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Article Review

Article Review.

1. According to Interland (2009) the art of economics consists in looking not merely at the immediate but at the longer effects of any act or policy; it consists of tracing the consequences of that policy not merely for one group but for all groups. DiscussJeneen Interlandi, “Not Just Urban Leg- end,” Newsweek, January, 19, 20092. Children in poor neighborhoods have bleak outlooks on life and do not see much gain to studying. A recent experiment is paying children in poor neighborhoods $100 for each “A” they earn in a six-week grade reporting cycle. How does this affect the children’s behavior?The assignment is to answer the question provided above in essay form. This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 1.5 – 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to organizational behavior. This does not mean blogs or websites. This source should be a published article in a scholarly journal. This source should provide substance and not just be mentioned briefly to fulfill this criteria. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not use quotes. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used.
Article Review

A Guide To The Identification Of Bacillus Cereus Biology Essay. Bacillus cereus is an endospore-forming, gram-positive bacterium that commonly resides in the soil. Because of its location, Bacillus cereus is usually found on a variety of foods that come into close contact with contaminated soil, and can cause two different types of food borne illnesses: emetic and diarrheal. The type of illness that Bacillus cereus can infect a person with depends mainly on the type of contaminated food that is ingested (Cowan and Talaro, 2009). Strains that produce the emetic form of the disease grow mainly in starchy foods like rice and potatoes; especially after they have been cooked and kept warm for a long period of time. After the ingestion of such contaminated foods, Bacillus cereus may incubate inside the infected organism for up to six hours before showing any symptoms that the emetic form displays like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps (Drobniewski, 1993). Strains that produce the diarrheal form of the disease grow in a variety of foods ranging from vegetables to even meat products. “Patients experience profuse diarrhea with abdominal pain and cramps…which begin around eight to sixteen hours after ingestion of the contaminated food” (Drobniewski, 1993). Recovery is usually rapid for both types of diseases; around twelve to twenty four hours after the symptoms have emerged. “Diagnosis of the emetic form of the disease is accomplished by finding the bacterium in the implicated food source. Microscopic examination of stool samples is usual to diagnose the diarrheal form of the disease….In both cases, the only prevention is the proper handling of food” (Cowan and Talaro, 2009). The Bacillus species are gram-positive, “rod-shaped, and often arranged in pairs or chains, with rounded or square ends. Endospores are oval or sometimes cylindrical” (Harley, 2008). For the case of Bacillus cereus, this rod-shaped bacterium is commonly arranged in chains with square ends and contains terminal endospores. On a regular TSA plate, the colonies of Bacillus cereus appear to have a cream “dull or frosted glass appearance and often an undulate margin from which extensive outgrowths do not develop” (Sneath, 1986). “The genus Bacillus is either aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, most members of this group are also motile…and with the exceptions of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, are nonpathogenic” (Harley, 2008). When trying to identify Bacillus cereus, there are several tests and results that can help correctly identify this bacterium (Table 1). The first procedure that should be done is to streak the bacteria for isolation on a TSA plate. In order to be able to view the correct morphology of any bacteria, one must have a fresh 24 hour culture containing individual colonies for proper Gram staining. Gram staining is a technique used to identify the cell morphology of a specific bacterium and differentiates bacteria as gram-positive and gram-negative cells. As stated earlier, Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that is arranged in chains. Once the cell morphology of the bacterium is determined, an endospore stain would be the next test used in order to establish whether or not it is an endospore or non-endospore forming bacterium. Bacteria in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium can produce endospores, which are structures “capable of surviving for long periods in an unfavorable environment and then giving rise to a new bacterial cell” (Harley, 2008). As a result, by being able to classify the bacterium as endospore-forming, many groups of bacteria can be ruled out by narrowing it down it the two different genera previously stated. Since endospores are used as a form of survival when nutrients are being depleted, a four to six day culture may be better to use so that the endospores have had some time to fully develop. Oxygen requirements would be the next test because bacteria in