1200 words 3 or more referencesPart 1What is the meaning of the term reinsurance?Explain the reasons for reinsurance.Explain the term securitization of risk.Part 2What unfair trade practices are each of the following insurance agents violating? Explain the terms that you use.Agent Jones offers a client to pay a portion of the premium if the client purchases a policy.Agent Peterson convinces a client to replace a life insurance policy with a new policy that adds little value.Part 3Julia owns a building worth $800,000. She insures the building for $300,000 with Company A, $400,000 with Company B, and $100,000 with Company C. There is a fire, and the building sustains $100,000 in damage.How much will Julia collect in insurance?How much will each company pay?What insurance term describes this situation?What is its purpose?
art 1 What is the meaning of the term reinsurance? Explain the reasons for reinsurance. Explain the term securitization of risk. Part 2 What unfair trade practices are each of the following insurance agents violating? Explain the terms that you use. Ag
I’m working on a computer science discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.
Review the Week 2 readings and the Red Clay Renovations company profile for background information before responding to this discussion question.The Red Clay CEO tasked the company’s IT Governance Board with developing a set of policies to address IT security requirements (including mandates for protecting privacy) arising from the following “rule” or “standard”:(a) PCI-DSS (credit card and transaction information)(b) the HIPAA Security Rule (health related information)(c) the “Red Flags” Rule (consumer credit information: identity theft prevention).Choose one of the three sources of regulatory requirements listed above. Write a three-paragraph briefing statement that summarizes the regulatory requirements as they apply to the company’s collection, processing, management, and storage of personal information about Red Clay’s clients. Your briefing statement should identify the specific types of personal information covered by the “rule” or “standard.” Include a compelling argument for why the company needs to adopt guidance policies that will ensure compliance with laws and regulations related to protecting personal information.Provide in-text citations and references for 3 or more authoritative sources. Put the reference list at the end of your posting.Make sure you use the discussion rubric as well as the above information to ensure you include all the required elements in your discussion response.
University of Maryland Global WK2 Compliance with Laws and Regulations Paper
Consider what you learned about art therapy in the beginning of this theme to answer the following question:
Do you think graffiti could be considered a form of art therapy? Why or why not?
Create a post at least one paragraph in length that addresses this question. Keep in mind that from a grading perspective, there is no single correct answer. Respond from a particular social-scientific perspective (psychological, sociological, or anthropological). In your post, be sure to state the perspective you have chosen.
In response to your peers, explain whether you agree or disagree with their conclusions, and explain why.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
Discussion and reply to 1 peer
Film Studies: “Double Suicide” by Masahiro Shinoda Essay (Movie Review)
Film Studies: “Double Suicide” by Masahiro Shinoda Essay (Movie Review). The film’s director Masahiro Shinoda has done a beautiful job creating his work full of deep meaning and symbolism. The scenes, patterns, lighting, unusual style, and movement make the film stand out. This work is made in black and white. The story portrayed in the movie is set in Japan of the 18th century and follows the lives of two lovers, which are destined to be separated by many factors. The trader named Jihei is in love with Koharu, the courtesan. Society will not allow them to be together because Jihei is married and has two children, and because Koharu belongs to her owner. The man has no money to redeem her from the brothel. In the end, the lovers commit double suicide to be together in the afterlife. This story is shown as if it is played in a Kabuki theatre, the actors symbolize puppets, and there is the presence of the puppeteers, dressed in all black and hoods, they are the invisible force that directs the characters, they silently observe every scene. The scenes of the film have distinct patterns, many straight lines. The outfits of the actors match the colors and looks of the surroundings. The camera often shows the scenes from the top to watch the characters and the scene merge. The puppeteers sometimes participate in the action, their hands touch the characters, directing them, holding their shoulders. Sometimes actors freeze to let the puppeteers move and arrange the scene, change the decorations. Some of the scenes are accompanied by narration, a male voice that explains what is going on, it appears in the scenes where the samurai ties up Jihei at the brothel, or when Koharu’s letter from John’s wife Osama is revealed. The