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Art creative project

Art creative project.

Paper Format: – Cover page (5 points): 1 page including title of the assignment, your name,
the date, and the course title & number
– Body (20 points): No less than 1,000 words: *put the count at end of paper) – 1” margins,
typed double-spaced, standard font (.e.g Time, 12), proofread, single side-printing and
professionally presented (stapled)
Artwork Format: 4-panel artwork (25 points): A4 (similar size such as letter size) or B4
( similar size such as legal size)
Choose a famous artwork (masterpiece) from which to develop your idea in a sequential
4-panel art (from museums, textbooks, internet resources, etc) and describe as follows:
Part I. Research Paper (Total 25 point) :
I.A. (5 pts.): Cover page including the above information.
I.B. (5 pts.): 1) Title of the artwork, 2) Name of the Artist, 3) Year of the artwork, 4) where,
and 5) when you found/saw it. (*put resource information such as the name of book,
reliable URL website information, but not the Wikipedia.)
I.C. (5 pts.): Research and describe the historical background and the artistic value of the
artwork. (*Please put the resource information, but not the Wikipedia.)
I.D. (5 pts.): Describe what it looks like and what YOU think of the art based on the study
(e.g. elements of art, principles of design, materials of art, etc.)
*If you use technical art terms, you need to explain what it means in your paper! Don’t list
the art terms that you leaned in class.
I.E. (5 pts.): Explain reason YOU chose it and the main points of your 4-panel artwork
(e.g. a story of your artwork based on your selected masterpiece)
Part II. Creative artwork (4-panel art: Total 25 points ): *Bring this artwork along with the
hardcopy of research paper to class by the due date (*See the tentative schedule on BB Portal)
II A. 4-panel Artwork (20 pts.): Create your own images incorporating the famous
artwork in the 4-frame manga based on the concept of Visual Writing (e.g. Introduction,
Supporting sentence, Transition, and Conclusion).
II.B. Label Info (5 pts.): The final piece should attach one label information including the
following things (OR download the label from BB Portal and attach it on the backside of
your artwork):
1) Your name & Semester/Year
2) The title and description of your own 4-panel artwork
3) Title of original artwork, year, and the artist name
4) Others I’ve attached two samples to help you get the idea. I choose “The Son of Man” painting, also attached with the 4-panel artwork.
Art creative project

The Roman Empire Research Discussion and Feedback.

The Roman EmpireundefinedOlivia Loehr posted Jul 19, 2020 4:32 PMundefinedundefinedSubscribeundefinedPrevious Next undefinedThis page automatically marks posts as read as you scroll.undefinedAdjust automatic marking as read settingundefinedThe Roman Empire is one of the most remembered civilizations in the contemporary imagination. Rome was rumored to have been founded by Romulus and Remus, the twin sons of Mars, the God of War. Romulus and Remus founded Rome on the banks of the Tiber river. Romulus became the first king of Rome, after killing his brother (Holland, 2017).undefined(“The Editors”, 2020)undefinedRome transitioned from a monarchy to a republic in 509 B.C. As the empire expanded in size, its political institution was defined by a struggle between patricians and plebeians. There was a hierarchy of political power, not unlike the spoils system of the United States’ political structure; most of the senators available for reelection were descended from original senators in the time of Romulus (Holland, 2017).undefinedUltimately, Rome collapsed in pieces. It was an extremely large empire, and ill-equipped to manage such a large territory; it began to lose its provinces, one by one. Near the end of its reign, the Roman empire also began to experience significant cultural conflict. Christianity, a newly introduced monotheistic religion, contrasted sharply with the polytheistic system of Roman religion, which gave the Roman emperor a god-like status (Holland, 2017)undefinedThe emperor Constantine ended up splitting the Roman empire into a western side, and an eastern side. The eastern Empire spoke Greek, developed Christian values, which led to a further distinction between peoples on the basis of religion and language. Unlike the western Empire, the eastern Empire thrived economically. The eastern Empire was located in an advantageous position for trade; the Western empire was economically weakened by the new split. The western empire soon fell at the hands of various invading tribes (“The Fall”, n.d.).undefinedArchaeological evidence suggests the diet of dockworkers in a Roman port city changed dramatically towards the end of the Roman empire. Their diets once indicated a diversified food supply, and good standards of nutrition, but this seems to change by 455 A.D. (Hays, 2019) This is important to note, because populations that are poorly-nourished are more likely to be dissatisfied with their systems of governance. It is likely that malnutrition contributed to political tensions within the nation.undefinedModern society could learn important lessons about maintaining an empire from the fall of Rome. The United States, for example, is a particularly large empire, which has not yet established a functional system of negotiating relations between state and federal powers. The collection of states within the U.S. are vastly different, in terms of geology, culture, and, in some regions, language. The commonalities between states seem to be that states share an economic system. It is interesting to imagine what the union of a country founded on similar economic values will look like as increasing economic and geologic instability reveals more inequality and differences in quality of life on the basis of race and class. If a nation is unable to sustain its people, nutritionally, there will be increasing social and political instability. If it is unable to manage a large territory, the empire may dissolve.undefinedThere are many locations in the Roman empire which would benefit from having an evaluation done by a cultural resource management agency. If I was part of a cultural resource management team, I would recommend specific preservation of ancient roads, waterways, and port-cities. Because of the location of the Roman Empire, it was heavily involved in the trade of its time. Focusing on these three aspects of how goods were transported could prove valuable, when reconstructing how the Roman empire communicated with its provinces, and how prolific the spread of goods was from trading cities to more rural regions. I imagine the collapse of the Roman empire has a lot to do with its management of its territories and provinces; understanding the routes which connected Rome to its provinces could offer valuable information.undefinedReferences:undefinedHays, B. (2019, June 14). Dockworkers’ dietary changes reflect the decline of the Roman Empire. Retrieved July 19, 2020, from https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2019/06/14/Dockworkers-dietary-changes-reflect-the-decline-of-the-Roman-Empire/5461560514627/undefinedHolland, B. (2017, January 23). Rome, Rise and Fall. Retrieved July 19, 2020, from https://www.history.com/news/history-vault-rome-rise-and-fallundefinedThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, January 29). Roman Empire. Retrieved July 19, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/place/Roman-EmpireundefinedThe Fall of the Roman Empire. (n.d.). Retrieved July 19, 2020, from https://www.ushistory.org/civ/6f.asp
The Roman Empire Research Discussion and Feedback

