What is the Difference? [CLOs: 2, 3, 5] [WLOs: 1, 3]After reading Chapter 5 and 6 in the course text and viewing Physical Training Strategies: Preparing for a Purpose: Energy System in the Body, select one of the following: a triathlete, a football player, a gymnast, and one phase of their sport. For example, if you choose the triathlete you can choose the cycling phase of their activity, or if you choose the football player, you could choose the sprint phase of their activity, or if you choose the gymnast, you may choose the backflip phase of their activity.As your athlete performs the chosen activity, discuss whether rapid or slow glycolysis is the most effective means of energy transfer?What physiological factors contributed to your analysis (e.g. hydrogen release, lactate formation, glucose catabolism, etc.)?Explain the benefits of lactate for optimal performance of the chosen activity.Your research and claims must be supported by your course text and a minimum of two additional scholarly sources. Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Guided Response: Review some of your classmates’ posts. Identify at least two classmates who chose a different athlete than you chose and analyze the appropriateness of the type of glycolysis they discussed. Then, explain if you agree with the benefits of lactate identified for their chosen activity. Support your reasoning for each response to your classmates with at least one scholarly source.Week 2 discussion 1After reading Chapter 5 and 6 in the course text and viewing Physical Training Strategies: Preparing for a Purpose: Energy System in the Body, select one of the following: a triathlete, a football player, a gymnast, and one phase of their sport. For example, if you choose the triathlete you can choose the cycling phase of their activity, or if you choose the football player, you could choose the sprint phase of their activity, or if you choose the gymnast, you may choose the backflip phase of their activity.As your athlete performs the chosen activity, discuss whether rapid or slow glycolysis is the most effective means of energy transfer?What physiological factors contributed to your analysis (e.g. hydrogen release, lactate formation, glucose catabolism, etc.)?Explain the benefits of lactate for optimal performance of the chosen activity.Your research and claims must be supported by your course text and a minimum of two additional scholarly sources. Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Guided Response: Review some of your classmates’ posts. Identify at least two classmates who chose a different athlete than you chose and analyze the appropriateness of the type of glycolysis they discussed. Then, explain if you agree with the benefits of lactate identified for their chosen activity. Support your reasoning for each response to your classmates with at least one scholarly source.week 2 discussion 2This discussion will has three parts:Part One: Your initial post as The Training Consultant (Due Day 3)Before completing this discussion, watch Cell Metabolism and Respiration. Then, imagine that you are a training consultant for a professional soccer player. The soccer player wants to know how the body creates ATP from fat, protein and carbohydrates. In your post explain:Fat metabolismProtein metabolismCarbohydrate metabolismThe benefits of having different energy sourcesYour research and claims must be supported by your course text and a minimum of two additional scholarly sources. Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Guided Response: Part Two: Your reply as The Soccer Player (Due Day 5) Review some of your classmates’ posts. Imagine that you are the soccer player receiving this information from the consultant (your classmate). What questions do you have for the consultant? Do you agree with the information provided? Why or why not?Respond to at least one of your classmates. Support your reasoning with at least one scholarly source.Part Three: Your rebuttal as the Training Consultant (Due Day 7)Rebut at least one of your classmates’ responses to your initial post. Support your reasoning with at least one scholarly source.
Ashworth College Aerobic versus Anaerobic What Is the Difference Discussion

