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Are Human Rights ‘Universal’?

Human rights use to be a domestic issue championed by its proponents with each state separately, however, this has grown drastically and relatively quickly into a movement that asserts that these human rights are universal and all human beings are born with them. However this essay will argue that human rights are not universal due to their nature being bound up in charters which are not seen as Universalist but in many instances are seen as Western championed beliefs. However, the universality of human rights lays with the strength of the popular support for universal human rights, therefore, if the ideas in which universal human rights are founded on flourish then this can outweigh all its shortcomings. The first paragraph in this essay will focus on the extent to which the idea and norms of universal human rights has flourished. This essay will then critique human rights from a cultural perspective arguing that human rights are not universal due to their being conflict between the rights of the individuals and the rights of groups. Finally this essay will argue that the lack of adherence to these so called universal human rights (especially by western states) have dealt a huge blow to the notion of their being universal human rights. In order to look at the question of whether human rights are universal we have to analyse the extent to which the norms and ideas of human rights are universal. Today these rights exists within the legal system of international charters and domestic constitutions, however in the past human rights were seen as ‘natural laws’ which were not bound by any legal system, state or civilization as these were our God given rights. However, from The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) onwards the ideas of human rights have grown into the acceptance by most nations that there are inherent human rights which people are born with such as the right to life. It is argued today that international human rights ‘have become constitutive elements of modern and “civilised” statehood (Risse-Kappen, 2002: 234). States did not sign up to the human rights declaration in 1948 due to their synonymous beliefs but instead they agreed because they believed the material benefits would outweigh its disadvantages and that they would be allowed to pull out whenever they wished. However, the international norms surrounding the human rights regime grew to the extent that these nations became entrenched into the regime due to the growth in the norms and ideas of human rights in the international society. However much the human rights regime has grown today and become the popular belief of Western societies it is not universal as it has failed to gain a strong foothold in non western territories and cultures. It is argued by critics of the universalism of human rights that human rights are deeply rooted in Western liberal tradition, both historically and culturally. In order for human rights to be universal it is essential that human rights stretches beyond all borders cultures and religions, however, human rights today is very Eurocentric. Cultural theorists ‘critique the existing human rights corpus as culturally exclusive in some respects and therefore view parts of it as illegitimate or, at the very least, irrelevant in non-western societies… they do not believe that a genuine universal human rights truth can be constructed from any one single culture.’ (Mutua, 2002:43) This cultural theorist argument is very convincing as human rights today needs to be reformed with a multicultural approach in order to make it more universal. The universalist theory of human rights is based on a Western philosophy and it centres around the individual. These theorists argue for a set of rights which they are born with and pre exist society. ‘Since the late eighteenth century it has become a commonplace in liberal societies to assert that individuals possess rights… that are inalienable and unconditional’ (Brown 1999: 104). With the foundations of the human rights regime being individualistic it has alienated big groups whom do not conform to some of those rights. These contradictions can be found in religious groups. Saudi Arabia Abstained from the vote on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the UN in 1948 due to Article 18 contravening both Saudi laws (practising other religions within Saudi Arabia) but also the tenants of Islam which does not recognise the right to apostasy. This shows that certain human rights may be seen as rights for the West however other nations or groups of people may not deem those rights as rights at all. Huntington stresses the contradiction between the word and deed of Westerners, when he says “Non-Westerners … do not hesitate to point to the gaps between Western principle and Western action. Hypocrisy, double standards, and ‘but nots’ are the price of