Developments of Public Square Designs. A public square is defined as an open area located in the heart of a city. It always existed, started at least 6000 years ago. The squares acquired more and more functions with the development of human society and the development of cities. In recent times, theaters, restaurants and museums are also finding their place on the squares. Cities themselves, are actually becoming museums, a collection of human experiences that preserve numerous cultural values. Particularly since the invention of motorized traffic, the individual vehicle has almost destroyed most of the open public spaces. Christopher Alexander indicated that ‘Outdoor spaces which are merely “left over” between buildings will, in general, not be used.’ (1977, p. 518) It is important to note, square has taken over the most important responsibility of outdoor space. Theoretically, we could say great squares and plazas give identity to cities. Although there are already so many public squares all around the world, it is always a challenging job to find the criteria for public square. What we really want from a public square? What can make a square become more exciting? The need in square design First of all, square has been consciously used a gathering place, usually it has strong sense of enclosure and convenient connections to streets. It is usually refers as an area that framed by buildings. Therefore, the sense of enclosure is commonly argued. The value of enclosure affect the success of square is also argued. Camillo Sitte (1989) derived a series of artistic principles. For Sitte, enclosure was the primary feeling of urbanity, and his overarching principle was that ‘public square should be enclosed entities’. He thought it should not be possible to see out of the square along more than one street at a time. Paul Zucker (1959) outlined types of urban squares. He indicated there are different types of square in visual dimension: the closed square, the dominated square, the nuclear square, grouped squares and the amorphous square. He thought that square does not have to be entirely close, it could be created by some recognizing buildings. It also can be characterized by a building or group of buildings towards which the space is directed, and to which all surrounding structures are related. The reason why people extremely concerned about enclosure of square comes from the need of safety, comfort and contained. Some of them even thought square must be entirely closed. But, in fact, unenclosed squares are not always uncomfortable and unsafe. ‘That fact that people feel more comfortable in a space which is at least partly enclosed is hard to explain. To begin with, it is obviously not always true. For example, people feel very comfortable indeed on an open beach, or on a rolling plain, where there may be no enclosure at all. ‘(Alexander C 1977, p. 520). Clare Cooper found: people seek areas which are partially enclosed and partly open — not too open, not too enclosed (1969). In other words, the extent of enclosure should be carefully considered when we do distribution. With no doubt, enclosure is one principle of making beautiful square, but there is no absoluteness. Discovery public square People want coherence and a sense of safety in public spaces, but they don’t want blandness (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989, Marsh 1990). To be honest, sometime, we focus too much on safety. However, comfort couldn’t make the square exciting at all. Lovatt and O’Connor (1995), others, have written about ‘liminal’ spaces – those formed in the interstices of everyday life and outside ‘normal’ rules – where different cultures meet and interact. Discovery might also involve programmes of animation…”We wanted a place that was green and that was a center of activity for downtown, but we didn’t want a place that was tranquil and beautiful, but there was nothing to do.” explains Bob Gregory. (a former General Motors executive who oversaw the planning of Campus Martius)Therefore, what we need for square is the attractions for seeking people. The psychological attraction to the square comes from curiosity. It is different from Sitte’s principle, actually, as we walking through a place, we like to see the diversification. It is our innate habit to discover the space. So, practically speaking, distribution of square might be only one small fraction of making successful square. A square must content lots of factors to be really successful. Undoubtedly, square is designed for people to use. Therefore the functional facility should be the physical attraction to all the users. Jan Gehl simplified that ‘outdoor activities in public spaces can be divided into three categories, each of which places very different demands on the physical environment: necessary activities, optional activities and social activities.’ (1971) For square, the necessary activities are generally compulsory. So transportation and shopping facilities should be included and they would be used mostly all time. But optional activities in squares are more relied on the exterior condition. Therefore, the diversification of optional activities could make square suit for different weather and season conditions. Social activities are included communal activities of various kinds, the opportunity of communication is relied on the environment and surrounding of square. Just imagine, if there are shopping opportunities around the square and there are sitting facilities with nice green or water features, then people will gather and rest unselfconsciously. That is something we could not be forced. Sometimes, activities which expected to have never appear. It is because lack of understanding of the type of square. The type of square can help us to roughly separate them into different circumstance. It could be a ceremonial, religionary, social, traffic or even mixed. All the functions we put into should fit the square. However, a successful square should provide activities opportunities, but, that is to say, it must be informed by deeply understanding of how people using it or what is the need from people. It is crucial to find the appropriate use for certain places and to engage the space with right activities. This is based on the observation of the relationship between activities and space. Visual analysis could give a probable perception of the space. ‘When you observe a space you learn about how it is actually used, rather than how you think it is used.’ advised by project for public space(PPS, 1999, p51) That’s to say, we need to understand the square before we start to do something about it. Regeneration project of Nottingham Old Market Square Old market square in Nottingham is one of the oldest public squares in the UK, with an 800 year history as a marketplace. The square form the central city and the prospect became a mental image remembered by citizens. But only couple of years ago, old market square was a completely different image. The square was the original setting of Nottingham Goose Fair, an annual fair held in October originating over 700 ­years ago. It was moved in 1928 for the redevelopment of the square. Previously, the Square has been nicknamed ‘Slab Square’ because of the high numbers of concrete paving slabs that made the former Square. The Square was redesigned to compliment the New Council House in 1927 with several different height platforms creating a central procession way. The form of old market square is not common as what we discussed above. The plan revealed the complicated composition of buildings surrounded and the open gesture in comparison to other squares. The original intention of the place is market space, therefore, it is only partly enclosed by City Council House in the east and it has terrible intervention of traffic in the west to the south. It seems fundamentally the fabric against Camillo Sitte’s principle at all and not meet Paul Zucker’s visual dimension exactly in the first place. As the success of the square design has been argued, the old market square has been a question which left over by history for urban designers. In 2004, Gustafson Porter won the competition of the redesign project. The construction finished in two years and the square re-opened in 2007. After the regeneration project finished, as we could see now, lots of factors has been improved, such as: accessibility, new or retained features, safety, flexibility and so on. The new pedestrian routes improved accessibility by removing level change. The green featured square existed before is an intention for a central green garden in front of City. With nice trees, grass and seats, it seems like a great idea for social activities. But, however, before the regeneration, old market square is a place which citizen often walks around in a sort of sense. To be honest, sometime, people don’t want to walk through a place which they couldn’t easily see through. They don’t want to waste time to walk up and down the steps if they just want to go through. It has restricted movement on the square especially disable people. Besides, because of the barely used, the green feature absolutely comes into certain hidden danger because of the shield space it created. Another intention is about the old role of dividing the city. The tie area used to be a cut off of the surrounding borough. People are looking for the new design could create better relationship between square and contexts, and there is no long a border or barrier excited. As we all know, one thing has bothered the square for a long time – traffic. On the southern side of the square, along South Parade is the tram stop of the Nottingham Express Transit. Because the Market Square was once at the heart of the city’s road network, it has set lots of tram and bus stop. Although, today it is closed to all traffic except buses along Beast Market Hill and the tram. It is the biggest interruption to the square, as there is no way to get away with it. However, for the new design, a water feature located at the west side of square provided an obstruction to the tram line and created more stimulating environment. It comes into a focused interest to the west end and then offered the capacity in between. The capacity provided considerable flexibility for different types of events there. It has hosted lots of popular events including free outdoor concerts, celebration firework, delicious foods fair and a bulb and flower festival. The large flat open space is also able to hold sports events, a variety of markets and health campaigns. Those things really bring the whole area to live. The design also tried to incorporate topography of the original medieval square, and accommodates existing falls by gradual level changes for disabled users and drainage. The main material is granite, to reflect the importance of the space and provide longevity. Seating terraces of grey, black, white and granite blocks created level changes and create movement opportunities around the water feature. ‘The 4,400m2 water features comprises a reflecting pool, a 1.8m waterfall, rills, 53 jets and a scrim, arranged as terraces. These can be turned off and used as stages or temporary viewing areas. Indirect lighting is via feature masts which can support temporary lighting trusses and banners, complemented by fibre optics below the jets, and concealed lighting to benches, steps and handrails. Five listed lanterns and two flag poles have also been refurbished and integrated into the new scheme.’ (Gustafson Porter described on website) Lighting is also a crucial factor in this design. In the past, poor lighting also created an unwelcoming atmosphere at night, which prevented families or the elderly from enjoying the square. The new lighting system encouraged 24 hour use, enable activity to spill out into the space, and attract pedestrians The impact of the new design is distinct. At lunchtimes and early evenings, it has become a well used space. It is also an exciting and popular attraction for all the tourists. This project has delivered a contemporary landscape design. The big contrast in this case challenge surrounded building in the city centre. But the result pleased most of people. But, there are still some people think the previously one works better. “Personally I like the new water feature and I can see the benefits of having a large flat space for events. But I really miss the green of the old Market Square… It was really pleasant sitting in the square looking at the trees and flowers before. Now it has no feeling of being a green space at all.” (comments about the Old Market Square on internet) Changes of Leicester Square In the other hand, Leicester Square which is a famous pedestrianised square in the west end of London has also carried various social activities for years. There is a park in the central area. It is bound by Cranbourn Street, to the north; Leicester Street, to the east; Irving Street, to the south; and a section of road designated simply as Leicester Square, to the west. Today, it is one of the busiest spots and one of the most interesting squares in London. It’s busy because there are all kinds of buskers around. They always entertain the crowds with anything from an improvisation to a political rant. It is the centre of London’s cinema land. Therefore, it is also a great place to catch an afternoon film followed by a cappucino and gossip in one of the many pavement cafes. The Square is a popular meeting place for friends looking for a drink and a chat and for tourists who seem to enjoy congregating outside the tube station. But, 375 years ago, it began with Robert Sidney who purchased this area and built himself a large house named Leicester House at the north end. By the 19th century, the square became the heart of the west end entertainment district with the empire theatre of varieties. Today, the square is the prime location in London for major film premieres. There are people all over the place, especially on Friday and Saturday nights, it seems like a party on the pedestrianised area. The fabric of the square is quite formal and enclosure. However, in history, the central area was private green area which should be used by residents there. But, by changing of time, it became a square that people does not expected to. Gordon Cullen wrote that ‘A view of Leicester Square in the eighteenth century would be virtually impossible to reconcile with its present condition, a boisterous jungle of traffic, changing signs, vivid lettering and garish posters.’ ‘The desperate pre-war attempt to preserve a be-railed garden, although a pleasing evidence of official grit and determination, was always a flop. It simply induced a depressing feeling of prohibition, the feeling that one was being inhibited for the wrong reason … There are sufficient cafes round the square to rent space for tables, as is done in France, and gaily coloured velariums suspended between the trees would give protection from birds and rain. What is most important, however, is for the landscapist to understand the vital and popular visual apperal of the Leicester Square type of landscape. The fact that it is the aesthetic expression of the dive and pin-table saloon, is no reason for the urban planner to turn up his nose. These activities, for better or for worse, are a part of urban life, and as such make a very valuable contribution to the visual scene.’ (Cullen G, 1971, p. 101) Leicester used to be an area that local avoided or walk around. Because the small patch of grass at the centre of the square is a shield place for junkies. After the local council’s clean up in 1993, that area closed at night and it is safe to walk through. Today, the square is an excellent place to move around, with the green and seats, café and beautiful landscape. It is also holding events regularly and seasonally, such as winter fair and outdoor performances. It became good option of festival gathering spot. However, the attraction is not from the original distribution of the square at all but the intervention urban designer adapted into. By well understanding the type and character of the square, appropriate activities really delight the whole space. Conclusion Through times, some squares became contradictory. SOHO square was the reign as a most fashionable address in