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Art Illusions and the Visual System

Art Illusions and the Visual System. Introduction Over time art has been redefined through a scope of various methods and techniques. It is the combined understanding of the visual system and how certain perceptive points can be altered to create artistic illusions. This report outline seeks to explain the techniques artists use to trick the visual process and the factors that determine how the visual system functions. Intersection of Art and Science “Study the science of art. Study the art of science. Develop your senses – learn how to see. Realise that everything connects to everything else.” — Leonardo da Vinci (Green, 2018) History has seen many draw parallels between art and science. Nearly opposite in nature, Art is the imaginative flow of the conscious while science is the methodical outlook on reality. Leonardo da Vinci is one of those artists who has mastered the trick; in order to illustrate the world on canvas, there is a need to first understand it (Green, 2018). It can be said that the conception of art is the result of the artist’s subjective expression, however this expression is also dependent on the observer’s own subjective preference (Gudeim, 2019). In other words, is art a deceptive medium of expression? Does art fabricate the real world? Even though the relationship between an artist’s painting and the real world are held on by loose threads, the issue does not disregard a perspective on reality through a visual stance (Gudeim, 2019) Recent researches have shown that the “brain constantly rewires itself based on how people experience the world from one moment to the next”(O’Brien, 2014). It is an intriguing observation when people stand transfixed before a painting, when Mona Lisa’s smile makes hundreds of people fly cross country to see its magic and when some would be absorbed by the intricacies of a Van Gogh painting, while others would shrug it off meaningless. The objectives at play are the visual experiences an observer goes through while they perceive the artwork. How do we SEE Art? The starting point of vision is the eye. The eye includes the retina and other functional features that transmit signals to the brain to interpret vision. The retina comprises of rods and cones, while the optic nerve has fibres that contribute to the overall composition (Fig 1.) (Marmor, 2015). Researchers argue that the process of seeing is a result of our unique interpretation of ambiguous sensory information. To confirm this statement, the sole existence of a visual illusion where assumptions are made based on tricks and bias present in perception, even though the observer is completely aware of what is happening supports the argument. (Gregory, 1997,Gregory, 1998,Eagleman, 2001 as cited in Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011). When visual information is received, it is transmitted through neural firing patterns in the retina to be further processed by the cerebral cortex (Kandel E. R., 2000). The reason why art is so attractive is because it delivers a subjective personal experience to those who observe art (Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, 2011) Figure 1: The Components of the Eye To further understand, there are laws that define the relationship between Art and the Visual system. All art that is visually perceived follows the principles of the visual system (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 1: An image of the visual world is not impressed upon the retina, rather it is assembled together in the visual cortex. Responsible for various visual phenomena’s including visual motion (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 2: The functional specialization of the visual cortex is to absorb the visual scene and process it in geographically separate parts of the visual cortex (Zeki S, 1994) – Law 3: The attributes within the visual cortex process the information individually in the cerebral cortex responsible for vision. The processing disintegrates components of form,color,motion and depth (Zeki S, 1994) Research shows that no theory can be based on aesthetics without an understanding of its neural underpinnings (Zeki, 1999 as cited in Chatterjee, 2011). It was suggestive that the nervous system and artists have similar points of interest. The nervous system decomposes visual information into different components such as color, luminance and motion (Zeki, 1999). In respect to this, several artists are known to isolate these attributes such as Alexander Calder who articulated motion, Georges Seurat who emphasized colour and luminance. Artistic Techniques to “trick the eye” Using the fundamental knowledge of vision, artists have learned the art of manipulation. There are several techniques used to ‘trick the eye’ and have been identified as signature patterns of the artists themselves. Through analysing the works of Claude Monet, Salvador Dali,Georges Seurat and Bridget Riley will provide an insight into the artist’s flare for deception and how they are perceived. Monet and the Illusory effect of colour and depth perception During the change of the 20th century, Monet had painted over 40 different versions of a scenery; this was the Waterloo Bridge over the Thames river (Fig 2.