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Ashford University The American Dream Notion of Democracy Discussion

Ashford University The American Dream Notion of Democracy Discussion.

I’m working on a business writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

Please follow all instructions, use example and use the articles and novel and also the movie (between the world and me) and also the novel (Passing by nella larsen)In order to achieve the American dream, justice needs to be the number one priority in society. If police officers who killed black people like Prince Jones or Breonna Taylor faced strong sentences, next police officer will think a thousand times before killing another innocent human. The idea of passing shouldn’t be in this world, it’s our world everyone should go anywhere and do whatever they want no matter their race. The American dream wasn’t only in America but in the world. The black people’s army was trying to free Spain from the fascist army in order to live like humans. Moreover, the poetry Harlem mentioned that the dream was deferred and that refers to the American Dream <<< These are my ideas regarding the American dream please use them as a guide. Below are the instructionsMany people think they know what the “American Dream” is, but as we’ve discussed, the American Dream means different things to different people. Your goal in this essay is to try to define how our readings up to this point help conceptualize and complicate American Dream with regard to African American literature. What does it mean in this literature and in the literary theory we have read? How might it vary over historical and social or cultural conditions?Your essay seeks to define, complicate, and narrate what the American Dream entails. In order to do this, you’ll need to include several components in your essay. Before you begin, brainstorm and free write to come up with the themes you think are most important. Some of the following may be appropriate.Use definition to clarify your concepts. You might consider giving examples to supply definition, using negation (telling what something is not), dividing the word into components “American” and “Dream” and then putting them together, or providing an analogy. You might also think about some of the words we’ve defined, such as journey, passing, diaspora, canon, resistance, etc.Use literary examples. Drawing on the literature we’ve read so far explain how characters, settings, or themes fit into a discussion of the American Dream.Choose one or two themes that you believe characterize the American Dream. Write a strong thesis statement that argues your claim and carry it throughout your essay as you seek a clear, complicated definition of the American Dream. It should be Times New Roman, 12pt font, one inch margins, 3 pages minimum, have a thesis, and be well-developed. You must use at least three of the texts we’ve covered so far–Passing, Between the World and Me, Langston Hughes’ poetry, “The Danger of a Single Story,” and the two articles we’ve read. You will also need a works cited that doesn’t count in the page length
Ashford University The American Dream Notion of Democracy Discussion