Nutrient Cycle of an Isolated Cave

Nutrient Cycle of an Isolated Cave. Introduction The caves are simple natural laboratories. The climate of the cave is very stable and easy to define. Cave environment is composed with a twilight part close to the entrance, a middle part of full darkness and unstable temperature, finally a part of full darkness and stable temperature in deeper. The twilight part is the biggest and most diverse fauna container. The middle part contains some common species which can move to the earth. The deeper dark sides, which are the unique aspect of the cave environment and contain obligate (trolobitic) fauna. Green plant can’t live in stable darkness. So, the food reserve here in other forms (Poulson and White, 1969). Animal communities in the caves look remarkable chances for the investigation of community dynamics because of their relative simplicity. A comparatively small number of species is involved in even in most complex cave community but exceptionally large numbers of colonies of bats are present here. In absence of light, primary producers are absent or at least limited to chemosynthetic autotrophs. Sulfur and iron bacteria are present in some caves but their quantitative significance as producers has not yet been established (Barr Jr, 1967). The superficial nutritive part of cave clay in the blind amphipods of the genus Niphargus show that juvenile stages burrow widely and probably eat the clay in the bottom of cave pools. Presumably the juveniles utilize the bacterial content of the clay rather than the mineral material itself; and in any case, continued survival of the adults is dependent upon the presence of additional food (Barr Jr, 1967). In addition to absence of light, the physical environment of a cave is characterized by silence, relatively constant temperature which approximates the mean annual temperature of the region where the cave is located, high relative humidity except near entrances, is accompanied by an exceptionally low rate of evaporation (Barr Jr, 1967). Cave Habitats and Ecology Different types of caves contain variety of habitats within them and differ in amount and types of energy level. Cave supports heterotrophic microbial populations in the presence of huge input of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus due to accumulation of guano and dead bats, if a cave has substantial or modest populations of bats (Cheeptham, 2012). Guano is a organic deposit common in cave derived from mainly feces of a variety of animals specially bats that visit or live and provide habitat rich in nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus that’s are nutrients for many insects (Cheeptham, 2012; IUCNSSC, 2014). Ecological classification of cavernicoles was first prepared by (Schiner, 1853)and improved and promoted by (Racovitza, 1907).They splits them into (1) troglobites, which are obligate species to the cave; (2) troglophiles, which live and reproduce not only in caves but also in cool, dark, moist microhabitats outside of caves they termed as facultative species; (3) trogloxenes, species those use caves for shelter throughout the day but feed outdoor at night; and (4) cave accidentals, which Confused with those species that certain small troglobites are also phreatobites (Barr Jr, 1967). Figure-Different zones of a cave The major energy sources of cave ecosystems are (a) organic matter flounced underground by sinking streams, and (b) the feces, eggs, and dead bodies of animals those are persist in the cave for shelter but feed outside (trogloxenes). In temperate region caves flooding and the entering of cold air throughout winter and initial spring interrupt the comparatively constant physical conditions of the cave environment (Barr Jr, 1967). The security of roosting sites is a vital element of any policy for the conservation of bats. Since caves are the foremost roosts for numerous bat species (Dalquest and Walton, 1970; Kunz, 1982). There are various types of bat species and large number of bats found in different cave, Seventeen species of bats roost in the caves of Yucatan, Mexico. The conservation of these types of sites should be of principal attention for the protection of chiropteran species (Arita, 1996). Cave communities Connectivity among communities is continued by the rearrangement of biomass, frequently by mobile animals that eat resources in one habitat and then reproduce, urinate, and/or defecate in other surroundings. This transmission of organic material affects the nutrient budget of a community and effects population and food web dynamics (Emerson and Roark, 2007). Cave-roosting species spent half of their lives inside the caves (Kunz, 1982). The security of cave atmospheres is essential to guarantee their conservation. In a parallel fashion, the presence of bats might be an essential state for the existence of cave environments. In channels with no bats, biomass thickness in a typical North American cave can be as little as 1 g/ha in ponds or 20-30 g/ha in terrestrial zones (Poulson and White, 1969). In contrast, passageways covered with bat guano present an excess of nutrients and provide very diverse groups of arthropods (Barr Jr, 1968; Harris, 1970; Poulson, 1972). For endogenous primary manufacture by chemosynthetic bacteria is insignificant, cave communities depend completely on exogenous origins of nutrients for their maintenance (Culver, 1982). Figure-Cave communities and feeding cycle Nutrients can be occupied into a cave in the form of detritus and plant material passed by watercourses, as dissolved organic matter infiltrating through minute cracks or exuding from tree roots (Howarth, 1972; Howarth, 1983), otherwise they can be placed inside caves as feces of trogloxenes, for example cave crickets, bats, birds, and other animals (Harris, 1970; Poulson, 1972; Culver, 1982). In various tropical caves, bat guano is by far the most significant source of nutrients. By carrying tons of organic matter to the caves, bats act as transferable links concerning cave environments with the external world (Arita, 1996). Any animal existing in a cave can be said as a cavernicole. Troglobites, which are obligate cavernicoles, are the emphasis of this appraisal. Many troglobites are offspring of troglophiles. Facultative cave populations are able to alive in or outside caves. Trogloxenes are consistent cave inhabitants that return intermittently to the exterior for food; bats and cave-crickets are examples. Main taxonomic collections of animals with various troglobitic species comprise collembolans, turbellarians, millipedes, spiders, pseudoscorpions, gastropods opilionidsisopods, amphipods, diplurans, decapods, beetles (Pselaphidae, Carabidae, Leiodidae), salamanders and fishes.