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). The main highlight of this painting drifted away from the subject of focus itself. Monet’s focused on the details of the background instead. Research derived explains the complexity of the visual system through highlighting the key distinct features in Monet’s process and intricacies of his work (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Figure 2:The Waterloo Bridge (1903) by Claude Monet The visual system processes colour through a pathway of absorbing the wavelengths of light which is then interpreted by the brain. When the eye perceives colour, it does so through three types of cones present in the retina. S-cones (blue) are sensitive to shorter wavelengths, M-cones (green) are sensitive to medium wavelengths and L-cones (red) are most sensitive to longer wavelengths (Fig 3.) (Valich-Rochester, 2018). Simple in composition, yet these three types of cones help form the perspective of complex combinations of colour. Figure 4: Signal Transmission of the Waterloo Bridge Figure 3: Colour Perception of The Waterloo Bridge Once the retina receives information it is then transmitted through signals to the visual cortex (Fig 4.) This lies in the back of the brain, while signals are sent back and forth, other parts of the brain involved in memory, attention and experience help deconstruct the information. The brain then integrates the information with sensory information from the eyes into categories of line, shape and depth, therefore constructing it into objects and scenes (Williams, n.d. as cited in Valich-Rochester, 2018). Based on the understanding, what are the tricks Monet uses? One method of deception Monet applies is the three-dimensional effect on a two-dimensional canvas. The visual process in this case is similar (Tadin, 2018). “Our eyes are curved, but essentially a three-dimensional world gets projected—upside down—to a flat retina” says Duje Tadin (Tadin, 2018). To correctly process the image, the brain turns it right side up and creates connections. However, there is a third element missing from the equation. Monet “tricks” the observer by providing the missing third element as light, shadow and contrast. These produce the illusion of the bridge as a three-dimensional object (Tadin, 2018). Along with that, the background of smokestacks is given more importance of work as Monet details elements farther away to be small and faded or blurry to imply a sense of depth. Self-conscious may know that the painting is an illusion, yet it is perceived to be in a three-dimensional form as it is the closest relation to the real world in itself. At first glance, the brain picks up the form of the bridge, the river beneath and the smokestacks much before the finer details are noticed such as Monet’s individual brushstrokes of colour (Tadin, 2018). “The goal of our visual perception is not to give us an accurate picture of the environment around us but to give us the most useful picture, and the most useful and the most accurate are not always the same.” (Tadin, 2018). When viewing the painting, illumination plays an important role in altering the perception. This happens due to the combination created when the eye views the art. It captures the illumination falling on the point of interest as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the object itself. In terms of light in the Waterloo Bridge painting, Monet uses a mixture of pigments that have varying properties such as; brightness, hue and intensity. Here the principles of additive and subtractive colour mixing are used. Monet’s clever execution of placing colours next to each other without fully blending them makes the observer see the illusion. Same colour will tend to appear differently when placed next to different colours (Williams, n.d.). This method has been adapted by several artists to creating a depth of field effect in two dimensional artworks. “A lot of the motion in Monet’s paintings comes from the fact he used equal luminescence,” (Livingstone, 2002) Salvador Dali and Paranoiac-critical effect Salvador Dali, a renowned Spanish surrealist artist had aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined (Susana Martinez-Conde, 2015). Dali introduced illusions into his artwork to further challenge his observer’s perspective to see beyond the surface of paint. Components like brightness, contrast, colour, shading and eye movements contribute to affect what the observer sees. Dali noted that what is visually interpreted of reality is moreover based on the habits of the mind than the eye. He understood that we create an ordered or disordered world from intermittent and incomplete retinal information processed by our mind’s experiences, desires and apprehensions (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The Gestalt laws were conceptualized in the early 20th century and one of the principles of closure states our perception will group individual elements as a whole (rather than consider them as separate