universalist pretensions. … human rights are an issue for China but not with Saudi Arabia; … Double standards in practice are the unavoidable price of universal standards of principle.” (1996: 184) Islam at the moment is not compatible with the international human rights regime as there are many contradictions between the two. As Huntington says there are a lot of double standards’ in the international community which give special provisions to certain countries which are deemed to be friends of the West such as Saudi Arabia. This shows how human rights are not universal but instead mainly Western and gaps between human rights and Islam will remain unless there is a big overhaul in the regime and human rights are created with a better understanding of different cultures, religions and ideological values. One major critique of the universalism of human rights is the contemporary problem of compliance. As discussed previously there are many double standards on the issue of human rights with certain countries being allowed to get away with non adherence, however, when Western nations are also not adhering the consensus on the universalism of human rights is challenged and deeply wounded. Take for example the war on terror today. There are a few fundamental questions to be asked. When does a government go too far in evading people’s rights? What rights can be evading for the greater good? Can governments find a way to respect human rights whilst fighting the so called war on terror? If there was a set answer for these questions one could argue that When it comes to the war on terror the rules and beliefs of human rights are effectively thrown out of the window. Civilians came under attack with practices such as renditions and torture in places such as Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib without access to lawyers or courts. When many people talk about the USA today it is hard not to get images of Jack Bauer the counter terrorism agent out of 24 torturing people and breaking the law continually. This lack of adherence by the USA which is the sole hegemonic power today and the leader of the free world has been one of the main reasons for human rights not being universal. “Seven years after 9/11 it is time to take stock and repeal abusive laws and policies,” the former Irish president said, warning that harsh U.S. detentions and interrogations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba gave a dangerous signal to other countries that could easily follow suit. (Reuters, accessed 22nd March) This is now the case with many countries using the facade of the war on terror to hide their own internal human rights abuses as the ‘United States and its western allies are turning a blind eye to abuses in friendly countries in return for their support in the campaign against terror.’ (BBC News, accessed 22nd March) Today extreme human rights violations are seen as being a matter for the international community through institutions such as the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC’s indictment of Sudanese President Omar Bashir is a fundamental step for the eventual universality of human rights (International Crises Group, accessed 22nd March). However it is still important to note that even though this was a big step the ICC and this road to the universality of human rights is still far away as one can argue that with three of the VETO powers in the UN (China, USA and Russia) and no major Asian power signing up to the ICC, there is still a long way to go in ensuring that the human rights regime is seen outside of the West as being legitimate, universal and representative. This essay has argued throughout that human rights are not universal. The first paragraph in this essay focused on the extent to which the idea and norms of universal human rights has flourished. It then critiqued human rights from a cultural perspective arguing that human rights are not universal due to their being conflict between the rights of the individuals and the rights of groups. This essay finally argued that the lack of adherence to these so called universal human rights have dealt a huge blow to the notion of their being universal human rights. Bibliography BBC News, War on terror ‘curbing human rights’, 22nd March 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1763641.stm Brown, Chris, (1999), “Universal Human Rights: A Critique”, in Dunne, Tim and J. Wheeler, Nicholas, Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge Huntington, Samuel P. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster International Crises Group, The ICC Indictment of Bashir: A turning point for Sudan?, 22nd March 2010, http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5959