the Bacillus genus can either be obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes, and bacteria in the Clostridium genus are obligate anaerobes. Bacillus cereus can either grow only at the surface of the thioglycollate broth, meaning that it is an obligate aerobe, or it may display growth throughout the broth with a larger amount on the surface, meaning that it is a facultative anaerobe. Motility is also an important characteristic used to identify microorganisms and since not all Bacillus bacteria possess this trait, the range of possible bacteria can be narrowed again with these results. Bacillus cereus is motile, because when this bacterium is inoculated into the motility media, the growth of this bacterium is not restricted within the stab line of the inoculation but can be seen throughout the media. After determining that the bacterium is positive for motility, fermentation reactions of both glucose and lactose should be done to establish whether or not the bacterium has the ability to ferment either of these carbohydrates, as well as produce gas during the process. True Bacillus cereus can ferment glucose but it cannot ferment lactose; none of the fermentation reactions produce gas as well. Several problems can be encountered when trying to correctly identify Bacillus cereus because of similar characteristics shared with Bacillus anthracis; both bacteria are gram-positive endospore-forming rods that are arranged in chains. The distinction between Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis and their separation from nonpathogenic species are the most important clinically since both are pathogenic. “In general, Bacillus cereus is motile, ß-hemolytic on blood agar, and penicillin resistant, whereas B. anthracis is not. Bacillus cereus, unlike Bacillus anthracis, produces ß -lactamases, and so it is resistant to ß -lactam antimicrobial agents, like Penicillin” (Drobniewski, 1993). One method that is used to test for Penicillin sensitivity is the Kirby-Bauer method; Penicillin-filled paper disks are placed on a fully inoculated Mueller-Hinton agar plate of the bacteria to observe zones of inhibition (Harley, 2008). Bacillus anthracis will produce a distinguishable zone of inhibition due to its sensitivity to Penicillin, whereas Bacillus cereus will either produce a minor zone of inhibition or none at all due to its resistance to Penicillin. The table that can be used to identify a bacterium’s sensitivity or resistance to Penicillin, based on the zones of inhibition, can be found on page 265 of the Microbiology Lab Manual by John P. Harley. Other than the tests previously discussed for the identification of Bacillus cereus, there are several tests that can accompany them to definitively identify the bacterium as Bacillus cereus. One test is a hemolysis test on blood agar. The blood agar plate is a differential media that distinguishes between hemolytic and non-hemolytic bacteria. A hemolytic bacterium produces clear zones around the colonies due to red blood cell destruction; É‘-hemolysis displays a partial clearing around the bacterial colonies, ß-hemolysis displays a total clearing around the bacterial colonies and γ-hemolysis displays no hemolysis, therefore, no clearing around the colonies. “Typical isolates of Bacillus cereus on blood agar form large, flat, granular, ground glass, ß-hemolytic colonies” that display a slight green tinged color (Drobniewski, 1993). Another test that can be done to correctly identify the bacterium as Bacillus cereus is its appearance on PEMBA (Polymixin pyruvate egg yolk mannitol bromothymol blue agar) media. On the agar, Bacillus cereus forms crenate or fimbriate to slightly rhizoid colonies. They have distinct turquoise to peacock blue color due to the absence of mannitol fermentation and are usually surrounded by an egg yolk precipitate of similar color due to lecithinase production (Sneath, 1986). Most other members of the Bacillus genera are mannitol positive, appear as yellow colonies and do not produce lecithinase. Due to its pathogenicity, proper identification of Bacillus cereus in contaminated foods is important to prevent food poisoning. By performing these tests and tracking the results, a strain of Bacillus cereus can be correctly identified. Table 1. Biochemical tests and the expected results used to correctly identify Bacillus cereus. Biochemical Test Results Gram Stain ( ) Endospore ( ) Thioglycollate FA Motility ( ) Glucose A and NG Lactose NA and NG Hemolysis ( ) A=Acid production, NA= No acid production, G= Gas production, NG= No gas production, FA= Facultative Anaerobe, ( )= Positive for biochemical test, (-)= Negative for biochemical test Literature Cited Cowan M, Talaro K. 2009. Microbiology A Systems Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill. 869 p. Drobniewski F. 1993. Bacillus cereus and Related Species. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. (6)4: 324-338. Harley J. 2008. Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology. New York: McGraw-Hill. 486 p. Sneath P. 1986. Endospore-forming Gram-positive Rods and Cocci. In: Sneath, PH, editor. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. A Guide To The Identification Of Bacillus Cereus Biology Essay