from each other) if they seem to complete an entity (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). The ability of the brain to reconnect sparse links helps understand the ‘paranoiac-critical method’ invented by the artist Salvador Dali. Paranoia provides a striking example of an illusory contour resulting from filling-in processes (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Shown as an example is a sketch by Leonardo Da Vinci (Fig 5.) Figure 5: Bust over Pedestal by Leonardo Da Vinci Figure 6: Thirst by Salvador Dali While prominently portrayed a bust over a pedestal, the above part of the sketch depicts small figures on horses. Even without a face, a face is perceived immediately. As facial recognition is a dominant perceptual function the brain fills in the missing information thus giving the observer a complete output from the minimal input (Cox D, 2004). Dali’s own interpretation is seen in Thirst (Fig 6.). An ink blotched painted on paper. The initial objective was to depict two figures from the renaissance period in terms of clothing where one figure is seen to serve wine to the other. With the lack of communication through the medium, the observer still pictures the complete idea. Dali experimented with this method to further create one thing to be another. His goal was to achieve images that could not be analysed or diminished by rational logic (Martinez-Conde S., 2012). Georges Seurat and Spatial colour mixing Pointillism is a famous technique first founded and mastered by French artist Georges Seurat. It is a technique where small dots of “pure” colours are used to create an overall effect of “blended” colours when viewed from an appropriate distance (I R Schwab, 2003). In theory the technique is used to “increase the luminosity to achieve an optical blending at the retina level” (I R Schwab, 2003). First demonstrated by Georges Seurat in his famous 1884 painting “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte” (Fig 7.) Figure 7: A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of the Grand Jatte (1884) by Georges Seurat The concept of receptive fields provides the basis of the technique of pointillism. When the painting is viewed at a certain distance, a coloured dot considered ‘pure’ will trigger a cone or group of cones therefore contributing to a centre surround receptive field (I R Schwab, 2003). As distance increases, dots will trigger the receptive field with more colour combinations. In the chance that the colours transmitted are complimentary, the result of the neural signal will portray them as achromatic dull intermediate colour (I R Schwab, 2003). As the technique is highly mechanical, detailed, and rigid, Pointillism originated as an analytical study of optical colour theory where works produced often appear to be flat, static and lifeless (A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism, n.d.). Pointillists are known to take advantage of the visual system’s two-stream processing (Conway, 2007). Instead of directly painting a green tree, artists tend to paint coloured dots of green, yellow, red and blues which compose the overall tree form and colour depicting a sense of shimmer or colour change when perceived from a distance. “As with the other impressionists, the pointillists’ technique works because the part of our visual system that sees color is not adept at locating items in space” (Conway, 2007) “Some say they see poetry in my paintings, I see only science” – Georges Seurat (Kate, 2018) Pointillist works are often denoted as bright in overview. This is because the colours used by artists are pure in brightness and luminesce. Bridget Riley and perceived motion in static art Geometry has always played a part in artist works. In the case of creating motion for a static work, simple geometric patters are used to illustrate the illusion. However, more than the art, it is the function of the eye. Research analysis explain that the illusion that is being observed promotes retinal shifts. These are caused by small involuntary eye movements that the observer makes when trying to find a point of fixation on the perceived artwork (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Further studies have looked into details of eye movements and inferred a prominent role of small rapid position shifts called microsaccades to be responsible for the illusory effect of motion (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Three research experiments were conducted where participants eye movements were recorded as they perceived variants of Bridget Riley’s Fall painting (Fig 8.), a black and white composition of undulating lines. Figure 8: Fall by Bridget Riley The painting was manipulated to differ the strength of induced motion and record the corresponding changes of the eye movements (Frouke Hermens, 2012). Research found other sources of instability in retinal imaging other than the microsaccades. It’s important to consider the oculomotor drift as a potential factor that affects the perspective (Frouke Hermens, 2012). In order to breakdown how the observer sees motion in static art, the explanation focuses on three main categories