(Barr and Holsinger, 1985) Cave Nutrient Cycle Food contribution into a cave ecosystem is attributable to two chief sources- sinking watercourses, which wash twigs, logs, bacteria, leaves and epigean animals (including zooplankton) into caves; and trogloxenes, which deposit their eggs and feces in caves and frequently die there and donate their bodies to the ecosystem (Barr Jr, 1967). Species from exterior sources include the bulk of the plankton in the Cave (Scott, 1909) and rivers inside Cave (Kofoid, 1899). Smaller individuals of the blind cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea, feed mainly on copepods in this plankton (Poulson, 1963). Plant fragments are placed along the banks of subterranean streams, where they are gradually decomposed by bacteria and fungi. The decomposers provide food for detritus-feeding animals (e.g., diplurans, milli-pedes, and collembolans) which are then eaten by predators (e.g., opilionids, spiders, carabid beetles, pseudoscorpions). Bats and the eastern cave crickets of the genus Hadenoecus (Park and Barr, 1961) are important guano manufacturers in caves of the United States. Few troglobites are able to use the guano directly, while guano is usually populated by a characteristic assemblage of troglophiles which may be eaten by predatory troglobites (Jeannel, 1949). Seasonal differences in the physical atmosphere and food supply of temperate zone caves are often unexpectedly drastic. During late winter and spring overflowing of rivers Cave, typically raises the water level 5 or 6 m, and a maximum rise of nearly 15 m has been recorded. Additionally the flood is a drop in temperature of the water and small increases in pH, entire alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen (Barr Jr, 1967). A much longer existence time in a riparian species of cave beetle when the riparian species and another species usually found in drier, higher cave galleries were immersed in water. Many species of Pseudanophthalmus and Ameroduvalius (troglobitic Carabidae) normally feed on little tubificid annelids in the damp silt along cave streams (Barr Jr and Peck, 1965). The effects of flooding on aquatic cavernicoles, suggesting that spring floods may trigger their reproductive cycles (Poulson, 1964). Winter poses additional hazards for terrestrial troglobites. Food supplies vary seasonally in caves. Guano deposition by bats is limited to summer months, and Hadenoecus spp. feed outside the caves less often throughout winter than in summer, so there is minimum guano supply in winter. Conversely, deposition of organic detritus by watercourses is improved in winter because of flooding, but decomposition of the fragments takes place gradually over the time of several months or years. A great plankton count in Echo River of Mammoth Cave occurs only throughout late spring or summer floods, when plankton manufacture in Green River, which provides the flood waters, is great (Barr Jr, 1967). The genus Pseudanophthalmus covers about 175 species (many of them not yet described) and is known from Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois and Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio (Barr Jr and Peck, 1965). Ameroduvalius, limited to south- east Kentucky, has only three species; Nelsonites, from the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee and Kentucky, has two; and Neaphaenops and Darlingtonea, from many parts of Kentucky, are monobasic. All of these beetles are predatory troglobites and are supposed to be remnants of a well-known soil-and-moss-dwelling periglacial fauna (Barr Jr, 1965). Figure- The cave food pyramid Guano Bat guano supports an accumulation of organisms that differs depending on the species of bat manufacturing it. Alterations in guano composition propose that guano from bats in unlike feeding guilds can affect ecosystem configuration and dynamics differently (Emerson and Roark, 2007). Allochthonous effort of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are found in comparatively high concentrations in bird guano, increases primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems by improving the quality and quantity of vegetation (Polis et al., 1997). Nutrient input through guano deposition by seabirds has also been shown to increase the abundance of organisms such as detritivorous beetles on islands used by roosting seabirds (Sánchez-Piñero and Polis, 2000). In addition to its effects on primary and secondary productivity, allochthonous nutrient input can also influence community structure the presence of birds and nutrient-rich guano significantly alters the structure of intertidal communities by enhancing algal growth and settlement of invertebrates in dense algalmats (Bosman and Hockey, 1986). Such consumer-driven nutrient recycling via fecal deposition by bats also affects community structure in guano-based ecosystems. Bat guano forms the basis of a food web consisting of bacteria, fungi, protozoans, nematodes, and arthropods (Harris, 1970). Cave salamanders consume guano of grey bats (Myotis grisescens) and incorporate the nutrients they obtain through coprophagy into body tissues (Fenolio et al., 2006). The diversity of organisms associated with guano has been shown to vary depending on the diet of the bat producing it, with guano of sanguivorous, insectivorous, and frugivorous bats supporting different assemblages of invertebrates (Ferreira and Martins, 1998). Differences in guano composition (C, N,P, and mass ratios) most likely resulted from dissimilarities in nutrient composition of the diets of each bat species (Studier et al., 1994). Variation in nutrients and stoichiometric nutrient ratios of guano from bats in different feeding guilds could have considerable effects on producers, consumers, and decomposers living on or in guano. Figure- Collection of guano from cave As highlighted by (Sterner and Elser, 2002) and subsequently in reviews by (Vrede et al., 2004) and (Moe et al., 2005), relationships among elemental nutrients have the potential to regulate processes at many ecological levels, including production, individual and population growth, coexistence of species, rates of decomposition of organic matter, and nutrient cycling. Primary production in terrestrial ecosystems (as in marine systems) is thought to be limited by the availability of N and P (Vitousek and Howarth, 1991), and the input of these nutrients by fecal deposition can have considerable bottom-up influences in detritus-based ecosystems. Ecosystem-level effects of different nutrient contents could also result from differences in rates of conversion of nutrients in guano from biologically unavailable to available forms (Vitousek et al., 1988). Differences in guano nutrient profiles could have considerable ecological consequences ranging from effects on the growth or productivity of individual residents of guano piles to effects on ecosystem-level processes like decomposition and nutrient cycling (Emerson and Roark, 2007). REFERENCE ARITA, H. T. 1996. The conservation of cave-roosting bats in Yucatan, Mexico. Biological Conservation, 76, 177-185. BARR JR, T. C. 1965. The Pseudanophthalmus of the Appalachian Valley (Coleoptera: Carabidae). American Midland Naturalist, 41-72. BARR JR, T. C. 1967. Observations on the ecology of caves. American Naturalist, 475-491. BARR JR, T. C. 1968. Cave ecology and the evolution of troglobites. Evolutionary biology. Springer. BARR JR, T. C.Nutrient Cycle of an Isolated Cave