Sublime Poem about DMZ

Sublime Poem about DMZ.

Please write a brief poem about an experience that filled me with awe.At least 12 lines, doesn’t really have to rhyme. Please don’t make it too complicated. It can be a very basic poem that just sounds like a poem.Here is the list of details I would like to be included in the poem.Topic: DMZ – DMZ has been left alone for 50 years- Because of this such long time untouched, it has become a home to thousands of species that are extinct or endangered elsewhere.- Looking over through the telescope from Seoul, I am astonished by such wildlife thriving in the DMZ- It is sarcastic that the DMZ is the most dangerous place on earth(because of mindfield), but it is one of the most preserved environment with thousands of species thriving.
Sublime Poem about DMZ

University at Albany Ethical Problems in Physical Therapy Case Discussion

write my term paper University at Albany Ethical Problems in Physical Therapy Case Discussion.

I’m working on a philosophy report and need a sample draft to help me learn.

I’m working on a philosophy writing question and need a sample draft to help me learnEssay 3 Topic: How do the arguments you made about professional ethical responsibility (essay 1) and ethical theory (essay 2) apply to a profession-specific case study4-6 pages (reference page is separate must be APA Formatting, Times New Roman, Double spaced and 12 front)Section 2: Present your interpretation of what you think the profession would consider the ethical action, making explicit reference to the arguments you made in essay 1 (related to expertise, interpretation, and your code of ethics);Section 3: Apply the ethical theory you explained and argued for in essay 2 to the case study, and determine what the theory would conclude is the ethical outcome or action (importantly, while you don’t need to re-explain the theory, you need to SHOW the reasoning consistent with the theory and support your conclusion);Section 4: Offer your own thoughts on the above two conclusions – do they both lead to the same outcome? If not, explain. Would you act according to those conclusions? Why or why not? Consider issues related to an agency in bureaucracies, integrity, or whistleblowing** I WILL TAKE CARE OF THE PORTFOLIO PART **
University at Albany Ethical Problems in Physical Therapy Case Discussion

Module Seven Project Research Assignment Questions

Module Seven Project Research Assignment Questions. Paper details Based on the assigned reading in Martocchio “Human Resource Management” 15th edition chapters 13 and 14, comprehensively answer each question. Examples and comparison may be used to explain answers. Complete sentences and proper grammar should be used when answering each question. Identify each question you answer with the corresponding number. The questions should be answered in your own words and if quotes are used, they should not be more than 10% of the answer. Follow APA format and include at least two different references. You should have reference page. Each answer should have at least 1 in text citation. Approved references are books, published journals and professional magazines. You may use the assigned book for this course as one reference. Course notes and lecture notes are not approved references. 1. Discuss how the Pension Protection Act strengthened employer-sponsored retirement plans? 2. What is lockout? How is lockout used in labor negotiations? 3. What is collective bargaining? What is involved in the collective bargaining process? 4. What is phased retirement? How does phased retirement benefit both employees and employers? 5. How do employers benefit from outplacement and off boarding? 6. Define burnout and discuss the warning signs of burnout. How can burnout be prevented? 7. Describe how legal factors influence the conduct of business globally? 8. Explain the importance of conducting background investigations in the global environment? 9. Discuss the relationship between alcohol abuse and stress. As a human resource manager, why is it important to recognize the warning signs of both. 10. What are some common reasons that CEO’s and other top executives are fired?Module Seven Project Research Assignment Questions