narrator’s parts are a mix between talking and singing, that is also supported by simple music produced by a string instrument, its sounds are low and dramatic, and there is no melody in them, these sounds are mostly used to emphasize the words of the narrator. The director uses striped and checked geometrical patterns in the locations. To represent the new surroundings, the quick change of shots of patterns is employed. These patterns create contrast for the scenes; the walls are covered in paintings or letters; there are fences and columns; all shapes are straight and correct. The symbolism of the film is determined by the fact that the characters are constantly watched by invisible people in black with their faces covered. These figures resemble the image of Death in Western culture. It seems like the main characters were doomed from the very beginning. Film Studies: “Double Suicide” by Masahiro Shinoda Essay (Movie Review)
Causes of the Financial Crisis in the US
online homework help Causes of the Financial Crisis in the US. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS During the later half of the 20th century U.S economy was the most powerful economy in the world, they set the rules for rest of the world. They established multinational corporations all over the world which was indeed the heart of world economy. (Davis, 2009). When the U.S economy was rising, all the other countries economy were also growing, at the same time when their economy went down it affected almost all the other importing and exporting countries in the world because of the recent crises which was named as “GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS”. This was meant to be the biggest crises after “THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1930” (Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2009). The crises have already recorded loss of over $150 billion and large number of banking institutions have declared bankruptcy or being sold.(Kregel, 2008) One among the banks filed for bankruptcy was Lehman Brothers, which was Fourth largest investment bank in U.S. (BBC, 2009). Therefore it is important to identify causes of current financial crises and resolution measures. Secondly, UK government should take effective steps in order to reduce danger of further crises (Turner, 2009) During later part of the 19th century that is 1973 Daniel bell published a book titled “THE COMING OF POST INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY”. The book was about forecasting to find the changes in economy and society in united state. One of the most visible changes according to him was the work force shifting from manufacturing and agriculture to service based industry which he named as “POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY”. The author was right in his prediction because today only 10% of the total labour force is employed in agriculture and manufacturing industry. Between the period December 2000 and May 2009 US lost more than 5.25 million employees in manufacturing sector. There were many problems in durable goods industry, particularly in auto manufacturing industry. Two or more companies in that sector declared bankruptcy which stated that there was lot more bad news to come. Comparatively, manufacturing jobs were long lasting on an average of 8 years compared to an average of 3 years in service industry. The shift was driven by Wal-Mart. The firm employed about 1.4 million employees in 2009 which was more than that of 20 largest American manufacturing companies together. This caused changes to occur in pension financing and people started investing in mutual funds. This happened through change in pension financial that took over small amount to mutual fund from large amount of investment savings. This created pressure for high returns and also takes away the option of staying with a single firm. This enabled growth of institutional investors. Huge amount of portable pension funds were managed by banks, mutual funds and insurance firms. Nearly 1000 corporation shares were owned by institutional investors in 2005, with mutual fund taking maximum of 10% or more in hundreds of corporations. For manufacturers the main focus was on share value which spread OME model (Original equipment manufacturer) which means the production is out sourced to other external organizations. Other than manufacturers, functions such as HR and IT etc were also outsourced. This slowly made drastic changes in traditional corporation where it became empty. They were concerned mainly about turning the out-sourced products into branded commodities. This shows that the stock market existed only for intangible assets. (Davis, 2009) Now we shall discuss about the causes of the Global financial crisis: One of the main reasons for the crises was the housing bubble. A housing bubble is an economies bubble that occurs in local or international market. The recent financial crises started eventually in 2001 with the busting of U.S housing bubble and reached its peak in 2005.Basically it is said when there is a rapid increase in real estate prises until it touches its peak and reaches unsustainable