London. But, today, this square is surrounded by office building and it is rapidly deteriorating. Usually, park in the middle of the square was for the exclusive usage of the residents in the nearby houses, so you can hardly call it a public square. However, public like to use the area as resting or chatting place, SOHO square should be made advance with the need and have corresponding improvement. An exciting square does not mean a successful square, but a successful square have to be somehow exciting. Today, city squares in UK are either full of commercial purpose or barely active green area. ‘Some criticisms of urban regeneration undertakings in Britain have taken this view and have therefore associated urban design with the interests of private companies. As visual management is then seen as a luxury when more basic needs of health, education, and housing are at stake, urban design has been seen as reactionary or at best irrelevant.’ (Madanipour A, 1997) The discovery of exciting square is to discovery of fundamentally designed square also with various pleasant activities. Enclosure is important, but it’s shallow to judge a success of square by physical fabric. Without doubt, it should carry the basic need: accessibility, safety, imageability and so on. But only the deeply consideration of how people use the square can help the square become really live. The comfort doesn’t, the safety doesn’t. The activity does. The ability of urban design is much more likely to be used with analysis of the status and future strategy. Our experience of a place is based on a combination of several senses. (Shaftoe H. Therefore, a consideration through different factors should be made and focus on appropriate activities to make a square really well used by people. In addition, if urban designer could think about aesthetics, it will make our square more exciting. Bibliography Alexander, C. (1977), A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, Oxford University Press. Cullen, G. (1961), The Concise Townscape, Architectural Press. Carmona, Heath, Oc, Tiesdell (2003), Public Places, Urban Spaces, Architectural Press. Jacobs, J. (1961), The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House Inc. Madanipour, A. (1997), Town Planning Review, Liverpool University Press. Sitte, C. (1889), City Planning According to Artistic Principles, Phaidon Press. Shaftoe, H. (2008), Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Places, Earthscan Publications Ltd. Zucker, P. (1970), Town and Square, MIT Press. Internet Sources http://www.pps.org/squares/info/squares_articles/motor_city http://www.gustafson-porter.com/ http://www.landezine.com/?tag=uk http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Market_Square http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_square http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Town_square http://www.londonnet.co.uk/ln/guide/about/placesleicestersq.html http://proteus.brown.edu/things/4017 http://www.blogcatalog.com/blog/nottingham-is-crap/0d0bc5c00d4a06fb82939f98459f1824 Developments of Public Square Designs
Abstract Diversity training of a multicultural workforce in the military is one of invaluable ways used to build a strong military workforce. Diversity training opens people’s mind, changes their attitudes towards each other thus promoting productivity. The military personnel appreciate and respect each other when they understand the importance of cultural diversity. Recognized talents are maintained and improved. The military not only work for the U.S. but also is prepared to work internationally with people of different cultures. Training increases, competency and communication barriers are broken enhancing productivity. So as to make full utilization of diversity, planning is an important tool. It is a roadmap to achieving the goals of the military. Introduction The U.S. military consist of five major groups: “The Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and Coast guards” (Powers, 2011, p. 1). Varvel (2000) has adopted the following definition for cultural diversity, “Cultural diversity refers to the differences in age, ethnic heritage, gender, national origin, marital status, physical ability/qualities, race, religion, economic status, education and sexual orientation” (Varvel, 2000, p. 4). Women and people from different races and ethnic groups are being recruited in the military at the present time. An analysis of diversity training in a multicultural workforce to personnel serving in the United States military reveals that it yields many benefits. The benefits accrued from such training are critically analyzed in this paper. Globalization and International Competency Diversity training equips the workforce to extend its service to other countries where other languages are spoken. Diversity training thus breaks the barrier of language in many countries. The image created by diversity training is dynamism and the military workforce is able to interact effectively with people from different cultures. Diversity training creates a good image. Since the goal of the U.S. military is to reach even outside the U. S., a diverse military workforce creates a good platform of influence. Good management in the military is an important tool because it helps in integration of the talents and the skills in different people. Management helps in planning and implementation of the proposed strategies (Preson, Casey,

