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Archaeologists’ Interpretations of Sex and Gender

Archaeologists’ Interpretations of Sex and Gender. How have archaeologists’ attempts to interpret sex and gender relations in the past changed? Gender, as a point of request in the investigation of prehistoric studies, has not been of essential enthusiasm until late history. It has just been as of late in the last thirty or forty years that the investigation of sex and gender relations as far as examining it in archaeological revelation has been a point that archaeologists have been truly seeking after. The subject of gender has still not been argued to the degree that which we need it to be, the sub topics considered a detail of investigation as opposed to the core interest. One of the obstinate conclusions on this theme is on account of it is for the most part accepted that the patriarchal society has been the prevailing social structure all through the current societies, along these lines to study sexual orientation relations is to summon a similar outcome through numerous social orders (Bettina and Wicker 2001).However, this is the centre issue with the path in which societies have been celebrated internationally through western conviction frameworks hence making suppositions about the way that sex and sex are considered inside those social orders subject to present day gauges of understanding it is imperative re-evaluate the way of social structures that have been resolved through one-sided suspicions keeping in mind the end goal to better build a photo of an antiquated social orders. In the last 40 years or so, Feminism has become one of the key influences for archaeologists, especially the post-processualists. Feminism was also one of the driving forces behind the interest in practice, meaning and identity in archaeological theory. It originated when women questioned why there was an absence of women in archaeological fields and also from the past that archaeologists wrote about. For instance, there were only a small number of fields that were run by women and although, there are usually more women that study archaeology than men, after they graduate, more men decide to get a job in archaeology. There is a drop off in number of female archaeologists with age. You could ask, why does feminism matter in archaeology? Some people would say that it is just about diversity, when it comes to feminism, allowing more equality between men and women. However, it is not just about this. It is also about the potential of archaeology as a subject. Many statements or ‘stereotypes’ made about gender and sexuality are still presented as timeless; Women care for children, men are superior leaders, etc. However, it can be argued that, the time depth of archaeology gives us the chance to modify these views and instead offer different narratives for the history of gender and sexuality. To show that it is not always the same, that it has changed through time and space. It is because archaeology is a potentially powerful subject that we have to think about these issues in the long term. In order to tackle the issue of gender, we must discuss what gender is and whether there is an absolute biological difference. One of the standard definitions of bodily identity is the classic biological description which is of two genders dictated by chromosomes, with females having XX chromosomes and males XY. The traditional biological view that sex defines gender was criticised by Simone de Beavoir who showed that the ideas of what a woman should be were not natural but cultural, “I was not born, but rather, became a woman”. People were expected to behave in certain ways. The idea that girls like pink, that they play with dolls not guns and that they’re passive quiet and submissive. Those classic ideas about what a woman was, particularly at the time Beavoir was writing are not at all natural but in fact cultural that are learned, that society placed upon us. In the New Archaeology, there was no consideration of gender. There was always the constant use of ‘man’ and a failure to engage with gender meant that there were essentially no roles for women in the past, and even if there were a role, it would most likely be secondary work and usually based on assumption rather than evidence. A particular example would be the idea that man was the hunter and woman the gatherer. Feminism had a huge impact in archaeology in the form of three waves which challenged he status quo. The first wave asked simple questions such as; where are the women in the past? Why aren’t there that many female archaeology professors? Why do men receive more benefits than women? Meg Conkey and Joan Gero who wrote the book Engendering Archaeology­, which was the first active attempt to think about what the role of women in prehistory was. A lot of first wave feminism comes out of these two archaeologists (Gero and Conkey 1991). The second wave of feminism is even more concerned with the role of women and the sense that archaeologists have always presumed that men did all the important stuff (Nelson et al 1994). Janet Spector’s book What This Awl Means thinks about the role of women in Dakota Village. As a result of all this, we get an increasing emphasis on the study of past gender relations. So, it is not just about what women are doing but about what the relationship between men and women in the past. The third wave of Feminism begins to critique the other waves by asking whether the gender categories are universal, why do we assume that categories such as men and women have any meaning in the past? It also began to ask about transgender people, alternative genders and also different histories of sexualities. It is about thinking in a more complicated way and by this point, were not basing upon basic categories about men and women. Mary Louise Sorensen’s book Gender Archaeology focuses more on gender archaeology rather than feminist archaeology, thinking about the different gender combinations and how it all plays out. At this point, it can be argued that it is not just about women now. Archaeologists have taken a huge interest in masculinity, asking questions such as; How were male identities constructed in the past? How has the role of men changed? A solid example can be found in the works of Paul Treharne on the bronze age in Europe where he is looking at the idea of a warrior identity which we see in some of the graves in central and eastern Europe. This idea that there was a particular role in society and that they also had a particular look. The traditional sex model suggests that sex is biologically