level. The bubble in the houses was identified in 2006 after the market correction. Former chairman of Federal Reserve Board, Alan Greenspan said in 2007 that they had bubble in housing but it was very late until they realized in 2005 and 2006 (Bianco, 2008) Many economists believe that the main reason behind housing bubble was caused by low interest rate set up by the Federal bank. The interest rates were reduced to 1% from 6.5%, this made people to mortgage their property against the loan. The banks in return encouraged everyone to obtain loan against their mortgages because real estate prices were at its peak. [business.cch.com] When inflation began in 2004, US federal withdrew monetary accommodation, they started increasing the interest rate and mortgages payment also started rising apparently. Tight money policy came into play and there was a great demand of money and therefore house prices fell. Banks and other financial institutions financed at very low rate, and when interest rates started raising there were heavy chance of default by the subprime borrowers thus default by such borrowers led to losses. Though the loans were secured and were sold to special institutional vehicles (SIV’s) the losses were still bourn by banks and other institutions (Mohan, 2009) Deregulation of financial system gave rise to tradable instruments through securitization. Securitization means turning an asset or credit card debt into tradable instrument. This system made household to become both investors and issuers of securities. Thus trading in different form of capital emerged which was unstable and did not last for long which caused the financial crises (Davis, 2009). Apparently US government failed to manage their trade deficit. The housing bubble was mainly caused by cheap credit and low interest rate rates. The main reason for cheap credit was there was a lot Chinese capital in U.S. And that is because US imports most of the products from china and sells it at a cheap rate to its consumers (Weismann, 2008) Global Macro Economy Imbalance: According to Portes (2009) global macro economy was one of the major underlying reasons of the financial crises. This is because of saving investments and huge cross border capital flow made a lot of pressure on financial intermediation process, these imbalances with flaw in the financial market and instrument together became one of the specific features of crises (Mohan, 2009). In view of the current crisis, the UK Government can initiate the following actions to prevent another crisis: Looking at the long term , we think of what should be done in order to avoid danger of future crises, it is clear that macro economy imbalance was one of the major underlying reason, so it is better UK government try to find the problems which lie at the interface between macro economy policy and financial system regulation. Few more things that government should consider are they should make sure that they protect the needs of ordinary people when the information is costly to acquire. Next measure is the government should make sure that internalises significant externalities. This is in contrast to the currency regulatory frame work which does not focus on externalities and it also provides incentives for the institutions to become very large to fail or too interconnected to fail, because the larger the institution the more interconnected and higher the risk of escaping during crises.( Brunnermeier, 2009) The government should also focus on systematic risk contribution because during the financial crises losses tend to spread over other financial institutions also. The government should try to form a regulation that reduces the risk of spreading over the losses to financial institutions. A financial contribution to systematic risk can be large because of its correlation with financial difficulties among the other institutes or causes financial difficulties at other institutes. Therefore new measures should be taken to reduce the risk of both the channels. (Brunnermeier, 2009) According to Turner (2009), liquidity management and new regulations help to minimize liquidity risk. The future rules and regulations should be monitored effectively (Turner, 2009). Asset price booms can be regulated by implementing strict fiscal and monetary policies. These policies should take into consideration price stabilization and macro-financial stability. There has to be effective co-ordination between domestic and international policies. The UK Government should try to stabilize all the financial institutions that hold illiquid assets. The regulators have to combine macro-prudential and macro economic analysis by using sectoral analysis (Turner 2009). REFERENCES: Brunnermeier, M.K., (2009) Financial Crisis: Mechanisms, Prevention and Management [Online] Princeton University. Available at: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:2lGCaBp37xYJ:fmg.lse.ac.uk/upload_file/1197_BrunnermeierPaper.pdf http://fmg.lse.ac.uk/upload_file/1197_BrunnermeierPaper.pdfCauses of the Financial Crisis in the US
Answer clearly and in Details
Answer clearly and in Details. Can you help me understand this Management question?