SHORT DB FOR WOMEN AND PREGNANCY ; Family class.

SHORT DB FOR WOMEN AND PREGNANCY ; Family class.. I’m working on a Psychology exercise and need support.

Watch/read the following clip/article:

Embryo Mix – Up Woman Gives Birth, Faces Heartbreak Ahead (Links to an external site.)

https://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/uninten…
Finally, please answer some or all of the following questions:

What do you think about all the different ways in which children are conceived today?
What would you do class if you were in either woman’s shoes or either husband’s shoes and either you found out you were carrying someone else’s baby or another woman was carrying your baby?
What if this family decided they wanted to keep the baby and took legal action? What do you think the outcome would be? What would be the right thing to do in your opinion?
What effect do you think this had on the woman who carried the child and the child itself?
What effects would this situation have on the family system? How does it shake up the system? Do you think homeostasis would change?
Should having a child be considered a right? Should people take medical steps to conceive children?

Should insurance companies cover infertility treatments? Have we gone too far in our quest to conceive?
400 WORDS
SHORT DB FOR WOMEN AND PREGNANCY ; Family class.

Do Mind Independent Objects Exist According To John Locke and George Berkeley

essay order This essay will investigate the question of whether mind independent objects exist according to John Locke and George Berkeley. John Locke reasons that objects do exist independently of our mind but this is not without some caveat. George Berkeley on the other hand argues that no material substances exist other than ideas or perceptions in our minds. Hence there are no mind independent objects. I will argue that John Locke’s reasoning is actually stronger than Berkeley’s and therefore the case for mind independent objects existing is coincidentally stronger as well. Locke’s argument in support is that we can be sure of the limits of our knowledge of their existence because of the ideas we obtain from our senses. I will firstly detail how Locke’s reasoning supports this contention. Secondly I will explore Berkeley’s claim which denies that any form of material substance and hence mind independent objects do not exist independently. I will argue that Berkeley’s claim fails because of inadequacies raised during his rejection of Locke’s argument. Berkeley relies on an appeal to the supernatural (e.g. God) to counter the universal proposition that he inevitably draws himself into with the existence of other minds in external human bodies and in his contention that external objects only exist as ideas in the mind. Locke adopts a pragmatic approach to this inquiry because he uses the senses in a practical everyday way to assess the degree of certainty of knowledge. Importantly, Locke accepts the limitations of human knowledge which then defines the inquiry question of ‘what level of certainty there is for the existence of external objects’ (Bennett, 2007). Locke says that an ‘idea’ is; “whatever is the object of the understanding when a man thinks” (Bennett 2007 p2). This is an important definition because it suggests an ‘idea’ to be more than just a representation of an external object. What Locke alludes to here is that we have a cognitive ability to obtain knowledge of the external world through a relationship in our mind between simple (sensations from experience) and complex (abstracted from particular to universal principles) ideas and are thus able to pass judgement (subjective) about the certainty of that knowledge. Locke states that; “Knowledge, then, seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connection and agreement, or disagreement and incompatibility, of any of our ideas. That is all it is” (Bennett, 2007, p196). So knowledge then becomes the outcome of complex ideas created in our mind from sensations. The mind has no innate ideas and starts out as a tabula rasa (or blank sheet) but with mental faculties which thus enable the creation of ideas from experiences of the external world (Bennett, 2007). This is not unproblematic though because it raises the question of exactly which faculties are then innate. However, the ideas created come into being from when a person first has sensations. Locke says that: “Since there appear not to be any ideas in the mind before the senses have conveyed any in, I think that ideas in the understanding arise at the same time as sensation” (Bennett, 2007 p22). These ideas fashioning our knowledge are thus derived from our experience. They are also built upon the immediate impression of external objects in our mind through our senses. More complex and abstract concepts result from our own introspection. Locke then talks about three types of knowledge which are important in our understanding of the certainty of the existence mind independent objects. He claims that these three types of knowledge are; Intuitive Knowledge which is the immediate agreement or disagreement between ideas without an intervention of other ideas; Demonstrative Knowledge which does not immediately perceive the agreement or disagreement of ideas. It therefore brings into itself more ideas and creating complex ideas thus calling it reasoning; Sensitive Knowledge which is knowledge gained through the senses (Bennett, 2007 p22). Sensitive knowledge is the key element of his claim that external objects exist independent of the mind. Whilst it is readily conceded by Locke that sensitive knowledge is not as certain as intuitive knowledge or demonstrative knowledge, it nevertheless “goes beyond probability” (Bennett, 2007, p202). It follows then that the level of certainty in establishing a case for the existence of external objects knowledge using the senses is limited. But I contend that the degree to which it is limited does not discount its use. Locke also asserts that whilst some philosophers question whether external objects exist even though they may have an idea in their mind, there is a “degree of evidentness” which puts the question beyond doubt (Bennett, 2007, p202). So he postulates that we