of fixational eye movements (Martinez-Conde S, 2006, Martinez-Conde S M. S., 2009, Rolfs, 2009) The microsaccades are the movements of the eye when it attemts to fixate over a large amplitude usually less than 1 deg of visual angle and high velocity (Otero-Millan J, 2008). The phenomenon of microsaccades occurs in both eyes simultaneously (Otero-Millan J, 2008), the properties are fairly like saccadic eye movements as well. The presence of slow oculomotor drift relate to larger movements of the eye with velocities that are much smaller than the microsaccades (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). There are another set of movements referred to as a ‘tremor’ which are small amplitude movements that rapidly happening in each eye at a time (Otero-Millan J, 2008) (Frouke Hermens, 2012). During the first step there is displacement of the eyes where the projected image is shifted across the retina due to the alternating pattern of black and white undulating lines. The visual system processes and interprets the shifts as motion instead of changes in direction of eye movements (Zanker J M, 2004 as cited in Frouke Hermens, 2012). How does the observer perceive all the techniques used by artists to trick the eye? Research says when an observer looks at a painting, simultaneously there are two different pathways of viewing it. The first pathway is a black and white perspective, or better known as the negative and positive spaces, the second pathway is colour (Livingstone, 2002) (Dingfelder, 2010). The visual stimulus starts at the retina and is then transmitted through the visual system. Here the brain segregates the input information of a painting’s colour and brightness. Both those processing points are well separated, like sight and sound (Livingstone, 2002). The visual system adheres to the colour blind aspect which is called the “where” stream and is a common attribute human beings have with mammals. The “where” stream allows us to navigate our environment and surroundings, to locate things in space and to track any movements we perceive. The “what” stream is the component that allows the observer to process colour information. It is the sole key to helping determine what the object is (Livingstone, 2002). It can be generalized that artists also use “equal value” of the streams to confound the brain’s perspective (Livingstone, 2002). The retina is responsible for decoding the visual information with the help of layered neurons to produce a simplified language of understanding visual objects (Fig10.) (Marmor, 2015).However, there is a misjudgement produced while decoding the visual object caused by the observer’s brain properties that concentrate on what is important to recognise while also placing a limit and constraint of perception that ultimately leads to the illusory effect of illusions. The basis of retinal coding is the ability to recognise contrast. The process of this begins at the level of the photoreceptor cells and the bipolar cells. Bipolar cells connect the photoreceptors to ganglion cells (Marmor, 2015) These develop receptive fields across the retina which sees the world around us. “The use of high contrast, often showing the subject against a dense dark background (‘chiaroscuro’), was popular for a time in the Renaissance, following the lead of Caravaggio” (Fig 9.) (Marmor, 2015) The high contrast brings the subject of the painting to life. Figure 9:Saint John the Baptist (1604) by Caravaggio Figure 10: Sketch of Receptive Field Figure 11: Cone Sensitivity of the Eye The retina itself adjusts the brightness sensitivity at any moment in time through the cone photoreceptors that provide the vision. The difference of energy spread between a stimulus and cone sometimes leads to fail of transmission and activation of the cone, therefore resulting in a no response (Fig 11.). In order to readjust to the surrounding ambient lighting of the background the cones move the range of sensitivity up or down accordingly. It happens in mere seconds and the brain receives the signals of recognition (Marmor, 2015) Conclusion The eye has complex mechanisms at play when viewing artwork. Through the distinct features of colour constancy, colour perceiving by rods and cones,to perceiving depth and motion in static art portrays the intricate details behind the visual system’s functions. Illusions of varying types are perceived with a combined knowledge of colour, brightness, contrast, depth, motion and other minute factors that contribute to the overall effect. Artists have well understood the mechanism and dwell into more methods to entice the visual process. By doing so, ensuring that the constant development of artistic techniques draw more connections to neuroscience and vice versa. References A study of light; Contrasting Impressionism and Pointillism. (n.d.). Retrieved from Google arts and culture: Chatterjee, A. (2011). Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. In J. A. Gottfried., Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward. CRC Press/TaylorArt Illusions and the Visual System
MGT 510 Saudi Electronic University Almarai Acquisitions and Mergers Discussion.