I have attached a sample for what i expect you to do
1. Please “inventory” your personal workspace (employment) to a distance of five (5) miles I chose Pittsburgh PA. List all identified Hazardous Materials in this region (requires a referenced definition of Hazardous Materials, cite your source. Your local community right to know/Emergency Planning Committee can supplement your personal “windshield search” for materials in their customary locations. Plot these locations on a map, preferably a topographical map. Finally, perform a “Hazard Analysis” rating the most likely hazard material to create an incident, the most toxic to humans, most unique in response, and most persistent to the environment.
Locate the SDS for each and post. One additional document with Hazard data/response recommendations for each substance is desirable.
2. Through local and electronic research, identify the responsible goverment agency charged with preparedness, protection, and mitigation of a major Region-wide hazardous material release in your locale. Post the contact information, area of responsibilty (air, land, water, population) and your region of response in your personal DB thread. Write a brief report of the agency’s resources for preparedness and mitigation.
3. Respond to 2 of my classmates discussion posts (attached)
Answer clearly and in Details
The implementation of strategic change at Microsoft Canada
The implementation of strategic change at Microsoft Canada. The Organization Development literature has directed appreciable attention at in being able to lead and manage change. The major portion of the material is highly normative, advising managers about how they should be planning and implements organizational changes. For example, one study suggested that successful managers in ceaselessly changing organizations should first; provide clear responsibility and priorities with extensive communication and freedom to improvise. Second, explore the future by experimenting with a wide variety of low cost probes; and thirdly, link current projects to the future with predictable intervals and choreographed transition procedures. Traditionally the main focus of change management is on identifying sources that resist change and offers ways to overcome them. Most of the recent contributions have been challenging the focus on resistance and have shifted the aimed at creating vision along with gaining political support for them, and managing the transition of the organization toward them. The various ways in which managing change can be classified are in figure below. MOTIVATING CHANGE Creating Readiness for Change Overcoming Resistance to Change CREATING A VISION Describing the Core Ideology Constructing the Envisioned Future EFFECTIVE CHANGE MANAGEMENT DEVELOPING POLITICAL SUPPORT Assessing Change Agent Power Identifying Key Stakeholders Influencing Stakeholders MANAGING THE TRANSITION Activity Planning Commitment Planning Management Structures SUSTAINING MOMENTUM Providing resources for Change Building a Support System for Change Agents Developing New Competencies and Skills Reinforcing New Behaviors Staying the Course The above mentioned activities contribute a lot to effective change management and have been listed in the order in which they usually are performed. The first amongst the activities involves motivating change and also includes creating a readiness for change amongst the members of the organization and which indeed helps them to address resistance to change. Initially motivation is a critical issue for change process because a lot of evidence indicates that people as well as the organizations want to preserve the status quo and are willing to change only when there are strong powerful reasons to do so. The next activity is considered with creating a vision and is closely alignment with leadership activities. The vision has the sole purpose of providing a purpose and lay out for change and it describes the desired future state of the organization. The next activity involves the task of developing political support for the change. Organizations of all kinds are composed of powerful individuals as well as groups that can either block or promote change, and it is the task of the leaders and the change agents to gain the support and permission of the higher authorities in order to implement changes. The fourth activity is concerned with managing movement from the current state to the desired level in the organization. It involves designing a plan for managing the change activities as well as planning particular management structures for working of the organization during this transition. The next and the final activity involve sustaining the flow or momentum for change so that it is being able to be carried to completion. The final activity includes task such as providing resources for implementing the changes, building a support system for change agents, developing new competencies and skills needed to implement the changes. Unless man-to-man are motivated and bound up to change, unfreezing the status quo will be very difficult. Without vision, chances are there that change will be disorganized and diffused. Along with the fast moving pace of global, economic, and technological development change becomes an inevitable feature of the life of the organizational. But change that happens to an organization externally by the environment is quite different from the change that is planned and incorporated by the members of the organization. The main motive of Organizational development is