ukessays>essays>classics Essays – Roman Social Life

What can the decoration and layout of the Pompeian house tell us about Roman social life? The eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79AD, and the subsequent destruction of Pompeii, and it’s near neighbour, Herculaneum; offers us a unique glimpse into Roman life at the end of the first century AD. There are, however, certain problems that must be understood before a discussion of Roman social life can be attempted. Pompeii was not a Roman city in the sense that it had not been founded by Roman citizens. At the time of its destruction it was already very old and had been inhabited by many generations of people from disparate backgrounds that came together to form their own uniquely structured society. From the early second century BC it is possible to identify four separate and distinct concepts of urban organisation within the city. It should further be noted that only a relatively small part of the city has been excavated to this point, and so any argument from archaeology will always be incomplete. The literary sources are even more problematic, Ancient authors rarely mention Pompeii before the first century BC and even after this date the sources are far from extensive. The writings of Varro (C.116-27BC), Vitruvius (fl.20-10BC) and Pliny the Younger (C.62-110AD) are our main sources. Archaeologists working at Pompeii, and indeed elsewhere, have tended to be classically trained scholars. The tendency of such scholars has been to interpret their finds in ways that are analogous to the Latin textual tradition. This is to say that scholars tend to assume that a given room in a given house must have been for an activity typically mentioned in one the sources. From the time of the very first excavations at Pompeii, a similarity was seen between the ideal plan of a Roman house set out in Vitruvius, and the floor plans of the many houses being unearthed. Terms deriving from Varro’s language study and Pliny the Youngers’ descriptions of his own country villas have also been applied to the floor plans at Pompeii. It is indeed common practice to label a room with a Latin term as soon as it is excavated. As a result of this, perhaps natural tendency, the archaeological remains have been interpreted in combination with textual references, and plans of Pompeian houses are general labelled with such terms. Some modern scholars even translate the Latin terms into the assumed appropriate modern equivalent. The implication of this is that we are given the impression that we are far better informed than we in reality are, as to the nature of the activity that occurred in any given room in a Pompeian house. Some of the terminology used by ancient authors, and followed by modern scholars, was undoubtedly used by Pompeians, but any assignment of labels to rooms should be treated with a due amount of caution. Amongst other problems, this assumes that the function of rooms did not change over time and that individual rooms served only one function, such as they largely do in the modern world. Relatively recently Wallace-Hardrill has offered a very convincing description of the social structure of Roman houses, demonstrating that the entire space of the house was arranged to present the identity and status of the owner to the surrounding community. This may seem an obvious point, but in relation to the question, it is a vital one to note. The social function of a house determined both the layout of the rooms and the choice of decoration within each room. There are two especially characteristic elements to this social function, namely the different use made of space depending on the type of visitor to the house, and the significance of the extravagant dimensions and the wasted space as an example of conspicuous consumption. Ancient authors present us with an image of clients waiting in the atrium for an audience with a wealthy patron as a yard-stick of the social status of that patron. He would receive more important guests in smaller rooms closer to the interior of the house. Often more secluded rooms were used if the discussions were considered private. Close friends would come to dinner in dining areas that were specifically and deliberately located at the rear of the garden peristyle. A social pecking order was thus easily established, corresponding to the increasing access given to the interior of the house. It is evident that architects took great pains when designing the peristyles of Pompeian houses, to ensure that a guest would receive the most comprehensive impression of the size of the patrons’ home. An example of the way this was achieved was to locate the largest and most impressive rooms around the peristyle courts so that all would be visible, along with the garden, as a guest was taken to the patron. The number of reception rooms, and indeed the total number of rooms, played a significant role in determining the rank of the household and the social status of the patron within the social hierarchy of the city. A wealthy homeowner would have a home large enough to receive guests in different areas depending on their numbers, social status, time of the day, season etc. This ability to choose the location of reception was key in establishing ones social status. Although the amount of money spent on a persons house was not always directly proportional to the individuals wealth, some relationship is certain, as