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Discussion question,15 Lines, 2-3 paragraphs, 2-3 references and no outlineIn this module, we explored the role of the corporate headquarters and its relationship with individual businesses, and how the corporate headquarters creates value by making mergers/acquisitions and alliances.Select a Saudi Arabian company. Describe this company’s experiences with mergers/acquisitions and alliances? Why did the Saudi Arabian company merge/acquire and/or make alliances with other companies? That is, what competencies and opportunities did the Saudi Arabian company seek from its association with the target company?Did the merger/acquisition and/or alliance create or destroy value? (Provide evidence to back the assessment of value creation/destruction.)What recommendations would you make to the Saudi Arabian company concerning this or future mergers/acquisitions and/or alliances?Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (require supporting citations) in your initial response along with at least one scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references. Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.You are required to reply to at least two peer discussion question post answers to this weekly discussion question and/or your instructor’s response to your posting. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. Normal course dialogue doesn’t fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required.
MGT 510 Saudi Electronic University Almarai Acquisitions and Mergers Discussion

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Business homework help. A critical review allows you to examine many aspects of a book: the theoretical traditions from which it derives and within which it is working, the research methods used by the author, its substantive argument, the adequacy of the data presented and the claims made.,A critical review allows you to examine many aspects of a book,Critical Review Essay Assignment, Jeffrey Reiman & Paul Leighton — ,The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison (9th, 10th or 11th edition will do), , , A critical review allows you to examine many aspects of a book: the theoretical traditions from which it derives and within which it is working, the research methods used by the author, its substantive argument, the adequacy of the data presented and the claims made.  When you have completed a critical review you will not only know some more information, but you will also understand better how analyses and interpretations of your society are constructed and how they can be evaluated.,In crafting a critical review the following points should also be covered in the course of your review:,A.  Theoretical Framing:,What questions or topics are being discuss ed?,Firstly, Why is this topic important to the author(s)?,Secondly, What theoretical frameworks do the author(s) use in crafting his argument?,Note that the book is using at least three of the theoretical perspectives cover ed by Pfohl in his text on Images of Deviance and Social Control. Finally, your review should be conversant about those three perspectives.,B.  Research Methods& Sampling:,Firstly, What research methods did the author use for his study?,Secondly, How did the author gather his information?,Thirdly, Who or what did the author observe?,Fourthly, Was the choice of methods appropriate to the topic being studied and the theoretical questions being asked?,Further, Do you think these results are valid and/or true?,Also, How generalizable and representative are the results?,Lastly, Would other research methods might have yielded better result?  Different results?,C.  Data/Results:  What were the actual findings and results of the study?,Do you believe these findings? Why or why not?,D.  Interpretation:  Do you agree with the author’s interpretation of the data?  Why or why not?,Are other interpretations possible?,What further questions does this research provoke for you?  Explain. This is where you may offer your critically informed judgment about the book., (See next page), Part of your success on this assignment will depend on the following:,Make sure you follow the instructions above.  This is a critical sociological review you are writing, not simply thumbs up and thumbs down opinion piece.  Be sure to include the sociological elements that  I ask for in the course of your review. Your grade depends in part on how well you can appropriately incorporate theoretical, methodological and empirical points raise d in the book and demonstrate that you were engage d with the course.,Technical details:  Your review should be 6-8 typed pages long, double spaced, 12 pt. font, with normal margins.  Please put your name on a separate page at the end of you paper, not on the front page.  Aside from classroom discussion you are to work independently on this assignment.  If you directly quote or rely substantially on any other person’s work you must give a proper citation. (Note that you are not expect ed to look at materials besides what you are reviewing and the class texts.),This assignment due 11:59 p.m. and is worth 150 points.   Please submit it to Canvas on time. No late work will be accept ed so please submit well ahead of the deadline.Business homework help

Colorado Technical University Analysis of Processes & Workflows Paper

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The transportation costs for the Ultamyacin are high, but so are the costs of building an entirely new manufacturing facility. A description of the processes is listed. The company does not know how to proceed but is beginning to embrace TQM thinking. To encourage this new direction, you want to bring more information and analysis to the next management meeting. You believe Deming’s steps could be applied here, as well as process mapping to determine what the company should do next.To prepare for this assignment: Review the Current Pressed Face Powder Production Process (below)Research each of Deming’s 14 points for management.Part 1 New Process MapCreate a document that contains the streamlined, optimum process map. Create an ideal process map with minimal waste.Part 2In a paper of 1000-1500 words, explain the following: How the new process will address each of Deming’s 14 points, as compared to the old process? Which of the points do you think are most important, and why? How have you optimized the process?Managerial and employee goals and communication processes to reach each of Deming’s Points in the future.