to bring in changes in the organization in a planned manner so as to be able to increase its effectiveness and this organizational change is usually initiated and implemented by managers, with the help of professional OD practitioners. Conceptions of planned change have tended to focus on how change can be implemented in organizations. In order to implement change in any organization, certain frameworks are used as models that describe the activities that must take place to initiate and carry out successful organizational change. Let us now discuss change that Microsoft Canada tried to implement in its organization by implementing Strategic Change. MANAGING STRATEGIC CHANGE AT MICROSOFT CANADA Microsoft Canada is a subsidiary of Microsoft Corporation responsible for the service, marketing and the sales of the full range of software products, including the Windows operating system, the office productivity suite, a variety of Net products, and the Xbox game console. The organization marketed to a variety of segments, such as software application developers, small and medium business and large enterprises, through a broad range of partners that worked directly with the client organizations to install and optimize the software used. A small service organization provided consulting support to clients with the partner. Before 2001, Microsoft Canada had been part of North American subsidiary. Under this structure, large US market was clearly the focus of attention from Microsoft server, desktop, other software products. However, Frank Clegg, President of Microsoft Canada, argued that the Canadian market was different and under developed. It had a different mix of customers that did a United States, different competitors and different growth opportunities. Moreover, software sales and personnel computers shipments as a percentage of markets size and growth were below worldwide averages. These differences, Clegg argued warranted a specialized strategy. As the fiscal year ended Clegg and his newly appointed Director of Strategic Planning, Sandra Palmero, wanted to cease the opportunity to define a uniquely Canadian strategy. Before becoming Director of Strategic Planning, Palmero had been Director of Marketing and Corporate Communications in Microsoft Canada. There with Richard Reynolds, her Senior Marketing Manager, they had planned and implemented a participative process of strategic planning. Sandra conducted the OD practitioner who had worked with them and contracted to design and implement a Strategic planning process for the Canadian organization. Over a 2 month period, Sandra conceived of a series of workshops involving the Canadian leadership team. This team represented a broad cross section of the organization including representatives from legal staffs, human resources, service business and Microsoft consultant, marketing managers, customer support and managers responsible for different segments of Microsoft business including enterprise customer, small and medium business, the Microsoft Network and the Xbox. The strategic analysis phase consisted of preliminary work by several members of the Canadian leadership team as well as initial exercises during the first workshop. Member of Canadian Leadership team each prepared an analysis of their respected areas of responsibilities. For example, the enterprise sales manager provided historical growth rates in the revenue, developed forecast for market growths and Microsoft’s share, described current levels of Customer satisfaction and technology road map of products being developed by the Redmond headquarters organization. In addition to this specific analysis, Sandra contracted with a market research firm to provide overall description of Canadian information technology market. Finally a competitor analysis was performed to develop and understanding of likely strategies, goals, and initiatives from key competitors such as IBM, Sun Micro System, and Oracle as well as competitive threat posed by the Linux Operating System Software. During first workshop the Canadian Leadership team used the pre work data to perform an environmental scan. They discussed, debated, and ultimately came to some agreements about the trends affecting the organization. Based on that scan, the group engaged in a vision and value formation exercise and set out an initial list of short and long term goals. These activities let to several important decisions for new marketing organizations. For example, the vision and values exercised produced important insight about what the Canadian organization stood for, its uniqueness compared to the marketing subsidiaries within the Microsoft Organization, and its strengths in competing as a Canadian organization. The values also informed discussion about future goals and strategy to achieve them. Importantly, the Canadian leadership realized that customer loyalty would and should become a driving force for the organization. This realization led to passionate discussions about the relative emphasis in the organization on revenues versus customer satisfaction and loyalty. It also led to development of Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG) that the members of the Canadian Leadership Team believed would be challenging but achievable. The first workshop ended with a number of assignments, unresolved issues, and excitement about the future. In between the first and second workshops, members of the Canadian Leadership Team worked with their own organizations. Issues, decisions and questions that were addressed