Read the article “Key Trends in Workforce Management and New Challenges for HR.” located in the Business Source Complete database of the CSU Online Library by clicking the link below: Moschetto, M. (2014, Winter). Key trends in workforce management and new challenges for HR. Employment Relations Today, 40(4), 7–13.
Self Defence Issues and Implication in Cyberspace Research Paper. Introduction Cyber crime is a growing global problem. Despite intense efforts by law enforcement officers to stop the practice, cyber crime continues to spread. Brenner (2010) says that partly, the growth of cyber crime stems from the extra-territorial nature of the practice. On the contrary, Wall (2007) argues that the growth of cyber crime mainly stems from the changing nature of such crimes. The abuse of new technology has also led to the spread of this practice. Consequently, there have been rising numbers of cyber attacks in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). These countries have reported cyber crimes for many years and despite the increased attempts to curb their spread, they continue to increase. Loader (2012) reports that developed countries, which do not have an established internet connection also, report increased incidences of cyber crime. The American government has taken cyber security with utmost importance. In fact, the US Homeland Security considers America as a thriving ground for cyber crimes. This is because America is not only a victim of such attacks, but also the source of most attacks (Schell 2004). The Anti-Phishing Working Group recently produced new statics that show the growth of cyber crimes within the past year (Chik 2012). Increased awareness of cyber crime in the UK and America has largely informed the rise in the number of cyber crime litigation in both countries. However, most of these litigations do not have a common legislative basis. This paper explores the nature of cyber crime in the context of the law of defence (in the US and the UK). From this analysis, this paper highlights the legal underpinnings of UK and US laws on self-defence. A lot of emphasis is made to compare the application of the law of defence on cyber crime, viz-a-viz the application of the same laws in the “physical world.” In this regard, this paper explores the law of defence (as outlined by the UN), the right to bear arms, and the implications of these laws in the cyberspace. UK and US Laws on Cyber Crime America Since federal and state governments govern American states, the process of formulating laws divides between the state and federal governments. Usually, state laws are more applicable to cyber crime, unless there is a special situation where there is a need for Federal intervention (Chik 2012). For example, when cyber crime threatens national security, Federal cyber laws may apply. Alternatively, when the prevention of cyber crime requires the uniform application of law, the Federal government may intervene in the formulation (or enforcement) of such laws. Therefore, because of the distributed functions of state and federal governments, both governments have contributed in the formulation and enforcement of cyber law. Nonetheless, because of the political differences in America, every state formulates and enforces their laws. There is therefore no legal requirement for all American states to adopt uniform laws (Chik 2012). UK Specific legislations on cyber crime in Europe inform UK’s cyber laws. Indeed, there is a close relationship between Europe’s public policy on self-defence and UK’s legislations on the same. For example, the UK is subject to cyber crime legislations, as formulated by Council of Europe (CoE). Therefore, the provisions of self-defence laws (under the convention) are applicable in the UK, as they are applicable in other European countries (that are signatories to the convention). The close historical, geographic, and economic relation between UK and Europe inform the close interconnection between the UK and Europe’s cyber laws. Nonetheless, the most common law governing cyber crime in the UK is the Computer Misuse Act of 1990 (Securelist 2012). The government has however updated this act with newer and stiffer penalties. The quest to update this law came from the inadequacies of existing laws to curb hacking activities within the UK. More so, this issue came into sharp focus when previously existing legislations failed to convict Stephen Gold and Robert Schifreen for gaining unauthorised access to a UK organisation, BT Prestel services. Because of the inadequacy of the law to convict the two suspects, the court acquitted them. The Right of Defence Normally, every country has a right to defend its people against any form of attack. However, technological advancements have introduced a new form of attack, which contravenes the conventional wisdom regarding the right to defend a country. The cyberspace is the platform where conventional rules of self-defence have been broken (Arsene 2012). However, as Moore (2010) observes, several countries still adopt a conventional approach to prevent cyber attacks. For example, the US uses the military to defend the country against cyber attacks. Arsene (2012) questions the justification for doing so, because there are many risks associated with adopting a military approach to defending a country against cyber attacks. One risk is the overlap of self-defence and conventional space defence strategies. In other words, militarising cyber security may take a war-like approach, which should not be the case. Therefore, while conventional wisdom may approve the use of force in conventional space, the use of force as a right to self-defence may not work in the cyber