ECOCB/535: The Digital Economy Competency 2 – Reflection Assignment Content Reflection This reflection activity is comprised of two sections collectively totaling a minimum of 500 words. Complete your reflections by responding to all prompts. Federal Reserve Analyze how changes in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy affect at least 2 of the 4 components of GDP (e.g., consumption, investment, government spending, net exports). Justify your answer to the following question: Have the Federal Reserve’s countercyclical monetary policies been effective in moderating business cycle swings? Government Intervention ​​​​​​​Government interventions into markets can sometimes succeed, but sometimes they make the situation worse. Explore 2 examples of government intervention that did not work. Explain why the intervention made things worse and what could have been done differently to improve the situation. Support your analysis by including: What the situation was What the intervention sought to solve What happened? What might have been done differently? 
Table of Contents Introduction Nazi Germany Al Qaeda Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Fascism by definition refers to a philosophy which seeks to ensure that the interests of the society always supersede those of the individual. The ideology of fascism advocates for a state that is ruled by a single party which is meant to mobilise people through all means acceptable and unacceptable to ensure that the roots of the society are not drained. While fascism is rooted from socialism, the approach taken is one of capitalism where force and violence is used to achieve what is targeted. Fascism must be distinguished from socialism whereby socialism was seeking total control of all the processes of economy in the society by ensuring that production is state controlled (Trotsky 340). Fascism on the other hand has always taken control though indirectly by ensuring that private owners dominate the processes of economy in the country. While fascism is concept that came to be many years ago, there seem to be merging modern examples of fascist thought. This discussion looks at some of the contemporary examples of fascist thoughts and also the limits and freedoms of such expressions. Nazi Germany Though it happened many years ago Nazi Germany is a perfect example of fascism (Griffiths 145). While the interests of the people were always kept first, the manner in which these interests were achieved was quite wanting especially because there was a lot of violence and force that was applied. During the time of Hitler, power was acquired gradually without the need for an uprising or protests and this is what makes fascism dangerous. In modern day, a perfect example of fascism would be leftism or what has come to be known as left wing politics. This is where change that is social in nature is advocated for with the aim of coming up with a society that is egalitarian. Leftism, pretty much like fascism is driven by emotions which were negative like anger, range and violence and all these negative emotions are directed to the status quo (Mosse 354). Modern fascism like leftism is geared towards changing the status quo or the position held by conservatists. It is the manner in which leftist apply their ideology that is questionable (Mussolini 76). Al Qaeda Looking at the Al Qaeda group which was pioneered by their fallen hero Osama Bin Laden may also reveal traits of modern fascism. Osama had a good cause for which he was fighting for and this was the protection of Islamic rights. However, it is the manner in which he carried out his mission that was wanting. He used terrorist’s attacks which led to the death of many people and led to the destruction of property. Modern day fascism is frowned upon leading to modern day fascists changing their tactics and strategy. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion Fascist’s expressions have their limits in that they tend to curtain the general freedom of the people by sort of dictating to the people what they ought to and how they ought to behave (Breuilly 97). These expressions however have their fair share of freedom in that the person leading such movements is always a charismatic leader one who is liked by the people he is representing. Fascism therefore is a double edged sword which can hurt either way or be beneficial in both ways. How effective this ideology is in a society will be highly dependent on how it is implemented. Works Cited Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993. Print Griffiths, Richard. Fascism. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Print Mosse, George. International Fascism : New Thoughts and New Approaches. Michigan: Sage Publications, 1979. Print Mussolini, Benito. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Michigan: Ardita, 1935. Print Trotsky, Leon. Fascism: What it is and How to Fight It. London: Resistance Books. 1999. Print We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Examples of Fascist Thoughts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
PART 1: Week 4 Metaphysics and Epistemology & Week 4 – Presidency.