within the Canadian Leadership Team were discussed throughout the organization. The most important discussion concerned the Big Hairy Audacious Goal and the relative emphasis of revenues and customer loyalty over the short and long term. A consensus began to emerge that the right and proper strategy for Microsoft was to argue for a slower growth rate in revenues the short term, invest in customer satisfaction and then leverage that loyalty for a more secure stream of revenues in the future. Frank Clegg took this idea to the executives in Redmond and discussed the implications of this strategy, including revenue projections, risk involved, the budget implications, and how the strategy aligned with corporate and other marketing organizations initiatives. The result of these conversations became the subject of opening discussions at second workshop. The cautions but positive support from the corporate organization allowed the Canadian leadership team to move forward on its strategic intent. In second workshop, the organization’s mission and values were finalized; year by year revenue goals were agreed upon to achieve the Big Hairy Audacious Goal, and these goals were broken down and assigned to specific groups and managers. Finally, key customer and partner loyalty programs were established and outlined. Ownership for different initiatives was assigned and a strategic change plan originated. Frank Clegg pressed the group on its decision to emphasize customer loyalty and challenged the group with several scenarios that tempted them to trade off satisfaction for revenue. These scenarios helped fix the Canadian leadership team’s commitment to their strategy. The important part of the strategic change plan that came out was a discussion and decision to tie the individual performance appraisals of Canadian leadership team as a whole also staked their end of fiscal year bonuses to the achievement of customer satisfaction, instead of revenue goals. The strategic change efforts at Microsoft Canada are important for few reasons. First, the Canadian organization’s realization of the benefits of customer satisfaction and loyalty was influential in moving the larger Microsoft Corporation to examine its values in this area. Business Week reported on the changes Steve Ballmer was making in the organization; they reflected the increased importance of customer loyalty in Microsoft’s strategy and structure changes. Second, the organization learned how to organize a strategic planning effort. In the second year since this effort began, Sandra Palmero did built a stronger strategic planning organization and taken more and more responsibility for driving the strategic planning process. Even as the corporate Microsoft organization was making important changes in its reporting structure, business process, financial systems, the Canadian organization was able to adapt using its own resources and knowledge. Finally, the Big Hairy Audacious Goal has become an institutionalized part of the organization that drives thinking and decision making in the organization. In context with the case in hand we are suppose to work on a few task related to the case in hand. Firstly, let us discuss the history of the organization in hand, which is Microsoft Canada. Microsoft Canada Inc. was established in 1985. It is the Canadian subsidiary of Microsoft Corp. the worldwide leader in services, software and solutions that help inhabit and small business realize their full potential. Microsoft Canada provides nationwide sales, marketing, consulting and local support services in both French and English. It has its headquarters in Mississauga and has nine regional offices across the country dedicated to empowering people through great software- anytime, anywhere and on any devise. Secondly, let us now discuss the circumstances that led the organization to undergo strategic change. Frank Clegg, President of Microsoft Canada, argued that the Canadian market was different and under developed and it had a different mix of customers. Thus it demanded for different competitors and different growth opportunities. Another circumstance was that the percentage of markets size and growth of software sales and personnel computers shipments were below worldwide averages. These circumstances demanded a specialized strategy. Thirdly, the type of change that was implemented in the Microsoft Canada was basically strategically. The change has been incorporated in such a way that every aspect of the organization starting from legal staffs, human resources, service business and Microsoft consultant, marketing managers, customer support and managers responsible for different segments of Microsoft business including enterprise customer, small and medium business, the Microsoft Network and the Xbox were taken into consideration. The senior members of the organization have tried its best to formulate and design the strategically change in such a manner that it helps Microsoft Canada to increase its percentage market share and gain better growth. Fourthly, in order to incorporate the strategically change into the organization the involvement of every member of the organization is very necessary. The strategically change was initiated by Frank Clegg, President of Microsoft Canada and Sandra Palmero, Director of Strategic Planning. Sandra Palmero along with Richard Reynolds, her Senior Marketing Manager, had crafted and implemented a participative process of strategic planning. Sandra conducted the OD practitioner who had worked with them and