today, it was the most expensive item in the family budget. In order to purchase a large and impressive dwelling, one that would indicate high social rank, considerable amounts of money were required. There were also ancillary costs to consider, high social status was implied from having a large number of slaves and household attendants; all of whom had to be housed themselves. A measure of the importance of an impressive house in determining social status of the senatorial class is indicated by the amount of debt Cicero incurred in order to obtain his house on the Palatine. The character of Trimalchio in Petronius Satyricon is also not unaware of the importance of a grand house. With his expensive and extensive house he can hope to be held in high esteem. In the description of the house all of the rooms are on a grand scale. Trimalchio relates that when ‘Scaurus’ came to town he preferred to stay with Trimalchio rather than in his own house by the sea. By spending large sums of money, Trimalchio can hope to raise his social status among the wealthy elite; such thinking can no doubt be applied to any town within the Roman Empire, and certainly to Pompeii. Quite naturally, the preceding discussion only applies to the wealthy and socially prominent. They were the only rank in Pompeian society who needed (or could afford) large atria to receive clients, or large dining rooms to entertain friends. It should be noted the Pompeian society, an indeed Roman society as a whole, was competitive and there was relatively extensive upward mobility, or at least the desire sue such. The social elites created a model for their less wealthy and powerful contemporise through their activities and particularly through the style in which they lived, at least when they placed themselves on ostentatious open display, as was the purpose of a grand house. Decoration, as well as size and general layout, was also used as a means of indicating, or attaining a certain social status. Thus both architecture and interior design were employed in the competition for social status in Pompeian society. The natural side effects of this were stylistic developments in the various arts and crafts employed in interior décor, especially in painting. It has been argued that room function can be determined from the decorative schemes and that the more elaborate decoration was in rooms that were most likely to be seen by visitors; whilst probably broadly true, as Wallace-Hadrill has shown, arguments based on the premise of a precise relationship between archaeological remains at Pompeii and the surviving textual source tradition are often trapped in circular arguments. The extensive nature of the decorations in the Pompeian house, and indeed in houses throughout the Roman world, tell us much about the social life of the inhabitants. The fact that Pompeian houses were extensively decorated, and particularly those areas through which visitors would pass, or in which they would stay for extended periods, such as reception rooms and dining rooms, tells us that visitors were common. Houses, therefore, performed a very significant social function. Not only were they areas in which to live, they were also designed and decorated to present the owner in the best possible light, to indicate to the world his wealth and social standing. The Interpretation of individual rooms is, as already mentioned, problematic. Archaeologists and classical historians tend to interpret the Pompeian house without any consideration of the contents of a given room at the time of the eruption. Whilst it is obvious that some fixtures, such as cooking hearths, shrines, water-catchment areas and garden colonnades provide a good indication of room use, no systematic evaluation of room contents at Pompeii has ever been made. With this in mind, it should be recognised that an understanding of the social significance of decoration in the Pompeian house can never be complete as decoration surely implies the contents of any given room and not just the wall decoration. One final point that should be made is that decorating a part of a house for the purposes of social display was not a specifically, or even an originally Roman idea. In Greek cities of the classical period the houses of the rich were more elaborately constructed and better furnished and decorated then those belonging to people from a lower social level. A wealthy visitor to an Athenian house of the fifth or fourth century no doubt expected certain standards of decoration in the room where the symposium took place. The decorative style of Roman elite houses drew its inspiration from that of the Classical and Hellenistic period, but soon developed in the competitive climate of the late Republic and early Empire. The Pompeian house, therefore, served a number of functions. It was somewhere for an individual and his family to live in the first instance. But it also performed a significant social function as a place to receive and impress clients. Its size and exterior adornments were an open display of wealth and social standing, making a claim to be from a particular social class (even if not born into it), and the decoration, both interior and exterior all served to reinforce this impression. The more elaborate the decoration, the greater the social status of the owner. Bibliography P.M.Allison, Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture (Los Angeles 2004) A.Boethius