world. Therefore, even though a cyber attack may manifest the same characteristics as a conventional attack, responding to such an attack with force may be unlawful (Arsene 2012). People often compare the self-defence law to the English law. Researchers say this law is part of private defence because it allows for the use of illegal means to prevent an attack (or protect a country from harm) (Himma 2008). In Britain, this law stems from the common law and the criminal law act of 1967 (Samaha 2005). One common principle of self-defence rules focus on the use of reasonable force to prevent an attack. Therefore, from the nature of the law, self-defence is more of a justification as opposed to an excuse (Scheb 2011, p. 417). Globally, the right of self-defence in cyber attacks is still an unresolved issue. Indeed, because of some complexities identified when comparing cyber attacks with conventional attacks, it is difficult for countries to exercise (blindly) their right to self-defence without considering the unique dynamics of cyber attacks (Committee on Deterring Cyber attacks 2010, p. 163). The UK and the US share the same approach to cyber attacks. Both countries propose the use of force when cyber attacks result in death, injury, harm, or destruction of property. However, the US has been most vocal about this provision. In fact, there are loud calls in the US to treat cyber attacks like “ordinary” attacks if they cause death or property destruction. The US Defence Department claims that it will not hesitate to use force to defend itself against cyber attacks that can kill, destroy property, or harm its people. The Right of Defence as Per the UN Law and Proportionality of Response Article 2 (4) of the UN charter describes situations when countries can use force for self-defence (Ellen 2012). The clause discourages the use of force as a means to solve international conflicts, but it approves it when states need to defend themselves from external aggression. Article 51 of the UN charter stipulates this provision (Ellen 2012). Many people have interpreted the provisions of this charter to either support or oppose the use of force as a self-defence mechanism in cyberspace attacks (Jasper 2012). Here, the main dilemma centres on whether to use force, even when there is no armed attack (like in the cyberspace). Some analysts have approved the use of force in such situations, while others deny the use of force (Ellen 2012). Because of the dilemma caused by the application of Article 51 (the use of force as a self-defence mechanism), the International Court of Justice has been forced to interpret the use of force as a self-defence mechanism. Milhorn (2007) explains the court’s ruling by demonstrating that the use of force as a self-defence mechanism only applies to situations where there is significant and the real threat of a country. The charter also stipulates that the use of force only apply to the specific country that wants to defend itself (Ellen 2012). Moreover, the article says that the intention to defend the country using force should show a high probability of success. Lastly, the charter says that the force applied should be proportional to the damage suffered from the attack (Schiller 2010). All the above stipulations are difficult to apply in the cyberspace. In fact, some observers say it is impossible to apply the above provisions in cyber crime (Wyler 2005). Usually, the complication arises when determining any direct loss of life (or any loss of property) that meets the conditions of triggering article 51. Broadly, it is often difficult to find the evidence that would trigger the activation of article 51. The complications brought by the nature of cyber crime also pose a challenge to the implementation of article 51 of the UN charter because some cyber crimes are difficult to trace to one country. Moreover, even if a state traces the source of the attack to one country, they may not know the individual who is directing the attack (Wyler 2005). For example, an attacker may infiltrate innocent servers and use them to direct the attacks, as a zombie. Furthermore, trying to trace such attackers may consume a lot of time. Estonia and Iran provide examples of the difficulty of tracing attackers because even though the countries experienced cyber attacks a few years back, they have still been unable to know the real identity of the attackers. Lastly, the main issue affecting the use of force (as stipulated in article 51 of the UN charter) rests on the need to prove proportionality and necessity (Himma 2008, p. 410). Besides the time-consuming nature of knowing the identity of attackers, it is also difficult to prove that allowing a counter-attack may achieve the objective of preventing the attack. Similarly, it is difficult to limit the effects on intended targets if a defensive attack occurs. From the strict circumstances that the UN allows defensive attacks, it is difficult to meet the criterion for launching an armed attack in cyber crime (Carr 2011, p. 50). Therefore, even though cyber attacks may interfere with a country’s economic sphere, air space, maritime space, and territorial integrity, it is difficult to depend on article 51 of the UN charter to justify defensive attacks on cyber crimes. Right to Bear Arms In the UK, the right to bear arms is part of the English common law. Scholars, such as, Aristotle and Machiavelli have also recognised this right as part of a person’s right to self-defence. Similarly, the US constitution also acknowledges the right to bear arms as part of self-defence laws. The same protection replicates in several state constitutions. Still in the US, the government introduced the right to bear arms as a