contracted to design and implement a Strategic planning process for the Canadian organization. Fifthly, the methods used in implementing the strategically change were basically workshops, assignments and discussions of issues related to work. Canadian Leadership Team was formed by members of various departments of the organization that were focused on developing and implementing strategically change in the Microsoft Canada Organization. During the first workshop the Canadian Leadership team used the pre work data to perform an environmental scan. They discussed, debated, and ultimately came to some agreements about the trends affecting the organization. Based on that scan, the group engaged in a vision and value formation exercise and set out an initial list of short and long term goals. These activities let to several important decisions for new marketing organizations. The Canadian leadership realized that customer loyalty would and should become a driving force for the organization. A consensus began to emerge that the right and proper strategy for Microsoft was to argue for a slower growth rate in revenues the short term, invest in customer satisfaction and then leverage that loyalty for a more secure stream of revenues in the future. In second workshop, the organization’s mission and values were finalized; year by year revenue goals were agreed upon and these goals were broken down and assigned to specific groups and managers. The important part of the strategic change plan that emerged was a discussion and decision to tie the individual performance appraisals of Canadian leadership team as a whole also staked their end of fiscal year bonuses to the achievement of customer satisfaction, rather than revenue goals. Steve Ballmer increased the importance of customer loyalty in Microsoft’s strategy and structural changes and also the organization learned how to organize a strategic planning effort. Microsoft organization has made important changes in its reporting structure, business process, financial systems; the Canadian organization was able to adapt using its own resources and knowledge. Big Hairy Audacious Goal has become an institutionalized part of the organization that drives thinking and decision making in the organization. Finally, the main changes that have been seen in the performance level of the employees getting better along with rise in the percentage of market share which led to its growth both internal as well as external. Also, the Canadian Leadership Team and the Big Hairy Audacious Goal was permanently incorporated in the structure of the organization. (b) Strengths of Bureaucratic organizations are as follows: Higher level of consistency is maintained in decisions and implementation of projects. The control exerted by the head quarters or top level management ensures that the systems and delivery of services to the beneficiaries are in line with the laid down procedures. The major and important final decisions made by top management, considering various perspectives of organization. In this aspect the powers and interests of various stakeholders also taken care in delivering the final outcome. Another benefit is better cost control and management. Weaknesses of Bureaucratic organizations are as follows, The higher level of bureaucracy leads to lack of innovation and development in the organization, which leads to loss of competitive advantage in certain circumstances. Another disadvantage is that higher the structure and communication ladder impedes the speed of communication and decision making, and speed of response in emergency situations. The motivation of employees drops because of the lower level of delegation of duties and responsibilities and lower empowerment.. What must be realized is only that the strait jacket of bureaucratic organization paralyzes the individual’s initiative, while within the capitalist market society an innovator still has a chance to succeed. (c) Managing change is an inevitable part of Organizational Development. Organization Development is about how people and organizations function and how to get them to function better. The field is based on knowledge from behavioral science disciplines such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, organizational behavior, organization theory and management. OD programs are long-term, planned, sustained efforts. Various definitions of OD are: “”Organization development refers to a long-range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving capabilities and its ability to cope with changes in its external environment with the help of external or internal behavioral-scientist consultants, or change agents, as they are sometimes called. “”(Wendell French) “”Organization development is a system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at (1) enhancing congruence among organizational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; (2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) develop the organization’s self renewing capacity. It occurs through the collaboration of organizational members working with a change agent using behavioral science theory, research, and technology.””