PART 1: Week 4 Metaphysics and Epistemology What exactly is Empiricism? Please provide specific examples to support your answer. Forum responses should be 300-500 words PART 2: Week 4 Presidents play many roles. Using a news article from the last eight weeks, demonstrate which of the roles named in the text is most important and why. Do not give jobs; give roles named in the text. Post by 11:55 pm Eastern Time on Friday, and provide substantive replies to your classmates by 11:55 pm Eastern Time on Sunday. Forum responses should be 300-500 words.
PART 1: Week 4 Metaphysics and Epistemology & Week 4 – Presidency

HSCO 508 LU Speech on Interpersonal Communication Plan Paper

HSCO 508 LU Speech on Interpersonal Communication Plan Paper.

You will produce a 9-10 minute video recording of yourself presenting your communication plan.I will do the video…. write the presentation based on the attached powerpoint. Presentation must not exceed 10 minutes. See attached for the accompanying powerpoint presentation and grading rubic for this assignment. The purpose of the Interpersonal Communication Project (ICP) is twofold: 1) To develop an interpersonal communication plan that demonstrates course-related knowledge and a commitment to developing and maintaining healthy, healing, helping, and holy relationships through effective communication. 2) To demonstrate your ability to compose and effectively deliver a message with clear, purposeful, and well-organized content with attention to both verbal and nonverbal aspects. You will produce a 9-10 minute video recording of yourself presenting your communication plan. You will also create an accompanying PowerPoint presentation that highlights your main points and clearly discloses your sources. The video file will be uploaded to YouTube and the PowerPoint presentation will be submitted to Blackboard along with a link to the video. Your presentation must include the following sections/main points: Introduction:Introduce your project in an engaging and interesting way. Say your name (but do not provide a biography), then give a brief preview of your presentation’s main points.Overarching goal:Articulate an overarching life or career goal that anchors your communication plan. This goal should be succinctly formulated as a single phrase and must not be overly broad or vague. Share why this goal is important to you and explain the role of interpersonal communication within this goal. Behavioral blend and background:Briefly describe your behavioral blend as identified in your Uniquely You profile. Also, share about how your background and identity influences your communication patterns, both positively and negatively. This section provides a backdrop for understanding you as a communicator and the challenges and opportunities you have faced.Communication barriers:Disclose and discuss the most significant interpersonal communication barriers and issues that you have discovered throughout this course. Define and explain how these currently hinder you and negatively impact your relationships. It is implied that you have identified the specific barriers you will need to overcome in order to reach your overarching goal. Resources and strategies:Describe solutions that will help you overcome the barriers discussed in the previous section. Be specific in discussing resources in the course literature that you have found personally applicable and helpful. These may include concepts, principles, models, or metaphors that have given you insight and understanding; techniques that may be employed to enhance communication skills; strategies that you have discovered, etc. Action plan:Formulate specific action steps for implementing the resources and strategies described in the previous section within your interpersonal context. Actions may include techniques you will practice, ideas you will continually reflect on, things you will do differently, etc. Explain how implementing your plan will make your overarching goal a reality. 7.Conclusion:End with a memorable closing statement or quote.For this project, you must incorporate all the required course texts and two scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles in a meaningful, effective, and significant way. Attribution to these sources must be clear throughout, ideally by oral reference. Evidence of self-reflection, critical thinking, immersion in the course materials, and synthesis of the course literature is expected. The language and terminology used in your presentation should be familiar to the audience and appropriate for the setting. When organizing your presentation, make sure each required section/main point is sufficiently developed given the time limit. The sections must be logically connected with a progression of ideas throughout. Transitions between subtopics should be clear and maintain flow of thought. All content should be applied and personalized.The video must be of sufficient quality for a professional setting and show you speaking, ideally from the waist up. Your PowerPoint should not be featured in the video. Your delivery should demonstrate a willingness to communicate with attention to audience engagement, articulation, pronunciation, tone, absence of vocal fillers, eye contact, posture and movement. Your presentation must not exceed 10 minutes, or you may not be able to upload your video file.Your PowerPoint presentation should include a total of 15-20 slides that have a consistent look, font usage and style throughout. The slides should effectively and professionally communicate key points and provide visual support for your oral presentation, rather than “stand alone” with an over-abundance of text. Use images, graphic elements and illustrations to add interest, but make sure these do not distract from the overall content. Use the last one or two slides for a complete APA-formatted bibliography.
HSCO 508 LU Speech on Interpersonal Communication Plan Paper

Anthropology – Groceries

cheap assignment writing service Anthropology – Groceries.

For this assignment, track your purchases for one week. Everything you buy or consume. If you watch TV, calculate how much you paid for in terms of cable. If you pay rent, figure out how much you pay per week. What dd you spend on groceries? What did you spend on entertainment? What did you spend on medical costs?Create a list of not more than a single page of these items and explain why you bought it and from whom. We understand that this will be a list, rather than an essay, but please try to conform to the standards we have set for writing!Rubric:Written Assignment Guidelines (2)Written Assignment Guidelines (2)CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIn-text citations, in Chicago 15th Edition Format0.5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEnd-of-text Citations, in Chicago 15th Edition Format0.5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeClarity (Professional appearance, flow, MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON THE ASSIGNMENT!)0.5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCoherence1.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePresence of concepts from chapter, explained correctly and clearly0.5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeApplication of concepts FROM CHAPTER to module topic0.5 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInclusion of all elements of the question1.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeStyle and fluidity of writing0.5 ptsTotal Points: 5.0PreviousNext
Anthropology – Groceries

University of Cumberlands DoD Compliant Policies Standards and Controls Presentation

University of Cumberlands DoD Compliant Policies Standards and Controls Presentation.