second amendment to the bill of rights. In the UK, the common law tradition acknowledges the right to bear arms (Wyler 2005). Parliamentary supremacy in the UK has however imposed many regulations to the right to bear arms. For example, the prerogative to control the right to bear arms shifted from the monarch to parliament. Notably, the Pistol act of 1903 was the main legislative provision that regulated the right to bear arms (Wyler 2005). The right to bear arms covers several weapons that are offensive to the law. Knives and firearms are the main weapons considered offensive by the UK law. While the right to bear arms may be a critical part of self-defence law, its applicability in the cyberspace is impractical. Indeed, the right to bear arms aim to protect a person from a physical assault (or harm). However, attacks in the cyber world are intangible. Similarly, as other situations described in this paper, it is difficult to know the attacker. Therefore, it is equally difficult to apply the right to bear arms as a means to protect a person from cyberspace attacks. Case Studies Cyber space security poses unique challenges to the application of self-defence laws. For example, when two people share organisational resources through open port access, it is difficult to establish the legal justification for using self-defence legal provisions if an attacker tries to infiltrate the cyber network. This situation is true when one party gives another party the authority to gain access to the organisation’s resources, and the second party responds to a security threat through the established connection. Technically, the second party would not be breaching the law because he responds to the attacker through an established connection. In the above situation, it is difficult to establish the right legal framework for approaching the issue because the intention of the attacker is not established. If the second party knew the intention of the attacker, it would be easier to justify the action of the second party who acts in self-defence. This scenario elopes in the Computer misuse act, which seeks to establish the intention of the attacker (first) before any legal consequences are determined. Without knowing the intention of the attacker, it is difficult to establish that the law was broken. An incident that occurred in the UK, in 2004, demonstrates the need to establish the intention of the attacker before castigating an attacker. Here, an organisation accused a teenager of destroying a server by sending millions of mails to the server (Ellen 2012). However, the court ruled that the defendant had not contravened the computer misuse act because his actions did not lead to any unauthorised changes to the information in the computers. The failure to prove the intention of the defendant proved to be the biggest weakness here. However, if the organisation could prove that the teenager changed the information in their servers, they would have established the intention of the attack and held the defendant liable for his actions. They however failed to do so. The above case highlights the need to establish the intention of an attacker as he tries to gain access to the cyber network. With the absence of a determined intention from the attacker, it is difficult to justify a response to an enemy threat. Therefore, the existence of the intention to gain unauthorised access to a cyber attack does not provide sufficient ground to warrant a counter-attack. However, if the attacker went further and altered information on the servers, substantial grounds for a response would be sufficient to warrant a conviction. In a situation where an attacker declares that he is part of a wider network of global cyber commons, issues of self-defence also arise because if an attacker is part of the global cyber commons, he may install cookies into an organisation’s resources. Cookie installation poses significant threats to online privacy and security because an organisation’s resources could be availed to a third party, thereby compromising an organisation’s cyber safety. Indeed, through the installation of cookies, an attacker may easily access an organisation’s resources and use them to harm it. Bajaj (2012) says that the installation of cookies resembles the storage of an organisation’s resource in a central database where everyone can gain access to it. Moreover, an attacker may intercept an organisation’s traffic (through cookies sent on ordinary unencrypted Http sessions) and use the information acquired here to harm the organisation (Bajaj 2012). Therefore, even though an attacker may be part of the global cyber commons, he may pose significant threats to an organisation. These threats prompt organisations to defend themselves. Therefore, based on the severity and the possibility of such threats occurring, it is crucial for an organisation to defend itself from such risks. Stated differently, if a burglar enters a person’s house, the owner of the house has a right to defend himself. However, the cyberspace (as part of the global cyber common) poses unique challenges to cyber security (and more specifically for issues of self-defence). Albeit an artificial one, Bajaj (2012) explains that the cyberspace is part of the global cyber commons. Therefore, like other national assets like the sea, oceans, land, and air, states need to protect the global cyber commons against any attack. However, unlike physical resources like land and oceans, the global cyber common does not have national borders. Therefore, except for a few strategies discussed in this report, it is very difficult to defend a country/organisation (completely) from attacks in the global cyber commons. However, if