Colorado Technical University Analysis of Processes & Workflows Paper

Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Observations Reflection Conclusions Works Cited Introduction Early childhood education is vital for the development of a child since it aids in the development of some skills that prepare them for further schooling (Currie 3). The skills to be acquired include cognitive skills with particular attention on Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Other developments include social well being and the emotional state of the child. As much as high IQ levels do not always spell good adulthood, it has a positive correlation with success in various aspects of life and the level of IQ in young children can be affected through deficiencies (Currie 3). Early childhood education in such institutions as kindergartens is also important in preparing the child for further schooling and some studies have shown that about only 65 percent of children entering school are thought to be actually ready for school (Bredekamp 10). The Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model which was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner tries to demonstrate the environment that rotates around the child and affects his or her development of the socialization skills (Bronfenbrenner 1). The Microsystems layer of his model indicates the environment that the child lives and relates with. This includes the people and the various institutions that the child interacts with. Mesosystems layer also affect the children even though they are not directly involved in the interactions. This layer shows the interactions that occur between people who revolve around the life of the child such as interactions between the parents and the children’s teachers or interactions among the child’s neighbours. The Exosystems layer includes the wider community where the child relates with and it includes the family friends, neighbours, the extended family and the media. The Macrosystems layer generally includes the attitudes and perceptions and the laws of a particular group of people. These layers indicate the various components in a child’s life and determine how the life of the child will be shaped. In the Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model, the child is placed in the middle because all that happens around the child affects other people and consequently, what the child does also affect them (Bronfenbrenner 1). An example to show how these Exosystems influence the child can be seen when the life of the child is affected as a parent goes out of the country for further studies and only comes visiting once in a while. Observations I chose to observe the Pre-K classroom in the Daycare institution for my field experience assignment. The class consisted of children aged between 3 and 5, according to information obtained from one of the teachers. The Pre-K classroom had a total of sixty children and they were taught and coordinated by two teachers making the student- ratio 1:30. All the teachers in the Daycare facility had to have attained a certain level of education. They were all university graduates and had to have pursued a diploma in Psychology. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Teachers interacted freely with the pupils as they joined them in performing some of the activities. When a student asked for help the teachers were always ready to respond and assist. As much as the work was intense for the two teachers, they struggled to make sure that the children were assisted. The curriculum included oral, written and practical studies. The oral studies were supposed to improve their skills in expressing themselves, the writing was meant to improve their skills in presentation while the practical studies which included working in groups, improved their socialization skills. The interior design was well finished and despite the large number of students, each student had a chair and desk and enough space to perform their duties. After every two months, parents were invited to have a day-in-school with their children where they could interact with the teachers and check on the progress reports. This day was special as the children together with their parents were assigned into groups for interactive sessions. Reflection The student teacher ratio was 1:30 which is not healthy for learning of young children since they require sufficient attention and coordination (Marilyn 23). The teachers’ credentials were impressive and they possessed the necessary knowledge for handling the children (Bredekamp 6). The way they interacted with the children and the way they encouraged the children to get into groups improved their social skills (Bronfenbrenner 1). The curriculum was of high standard since it encouraged the development of social, emotional and cognitive skills (Bredekamp 3). The classroom environment was very conducive for learning. Daycare set aside certain days for parents to visit and this gave the teachers an opportunity to observe the interaction between the parents and the students so as to explain some of the developments of the children. Conclusions Early childhood education is important as prepares children for continued learning in elementary school and other forms of education (Bredekamp 3). The educators in the early childhood institutions also assist parent-who go away to work all day and cannot be with them-in nurturing their children. Special attention should therefore be paid so as to ensure that the childhood of every child is secured so as to ensure bright them of a bright future (Bredekamp 18). We will write a custom Essay on Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Bredekamp, Sue. Effective Practices in Early Childhood Education: Building a Foundation. United States: Merrill, 2010. Print. Bronfenbrenner, Urie. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979. Print. Currie, Jane. Early Childhood Education Programs. America: American Economic Association, 2001. Print. Marilyn, Fleer. Identifying Teacher-child interaction Which Scaffolds Scientific Thinking in Young Children. Australia: University of Canberra, 1992. Print. Papalia, Diane E. Wendkos, Sally And Fildman, Ruth. A child’s world: infancy through adolescence. McGraw: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.