can feel the sun, notice the difference at night without the sun and appreciate the contrast between a dream and an idea coming into our mind through the senses (Bennett, 2007, p202). So for all practical purposes, I contend along with Locke that this is all we need to establish a high level of certainty about the existence of mind-independent objects. This is not to say, that his logic is not without some openings for criticism such as the probabilistic certainty of sensitive knowledge. However I argue that the strength of Locke’s reasoning for the existence of mind independent objects lies in its pragmatic simplicity. If we have the idea that something exists independently of our mind and we confirm this with our senses, then it is highly probable that it does exist independently of our mind. If we have the idea that the ground we walk upon is solid, then the idea comes from our experience of solid ground through our walking upon it. Using Locke’s reasoning then, the idea of solid ground (as a mind independent object) can be held to be certain; to the limit that sensitive knowledge allows. In contrast to Locke, one can postulate as does George Berkeley, that material substances (and hence mind independent objects) do not exist. In his inquiry, scepticism surfaces amidst the proposition that we think only about the idea and not the actual external object. This scepticism charges the materialism of Locke for example, with implying that it leads to disavowing God (Downing, 2011). This aspect of Berkeley’s rejection of Locke’s materialist conceptions of the existence of external objects is also a key element of my rejection of Berkeley’s Idealism. Berkeley’s main argument for the mind independent objects not existing is structured thus; “That we perceive ordinary objects and I wouldn’t have known them if I hadn’t perceived them by my senses; Things perceived by the senses are immediately perceived; and Things that are immediately perceived are ideas; and Ideas can’t exist outside the mind. So it follows that; The existence of things I perceive by my senses consists in being perceived. When they are actually perceived [the existence of things], therefore, there can be no doubt about their existence” (Berkeley P41). Unfolding what Berkeley means by this hinges upon his use of the word perceive. If the definition of perceiving is to become aware of something through the senses, then it seems that what Berkeley is saying is that we can have knowledge of the existence of external objects. But in fact that is not what he is saying. In #1, #2, #3 he is arguing that our perception or awareness of ordinary objects (external) is based upon the use of our senses creating ideas which can then only exist in our minds. Premise #5 makes his argument look remarkably circular but I will grant that it isn’t for this purpose. What he is saying is that external objects only exist because we are able to be aware of them. His conclusion at #6 reiterates the thrust of his claim that when we are made aware of external objects by our senses, then we cannot doubt their existence. He does not mean the external object. He means the idea of the external object. So, if the external object is not a representation and it is not anything other than an idea brought about by a perception or awareness through the senses, how is it that we come by the idea of knowledge of the external world? And more so, how is it that when we are not present or are denied our senses for any reason, that other people continue to experience the external world. Berkeley answers this by saying that “When I say that sensible things [external objects] can’t exist out of the mind, I don’t mean my mind in particular, but all minds. Now, they clearly have an existence exterior to my mind, since I find by experience that they are independent of it” (Berkeley p42). I argue here that this sentence inherently disrupts Berkeley’s claim that there are no mind independent objects. How is it that there can be other independent minds (assuming them to be within external human bodies) which have an existence exterior to his and which perceive external objects whilst Berkeley is say, asleep? How is it that they are not considered to be external mind independent objects? There must be some other explanation. So Berkeley finds himself having to refer to the supernatural deity for relief; God. “There is therefore some other mind in which they [external objects] exist during the intervals between the times when I perceive them; it necessarily follows that there is an omnipresent, eternal Mind which knows and comprehends all things and lets us experience them in a certain manner “(Berkeley p42). In my assessment this appeal to the omnipotence of God diminishes Berkeley’s argument dramatically. It is not a question of having or not having a belief in God. It is about establishing a level of certainty that the external world exists independently of our mind. In contrast to Locke’s argument which allows for a probabilistic consideration about the certainty of knowledge; Berkeley simply refutes the external mind independent world and fills the void he creates with that of a supernatural deity. It is contextually understandable but I argue that it severely reduces the plausibility and explanatory power of his claim that mind independent objects do not exist. This essay has argued that Locke’s assertions about the existence of mind independent objects are stronger than Berkeley’s claim that no mind independent objects exist and to this I offer my support. Locke’s probabilistic approach to sensitive knowledge assists him to overcome the vicarious connections between the mind and the external world. This is not without its problems though as I have discussed in the paper. Locke struggles with innateness of ideas and faculties along with proving the level of certainty against a measure of probability. In contrast, Berkeley simply rejects mind independent objects outright, which leaves him with the problem of how to then deal with the issue of other minds and human bodies. To this he simply defers to a supernatural deity in God. This I contend creates a most significant weakness in his argument and causes me to reject it.