an attacker declares that he is part of the global cyber commons and installs cookies in an organisation’s resource base, the law of self-defence applies because as a resource owner it is crucial to monitor the activities of every website visitor. Even though there may be significant flaws in comparing the cyberspace with the physical world, monitoring visitor activities on an organisation’s website resembles installing CCTV cameras to monitor shoppers’ activities in a supermarket. This is a critical safety measure of self-defence. Nationally, states also protect their interest in the global commons because they understand the implications of the global cyber commons on national security and strategic interests (Bajaj 2012). This is especially more profound in the US. Therefore, protecting a nation’s interest in the cyber common network forms part of national defence. The same justifications, which countries use to protect their national interests in the cyber commons, outline the justification for the enforcement of self-defence laws to monitor visitors’ activities on an organisation’s website. Different organisations have adopted different strategies for defending themselves against attacks from the global commons. One such strategy is the installation of filters to enforce censorship. However, none of these strategies provide absolute protection to an organisation because the protocols for gaining access to organisational resources are accessible from anywhere in the world. Therefore, different servers and networks can access company resources from different locations around the world. Broadly, the laws for defending an organisation/country against cyber attacks are still unrefined, but it is crucial to say, different countries and organisations continue to pursue the same strategy they would use when defending themselves against physical attacks. Conclusion Self-defence laws aim to protect people and organisations from injury, or harm. However, the changing technological nature of the environment has brought new challenges to the applicability of these laws. Often, the law has played catch up to cyberspace attacks and even developed countries are still grappling with the challenge of enforcing self-defence laws without contravening other laws. This paper demonstrates that the provision for the enforcement of self-defence laws pose unique challenges to the enforcement of the same laws in the cyber world. Therefore, albeit cyber attacks may bear the same characteristics of an armed attack, it is difficult for organisations to evoke self-defence laws, even as outlined by article 51 of the UN charter. Some of the unique challenges posed to the enforcement of self-defence laws in the cyber world include proportionality issues, the trans-national nature of cyber attacks, and the difficulty experienced in identifying the attacker. Besides the above challenges, it is similarly difficult to invoke self-defence laws (at least in the conventional way) in cyber attacks because cyber attacks (often) do not lead to the direct loss of life. Therefore, there is a significant mismatch between the use of armed attacks (as a self-defence mechanism) because it is difficult to satisfy the conditions for approving armed attacks in the cyberspace. This paper also highlights significant differences and similarities in the applicability of defence laws in the UK and the US. By the nature of their geography and distribution, both countries are subject to larger legislative provisions in cyber laws. For example, the UK is a signatory to European laws on cyber attacks, while cyber defence laws that the Federal government formulates also bind American states. Even though cyber defence laws continue to evolve in these countries, the English common law is the basis of their enforcement. In America, the bill of rights also plays a critical role in the enforcement of these laws. Nonetheless, throughout the analyses in this paper, there is a clear trend towards the militarisation of self-defence laws in cyberspace (especially in the US) (Greenwald 2012, p. 2). Analysts should treat this trend with a lot of caution because the militarisation of self-defence laws in the cyber world may fail to achieve the same objectives they would achieve in the “real” world. It is therefore pertinent for international and local laws to encompass the unique dynamics of cyberspace attacks. The introduction of a new set of laws to accommodate these dynamics may be a good start for many countries to address the unique challenges of the cyber world. References Arsene, L. 2012, U.S. to Apply Self-Defense Rule if Cyber Attacks Turn Hostile. Web. Bajaj, K. 2012, Cyberspace as Global Commons. Web. Brenner, S. 2010, Cybercrime: Criminal Threats from Cyberspace, ABC-CLIO, New York. Carr, J. 2011, Inside Cyber Warfare: Mapping the Cyber Underworld, O’Reilly Media, Inc., New York. Chik, W. 2012, Challenges to Criminal Law Making in the New Global Information Society: A Critical Comparative Study of the Adequacies of Computer-Related Criminal Legislation in the United States, the United Kingdom and Singapore. Web. Committee on Deterring Cyber attacks 2010, Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, National Academies Press, New York. Ellen, M. 2012, ‘Cyber Security without Cyber War’, J Conflict Security Law, vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 187-209. Greenwald, G. 2012, Various matters: cyberwar, last gasps, and hate speech. Web. Himma, K. 2008, The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics, John WileySelf Defence Issues and Implication in Cyberspace Research Paper
Florida Atlantic University Types of Network Organizations and Impacts Paper.