Logistics: Supply Chain Infrastructural Improvement Essay

Logistics: Supply Chain Infrastructural Improvement Essay. Research has revealed that more than 80% of expenses incurred in the execution of supply chain operations result from poor infrastructure (Ayers 46). The quality of decisions made by managers has little effect on the effectiveness of supply chains. However, the quality of supply chain infrastructure affects the impact and type of decisions. For instance, many organizations incur heavy losses due to poor infrastructure. Bad design of warehouses, inaccessible supply locations and distribution centers, and poor transport systems contribute to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of supply chains (Ayers 48). Improving infrastructure is imperative for organizational success because it reduces daily disruptions that affect the effectiveness of supply chains. Evaluation of infrastructure is imperative because it aids in the identification of challenges and obstacles that hinder the creation of efficient and effective supply chains. Also, it increases profitability through a reduction of operation costs (Ayers 48). For effective infrastructural improvement, effective channels of communication should be used to foster communication between people involved in various aspects of supply chains, For instance, logistics, procurement, and sales managers should provide data promptly to improve the process of making decisions. Organizations should consider embracing technology and hybrid solutions that lower costs and improve customer service delivery (Ayers 51). High-quality supply infrastructure benefits organizations by lowering sourcing costs, reducing inventory and storage expenses, as well as increasing revenues. For organizations to benefit fully from their supply chains, it is important for them to consider improving supply chain infrastructure. Supply chain risk and resilience Supply chains are always susceptible to two types of risks, namely external and internal disruptions (Ayers 63). In today’s business world, supply chain risk and resilience have become important aspects of managerial concern, especially in organizations whose supply chains go beyond regional borders into international markets. The risk profile of many supply chains has deteriorated because of the modern business environment that is characterized by uncertainties such as natural disasters, instability in supply and demand, and rapid changes in prices of products (Ayers 65). For that reason, many organizations and businesses are forced to prepare for disruptions that could affect their sourcing, sales, and distribution channels. On the other hand, supply managers should always be prepared for uncertainties to adapt their organizations to new regulatory requirements, which introduce changes in the global transportation setting (Ayers 66). Organizations should always be prepared to deal with challenges that arise from risk management and disruption of supply chain processes. On the other hand, they should be willing to introduce and implement organizational change to secure their supply chains. Important aspects of creating a resilient supply chain include control, collaboration, flexibility, and visibility. To create resilient supply chains, organizations should develop strategies to deal with uncertainties such as new regulations, labor disputes, and internal disruptions (Ayers 68). The global operating environment is interconnected. Therefore, it is necessary for supply chain managers to consider both internal and external risks that affect their supply chains. They should find new sources of information and develop organizational models that can be used to predict the occurrence of disruptions. That way, they create resilient supply chains that withstand either internal or external disruptions. Managers who want to create resilient supply chains should develop skills that sharpen their foresight and improve their ability to predict risks that can affect their supply chains (Ayers 69). Works Cited Ayers, James. Handbook of Supply Chain Management. New York: CRC Press, 2010. Print. Logistics: Supply Chain Infrastructural Improvement Essay