Uncertainty Reduction and Social Penetration Theories in Tackling Obesity

assignment writer Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Communication is inescapable in human life and living things at large. Communication refers to the passing of information between two parties, interpersonal, or within oneself in mind, intrapersonal. The main components of communication are; source, message, medium, recipient, and feedback. However, to enhance the understanding of communication, theories have been put in place to clarify an organization, aspects, and total know-how of it. The achievement can only be attained when the theories are applied in the real-life issue. As a result, the paper emphasizes the application of the methods in a real-life context – tackling obesity with a healthcare physician. Mainly, the theories in focus are the uncertainty reduction and social penetration theories. The paper is arranged systematically – from an overview of the theories to their application in a real-life issue. Overview of the Theories Social Penetration Theory In real life, everyone happens to be in a relationship, though in different contexts. The depth of the relationship always affects the communication space, ranging from intimate to public space. The social penetration theory has the sole purpose of elaborating on the process of interaction that creates the transition from one level to another, particularly from shallow to intimate friendship (Carpenter

Transformational Leadership in Nursing

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Ashley Freeman Introduction Transformational leadership theory is the process whereby the leaders attends to the needs and motives of their followers so that the interaction advance each to higher levels of morality and motivation (Yoder-Wise, P., 2014, pg. 10). In its most optimal form, it produces positive and valuable change within the followers with the purpose of developing the followers into leaders. When a leader embodies transformational leadership, they enhance the morale, motivation and performance of followers with various techniques. These techniques include helping the followers to connect their sense of self and identity to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; inspire followers by being their role model; challenge followers to go above and beyond what is expected of them, and understand their strengths and weakness, so the leader can assign tasks to its followers that can optimize their performance. Background In 1978 leadership expert, James McGregor Burns developed the first concept of the transforming leadership theory. He created this theory to address the aspects of an organization in which leaders focus on the beliefs, success, needs and values of their employees. According to Burns (1978), “the transforming approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of employees.” In 1985 Bernard M. Bass extended the work of Burns by explaining transforming leadership, but using the term transformational instead, that the followers of such leaders feel, trust, appreciation, constancy and respect for the leader because of the attributes of the transformational leader willingness to work harder than anticipated. Transformational Leadership in Nursing Transformational leaders have the following characteristics: model of integrity and fairness, effective communication skills, provides support and recognition, sets clear goals, visionary, encourage others and has high expectations (Yoder-Wise, P., 2015). My current nurse manager, Cathy, is a transformational leader. She allows the Patient Care Coordinators (PCCs) or charge nurses and sometimes the staff to participant in the decision making. As one of the PCCs, Cathy lets me make decisions about staffing and I am responsible for scheduling the staff. “She provides constructive criticism, offers information, makes suggestions, and ask questions (Blais

Discussion 3

Discussion 3. Paper details   Select one or two specific changes from the Higher Education Act of 2008 and present them to the class, summarizing the regulation and the impact on the institution. How could the changes you discussed impact regional and program specific accredation?Discussion 3