Forum 3 Discuss the various types of network organizations and how this can impact the environmental process. Some environmental areas to consider can be through creating new organizations, technological changes, ecological processes, and much more. APA format. Must be 2,200-2,300 words Demonstrate course-related knowledge. I Must include a minimum of 8 sources in addition to the Bible, in current APA format, outlined in each respective. Must integrate at least 1 biblical principle.Must include an introduction and a conclusion Books for the class Merida, T. (2015). Christ-centered exposition: Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings. Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing Group. ISBN: 9780805496703. Scott, W. R. (2015). Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems Perspectives. London, England: Routledge. ISBN: 9780131958937
Florida Atlantic University Types of Network Organizations and Impacts Paper

“Qtel, Qatar Exchange and NYSE Technologies connect Qatar to the World Trading Network” Essay

The advent of technological changes and the new media in an economy where every context of marketing channel is changing has transformed marketing. Technology places the customer at the center of marketing. Marketers will find it useful to have a thorough understanding how the current technology works, integrate it to maximize profit. They should take initiatives to reappraise their expectations and the role of marketing in a digital and networked marketplace (Ferrell

Florida International University Dermatology Case Study

cheap assignment writing service Florida International University Dermatology Case Study.

DERMATOLOGY CASE STUDYChief complaint: “ My right great toe has been hurting for about 2 months and now it’s itchy, swollen and yellow. I can’t wear closed shoes and I was fine until I started going to the gym”.HPI: E.D a 38 -year-old Caucasian female presents to the clinic with complaint of pain, itching, inflammation, and “yellow” right great toe. She noticed that the toe was moderately itching after she took a shower at the gym. She did not pay much attention. About two weeks after the itching became intense and she applied Benadryl cream with only some relief. She continued going to the gym and noticed that the itching got worse and her toe nail started to change color. She also indicated that the toe got swollen, painful and turned completely yellow 2 weeks ago. She applied lotrimin AF cream and it did not help relief her symptoms. She has not tried other remedies. Denies associated symptoms of fever and chills. PMH:Diabetes Mellitus, type 2.Surgeries: NoneAllergies: AugmentinMedication: Metformin 500mg PO BID.Vaccination History: Immunization is up to date and she received her flu shot this year.Social history:College graduate married and no children. She drinks 1 glass of red wine every night with dinner. She is a former smoker and quit 6 years ago.Family history:Both parents are alive. Father has history of DM type 2, Tinea Pedis. mother alive and has history of atopic dermatitis, HTN.ROS:Constitutional: Negative for fever. Negative for chills.Respiratory: No Shortness of breath. No OrthopneaCardiovascular: Regular rhythm.Skin: Right great toe swollen, itchy, painful and discolored.Psychiatric: No anxiety. No depression.Physical examination:Vital SignsHeight: 5 feet 5 inches Weight: 140 pounds BMI: 31 obesity, BP 130/70 T 98.0, P 88 R 22, non-laboredHEENT: Normocephalic/Atraumatic, Bilateral cataracts; PERRL, EOMI; No teeth loss seen. Gums no redness.NECK: Neck supple, no palpable masses, no lymphadenopathy, no thyroid enlargement.LUNGS: No Crackles. Lungs clear bilaterally. Equal breath sounds. Symmetrical respiration. No respiratory distress.HEART: Normal S1 with S2 during expiration. Pulses are 2+ in upper extremities. 1+ pitting edema ankle bilaterally.ABDOMEN: No abdominal distention. Nontender. Bowel sounds + x 4 quadrants. No organomegaly. Normal contour; No palpable masses.GENITOURINARY: No CVA tenderness bilaterally. GU exam deferred.MUSCULOSKELETAL: Slow gait but steady. No Kyphosis.SKIN: Right great toe with yellow-brown discoloration in the proximal nail plate. Marked periungual inflammation. + dryness. No pus. No neuro deficit.PSYCH: Normal affect. Cooperative.Labs: Hgb 13.2, Hct 38%, K+ 4.2, Na+138, Cholesterol 225, Triglycerides 187, HDL 37, LDL 190, TSH 3.7, glucose 98.A:Primary Diagnosis: Proximal subungual onychomycosisDifferential Diagnosis: Irritant Contact Dermatitis, Lichen Planus, Nail PsoriasisSpecial Lab: Fungal culture confirms fungal infection.Please see below:Now that you have identified the treatment for onychomycosis and labs for baseline and follow up therapy. Specify when to refer the patient after therapy and why? Provide rationale.According to the recommended guidelines, what are the non-pharmacological approaches to Onychomycosis?Provide patient education. Keep in mind the past medical history of this patient.
Florida International University Dermatology Case Study

For the decomposition of hydrogen iodide on a gold surface at 150 °C 2 HI(g)H2(

For the decomposition of hydrogen iodide on a gold surface at 150 °C 2 HI(g)H2(.

For the decomposition of hydrogen iodide on a gold surface at 150 °C2 HI(g)H2(g) + I2(g)the average rate of disappearance of HI over the time period from t = 0 s to t =1744 s is found to be 1.20E-4 M s-1. The average rate of formation of I2 over the same time period is  M s-1.
For the decomposition of hydrogen iodide on a gold surface at 150 °C 2 HI(g)H2(