Life is a Smorgasbord Reflective Essay

In ‘Life is a Smorgasbord,’ the author takes the reader through occurrences on his Aunt, Elaine’s birthday. The author’s aunt is turning fifty and is throwing a dinner at his favorite place, The Hometown Buffet. He refers to the place as being ‘smorgy.’ He is informed by his mother after attending the dinner they will proceed to a party at their place. The party is meant to honor the author’s aunt. Although, the author does not describe what is meant by ‘smorgy,’ the context within which, it is used makes the reader visualize a place that lacks liveliness and vigor often associated with the middle aged population. The author sarcastically describes the people in attendance and how they are likely to behave. Despite not wanting to attend, the author has no room for choice as his mother compels him to attend. After having to queue for lengthy duration before getting in, they finally get inside and as the author put it, ‘it’s the land of plenty’ insinuating that there is plenty of food to choose from. The author finds it difficult to choose what to eat from the array of foods provided. At some point, he stops to ponder the criteria that the other people had used to choose what to eat. Eventually, he settles on nothing in particular but ostensibly decides that perhaps tasting everything is the best option. Unfortunately, the combination fails to match and the meal ends up being un-enjoyable. To summarize the whole situation, the author describes it as confusing. The author looks back and affirms that he has realized that any time one opts for something else, he has to sacrifice another. He mentions that time spent doing something is equivalent to time wasted not doing another. Finally, the author winds up by stressing the importance of making choices in life despite the vast array of things to choose from. How decisions influence choices The overall picture suggested by this essay reflects the real life situation. It affirms that life is full of choices but not always. At times, circumstances are forced on people and one has no choice. Surprisingly, when finally one has an array of things to choose from, confusion reigns in and one can’t help but wonder what would constitute the right choice. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the author half-heartedly accepts to attend the dinner, he has limited choices. The situation is imposed on him and he finds himself accepting under duress. Despite the whole process being boring, he goes through it. The scenario reflected here is one where life presents limited choices and you have to conform to what the situation demands. Often people will complain when presented with such circumstances. An interesting phenomenon that the author highlights is that when finally options are presented, making decisions become difficult. One seems to want everything yet situation demands you make a choice. At this point, the author stresses the importance of coming up with a conclusive and rational decision. For as long as one is not able to come with a conclusive decision, confusion is rife and unfortunately one cannot be able to make a choice. Notable, choice is depicted as a direct product of making a conclusive decision. When the author decides to taste everything, he ends up not enjoying anything. This is indicative of the level of confusion experienced when no conclusive decision is made. The menu is too large and there is no time to rehearse. This stresses the need to come up with a conclusive decision as soon as possible. In decision making, a key factor emerging is that one has to forfeit other things in order to enjoy others. It’s impossible to enjoy everything. Deciding what’s important in one’s life must therefore take consideration of important factors that affect life rather than simply being guided by desire. Making a choice begins by prioritization of things important to your life. Decide what you can forego in order to enjoy another. As an economist will put it, you have to be prepared to incur some form of opportunity cost. The process of making a choice should therefore begin by identifying the existing opportunities. Once you have identified the opportunities, eliminate those that you can do without. We will write a custom Essay on Life is a Smorgasbord specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rank the remaining opportunities according to priority. Lack of a conclusive decision can hamper the process of making a choice. Living in hope that everything will have its time is perhaps the best way to be able to make choices without much ado. You simply forego something in belief that its time too will come and you will enjoy it then. This is what determines how to number a priority list. For instance, in preparing your priority list, you assign an object the tenth position hoping that there will come a time when the object will be on top of the list. “If you are not able to forego anything for something, then you are likely not to enjoy anything,” After all, to take a plane, you must have decided not to take a car. In this case, the car is what you forego in order to board a plane. Generally, life presents plenty of opportunities, you just need to choose which one to take and not to take.

UC Platos Moral Psychology? Intellectualism Divided Soul & Desire for Good Research

UC Platos Moral Psychology? Intellectualism Divided Soul & Desire for Good Research.

3. Research Project a. What it should be? – Has a thesis clearly defined, fairly narrow thesis (as opposed to a topic)
– Most importantly, it should be based on a solid understanding of the
text and the ideas. – Contain your own research (either your own thinking and interpretation
or helpful use of external sources, or both) – Some typical categories of papers:
o Clarificatory & Evaluative
o Historical dialogue
o Spinoza’s thinking and its influence – At minimum 2000 words
– Sources should be cited clearly. I think an explanation and arguments that points us either way there would be helpful. In particular, since Spinoza thinks that the mind is an idea of the human body, it seems that the mind is in some sense the same as the body or very closely depends on the body. How does this mesh with Plato’s theory?You could also consider the philosophical aim of Spinoza here. What was the reasoning and motivation of the Platonic theory? Do we find functionally similar ideas here or not? Why?
UC Platos Moral Psychology? Intellectualism Divided Soul & Desire for Good Research