(Michael Beer) Thus, Organization development is a system based and wide application that transfers behavioral science knowledge to the planned improvement, and reinforcement of the process that lead to effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. All OD programs have three basic components: diagnosis, action and program management. The symptomatic component represents a uninterrupted collection of data about the total system, its subunits, its processes, and its culture. The action component consists of all the activities and interventions designed to improve the organization’s functioning. The program management component encompasses all activities designed to ensure success of the program. The process of Organizational Development is quite complicated and the completion of the change process consumes a lot of time with a minimum of one year and sometimes keeps indefinitely. There are different approaches to the process but the usual process consists of seven steps, which are initial diagnosis, data collection, data feedback and confrontation, action planning and problem solving, team building, inter group development and evaluation and follow up. organizational development process The following steps are vital steps taken into consideration while implementing any alternative forms of organizational development: Communications patterns, styles and flows. Goal setting. Decision making, problem solving, and action planning. Conflict resolution and management. Managing interface relations. Superior- subordinate relations. Technological and engineering systems. Strategic management and long-range planning. Vision/ Mission formulation. Organizational learning. Task 2 (a) The key stakeholders in Microsoft Canada can be people from any of the departments and levels of the organizations. But in general, the following people are the stakeholders of Microsoft Canada: Financial analysts Business analysts Forecasting or sales individual contributors Controller IT specialists and administrators. Legal staffs Human resources Service business and Microsoft consultant Marketing managers Customer support Managers responsible for different segments of Microsoft business including enterprise customer. Etc. (b) As discussed already it has been seen that the above cited stakeholders are the main members of the Canadian Leadership Team and plays a very significant role in the successful formation and implementation of Strategically Change in Microsoft Canada. The stakeholders, most of whom are also the members of the Canadian Leadership Team have played important role in the workshops, assignments, and discussions that was basically done to decide upon implementing new strategically changes required by Microsoft Canada to achieve its long term and short term goals. Also in the beginning of this report we have discussed three different models that are usually used in any organization as models for implementing and managing change, which are, Lewin’s Planned Change Model, Action Research Model and Positive model. After going through the entire case in hand it is seen that the Action Research Model best suits the procedure in which implementation of strategical change was carried out in Microsoft Canada. As the Action Research Model of change suggests, Microsoft Canada firstly, identified the problem that the organization was facing and having done that it was discussed upon by the experts of the organization and data was gathered from various sources to analyze the problem in order to be able to provide with the best possible solution. Finally, The Canadian Leadership Team acted as the Action team that helped to implement the solutions and bring in the Change in Microsoft Canada. Thus, the above report is a good example of implementing and managing change in an organization. Task 3 (a) UnfreezingLewin’s Planned Change Model Refreezing Movement Action Research Model Data Gathering after Action Action Joint Action Planning Joint Diagnosis of Problem Feedback to Key Client or Group Data Gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis Consultation with Behavioral Science Expert Problem Identification Positive Model Design and Deliver ways to create the Future Envision a Preferred Future Discover Themes Inquire into Best Practices Initiate the Inquiry There are various types of change that an organization may implement. (b) It is often remarked that the only constant thing in the world is Change and having said that in today’s so fast moving world and economy, every organization needs to implement change in its working structure and structure to be able to cope up with the changing environment. Today, organizations basically go for a change in order to be up to date with the current world and also are able to cope up with the increasing competition. Change suiting to the organization helps the organization to attain better brand name and a increased market share. Also change in the structure and working environment usually helps the organization to provide its employees to be happy and satisfied working in the organization and give maximum effective result to the output of the organization. Thus there may be a number of reasons that might have led to any organization’s decision to implement change in the organization. In case of Microsoft Canada, Frank Clegg, President of Microsoft Canada, argued that the Canadian market was different and under-developed and it had a different mix of customers. Thus it demanded for different competitors and different growth opportunities. Another circumstance was that the percentage of markets size and growth of software sales and personnel computers shipments were below worldwide averages. These circumstances demanded a specialized strategy. Thus this was the major reason that led Microsoft Canada to decide to implement Strategic Change in the organization. The implementation of strategic change at Microsoft Canada