Abu Dhabi Aviation: Strategic Management Principles Report

Table of Contents Introduction Porter’s Five Forces Model Industry Types Strategic Groups Blue Ocean Thinking Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The understanding of the specific forces and factors in the industry and sector where the company operates is essential to the development of effective strategies. In particular, a manager should be aware of the organization’s position relative to the consumers, competitors, and stakeholders, the available strategic choices in a situation, and their predicted outcomes once they are implemented. Economic theorists have developed a variety of frameworks and approaches to industry analysis and strategy formulation. This report describes Porter’s five forces model, differentiates four industry types, identifies strategic groups, and elaborates on the Blue Ocean approach as well as their applications to Abu Dhabi Aviation. Porter’s Five Forces Model Michael Porter introduced the notion that the key to strategic success is the positioning of the company in a manner that protects it from competitive forces or allows it to use them to its advantage. For the approach to succeed, the manager should be aware of the primary influences in the industry and their sources. Notably, according to Todorov and Akbar, Porter concentrated on economic forces within the industry, as he noted that outside powers tended to affect every player in the sector equally, and the difference was in a firm’s ability to respond to them (183). The theorist distinguishes five essential factors that allow one to determine an industry’s structure. Porter defines the market for a particular product as the combination of the companies that are active in it, potential entrants, and the consumers. As such, according to Todorov and Akbar, the five forces are the threat of new entrants, the bargaining powers of suppliers and buyers, the substitute products, and the intensity of the rivalry between competitors (188). The airline industry is characterized by high entry barriers due to the costs associated with maintaining the necessary technical resources. As such, the bargaining power of suppliers is high, while that of the consumers is relatively low. Substitutes are a concern for short-range flights, but not for international and intercontinental routes. Lastly, the intensity of rivalry is low, as the carriers prefer to avoid direct competition. Industry Types The type of industry where the company operates can significantly influence its strategy and preferred approaches. According to Chauhan, there are four primary industry types: monopolies, oligopolies, and perfect as well as imperfect competition (372-373). A monopoly is a situation where the industry is dominated by a single seller, which is able to forgo technology development and adjust prices freely due to the lack of competition. An oligopoly is a similar situation to a monopoly, but the industry consists of multiple large companies that do not compete and collude to control prices. A perfect market is a situation where numerous companies compete using uniform prices and mostly homogeneous products, forcing companies to accept the established rate. However, as such an environment is usually not possible in practice, an imperfect, or real, market, where constant aggressive competition leads to a state of disequilibrium, is more common. The airline industry may be described as an oligopoly, as relatively few carriers are prevalent in the field, and they generally offer similar prices and rarely offer overlapping flights unless the route is popular enough to ensure simultaneous popularity for all of the offerings. The features of the model as described by Chauhan include unattractive entry, the likely emergence of price leadership cartels, and high interdependence (373). As such, competitive approaches to business would likely be frowned upon by other participants in the industry and potentially lead to attempts to remove the offending company from the industry. Strategic Groups Industries tend to be characterized by a division into factions of companies that follow similar strategies. Grant uses airline industries as an example, as “legacy carriers” offer expensive, high-quality service, loyalty programs, and first-class seats while “low-cost carriers” forgo the model to offer significantly lower prices (108). Grant also notes that economic theory suggests that strategic groups are differentiated in profitability, although empirical evidence for the claim is currently not sufficient to reach a conclusion (108). Nevertheless, the tendency of low-cost carriers to offer significantly lower prices is reflected in their popularity with customers and, consequently, potentially higher profits. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Abu Dhabi Aviation is different from the above in that it belongs to its own strategic group, which is known as “charter airlines.” Its model consists of lending whole aircraft to customers and conducting non-scheduled flights. As such, the company operates locally in Abu Dhabi and limits its advertising to wealthy clients who are able to afford its services. The company’s air force is relatively small when compared to commercial carriers, and it seeks to establish long-term contracts with clients such as the oil companies present in the region. As such, there is little competition due to high customer loyalty, but there are also not many strategic opportunities due to the small size of the target market. Blue Ocean Thinking The Blue Ocean approach to competition is an innovative method that was introduced in the early 2000s. According to Mebert and Lowe, the strategy involves using creativity and so-called “value innovation” to avoid markets with intense rivalry, which the framework calls “red oceans,” and find a field where the company will be a pioneer and avoid competition. The use of the strategy requires an understanding of the factors present in the current state of the industry and the ability to apply unconventional thinking to avoid their influence altogether, as opposed to Porter’s model. As a result, the company will achieve success and prosperity while potentially discouraging others from entering and competing if it manages to capture a small market quickly. Abu Dhabi Aviation can be considered an example of a successful Blue Ocean strategic approach. Charter airway services are a relatively small niche that can be highly profitable due to the target market, which consists of wealthy individuals and companies that require fast and comfortable travel over land as well as water. The company capitalized on the needs of the consumer base by offering helicopters and later planes to local oil companies, which often have installations offshore and require a fast way of traveling to and from them yet do not wish to maintain a fleet of helicopters. The venture was well received by the target market, and the company can be considered successful. Conclusion Abu Dhabi Aviation is a successful airline company due to its business strategy, which is inspired by the Blue Ocean model of thinking. The firm decided to enter the airways industry, but the creation of a commercial carrier was inadvisable due to the high entry barrier. Furthermore, the industry was organized as on oligopoly and would likely not welcome new competitors. As such, the company decided to align itself with another strategic group, charter airlines. Appealing to the local oil companies that required transportation to offshore installations, it was able to secure a position of success and avoid competition. Works Cited Chauhan, S. P. S. Microeconomics: An Advanced Treatise. Phi Learning Private Limited, 2016. Grant, Robert M. Contemporary Strategy Analysis: Text and Cases Edition. John Wiley