I’m working on a cyber security presentation and need support to help me understand better.

DoD Compliant Policies and Frameworks DOD policies and standards are the practices that are aimed at implementing various logical controls, detecting and monitoring data exfiltration, implementing security information security management, and also conducting software inventories. Some of the DOD compliance policies, standards, and controls that affect Remote Access, WAN, and application domains include requiring the use of multifactor authentication (Carter, 2016). The DoD network and system owners have in policies different procedures that are aimed at implementing logical access controls. This is achieved with the help of the National Institute of Standards and Technology catalog. Under this policy and standards, the audit for the DoD community has identified different instances of DoD components and the control requirements for logical control. The second policy is requiring the system owners to conduct inventories in different software that they possess. Even though DoD was not having a license for conducting software inventories, for this policy to be implemented they have to acquire a software inventor license. In the past, DoD had only three components that were aimed at ensuring they conduct software inventory, a recommendation that was made in 2014 by the government to the accountability office required them to have an agency that would help them in achieving this. DoD also uses nine capabilities that help them in monitoring and detecting different threats and data infiltration. They have policies on the use of firewalls, intrusion detection systems, network analysis systems, and intrusion prevention systems. All nine components are aimed at ensuring that they monitor their networks and systems. To deployment plan to implement this policy is to ensure that they get experts in these nine areas who will ensure that the nine components work effectively. Also, they can adopt the usage of data analytic tools and this will help them in making informed decisions about the operations of the department. DoD also had a policy that required the DoD components to ensure that their third-party service providers implement information management practices. This policy was having a significant role in the department because it ensured that they also don’t lose their data through third parties. To achieve this policy, the department needs to ensure that their third parties have systems that assist them in conducting software inventories. They also need to put in place threat monitoring and detection capabilities that are aimed at ensuring that every information that the department receives is safe. Cyberspace is an area that is a warfighting domain and it continues to evolve different threats and complexities. DoD cyber workforce has therefore evolved to address these challenges to meet their mission requirements. DoD framework is best suited for large systems and complex integrations. The framework is very unique when it comes to employing it and this has been the view of the operators (Gable, 2002). These views cut across the details that are aimed at ensuring that specific stakeholders in one domain can easily interact with other stakeholders in other domains. The most important framework is the DoDAF which provides a foundational framework for those who are developing and representing the architecture descriptions to ensure that there are multinational boundaries within the department.
University of Cumberlands DoD Compliant Policies Standards and Controls Presentation

CM 516 Alcorn State University Counseling Assessment and Evaluation Paper

CM 516 Alcorn State University Counseling Assessment and Evaluation Paper.

Required Textbook: Watson, J. and Flamez, B. (2014). Counseling assessment and evaluation: Fundamentals of applied practice (1st ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Include a title page and a reference page that adheres to APA style and include each of the following areas below, as well as your responses. This assignment is worth 100 points and should be 1-2 pages long. You must cite the information from the text appropriately in your paper. Remember, each assignment will be checked for plagiarism, so it is required that you cite your work appropriately. After reading chapters 1 and 2 from the course textbook, address the following in PARAGRAPH FORMAT:What have been your thoughts on the information that has been shared so far in these chapters?Particularly, what are your thoughts on the controversial issues in counseling assessments (as identified in chapter one)?What has been your experience, if any, with the use of assessments and testing in a clinical/school setting? If you have not had any experience with the use of assessments and testing, please briefly describe what you would imagine your experience would be.Has any of the information been particularly challenging for you? If so, explore/share these challenges and how you hope to address them.
CM 516 Alcorn State University Counseling Assessment and Evaluation Paper