determined, that its clear genetically but also through sexual characteristics and the idea that sex is universal and natural. Opposed to this, we get the concept of gender, and gender in this sense is culturally determined, the product of our own experiences and the society that we grow up in as well as demonstrating through clothing, behaviour and possible bodily alterations. If we argue that that this is what it is about, if its sex being biological and gender being cultural, then isn’t this just a nature/culture divide. In a sense, no. It is a lot more complicated; XX and XY are just two of eleven different possible chromosome combinations. Some people can be genetically XX but have male characteristics and vice-versa. In fact, the two-sex model, the idea that sex is just these two opposed identities is just a particular product of the way that we have thought about science in the west, in the same way that gender is a construction and that we are easily willing to accept that. We see it as culturally determined, the product of the society we grow up in. Judith Butler looked at what we call Gender Performativity which was the attempt to move beyond the nature culture divide in our thinking about sexuality in the past. She argues that gender and sex are not pre-determined by our biology but something that we produce through practice and performance. Butler argues that there are male and female regulatory ideals and so it is not that we are born male and female but from the very moment we are born, our gender identity begins to be constructed and it is certainly affected by the regulatory ideals that society has for us (i.e. parents etc.). Butler uses the example of “girling the girl”; this notion that the midwife lifts up the baby and says ‘it’s a girl’. Begins the process for gender performance. Her argument is that in acting and performing the gendered regulatory ideals, we also sustain the gender performance. Her idea of a regulatory ideal is the idea that there are key concepts of what it is to be male and what it is to be female and that these are very particular and historically constructed and that we often attempt to try and live up to them or perhaps to question them? So, the idea that wearing certain clothes, acting in certain ways, having particular ideas about how one would want their life to work out, the idea that women should want to have children. All of these help us to live up the standards that we can never actually quite achieve. In doing so, we help to sustain these regulatory ideals. At one point, we can undermine and challenge regulatory ideals. By doing this we can act to shift them. Butler is often accused of playing the body. We do not choose our genitalia so how can we perform our gender. Butler points out that we are not meant to deny the role of the body but instead to argue that our bodies and biology are caught up in social discourse. We do not live in a world where we can only understand our bodies through brute biology, our understandings of our bodies are also always shaped by our cultural context. You can think about how you think about your own body, whether you think about it as biological, the product of our DNA and genes we inherit from our parents, or whether is it cultural, eat particular foods to look a particular way. Modifications to the body can also be thought about; tattoos and piercing, as cultural things. As a result of this, they are often viewed as superficial. What is personhood? “The condition or state of being a person” (Fowler). Not everyone understands sex, gender or the body in the same way across time and space and equally different cultures understand what it means to be a person differently. Who we recognise as a person, at what point do we recognise a person is different across culturally. In the west, we understand people and personhood to be about individualism, the idea that we are physically determined by our biology, that people have free will and as a result, they are responsible or their own actions and that we think this is the same in all time and space, and we consider the idea of the individual to be a natural state of being. This is a person who is bounded and defined by their skin. When the same way our bodies are not natural, the production of the western individual is not natural at all. Our individualism is created and sustained by our technology and culture. So, we have mobile phones, sleep in private beds, have diaries etc. All of these are cultural choices about the way we organise our world. The opposite of individual personhood is relational personhood and in this model a person is defined by the relationships that they have with others. There are differing ideas about free will and personal responsibility. If a person is defined by their relationships and the other people that surround them then free will and responsibility shift. In a more modern view, boundaries of the body, skin and person are viewed as more permeable. The point is that if personhood isn’t the same everywhere today, was it the same everywhere in the past? As a result, should we be walking about individuals in the past? In one sense, yes. People such Hodder and Meskell would argue that we should be looking for individuals in the past and tell their stories. However, there are other archaeologists such as Thomas and Fowler, who believe that we shouldn’t talk about individuals in the past as they are just a concept as a result of western philosophy. We should recognise that although past personhood might have some familiar aspects we cannot assume people in the past were individuals. Personhood allows us to think in interesting ways about what it means to be a person in the past. This stops us universally and presuming that everyone always and everywhere understands what it means to be human in the same way. BIBLIOGRAPHY Fowler, C. 2004. The Archaeology of Personhood: An Anthropological Approach. London: Routledge. Butler, J. 1993. Bodies that Matter: on the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. London: Routledge. Gero, J. and Conkey, M. (eds.) 1991. Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell. Meskell, L. 1996. The somatization of archaeology: institutions, discourses, corporeality. Norwegian Archaeological Review 29 (1): 1-16. Nelson, S. 1997. Gender in Archaeology. London: AltaMira. Sørenson, M.L.S. 2000. Gender Archaeology. Oxford: Blackwell. Spector, J.D. 1991. What this awl means: towards a feminist archaeology. In J.M. Gero and M.W. Conkey (eds.) Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 388-407. Treherne, P. 1995. The warrior’s beauty: the masculine body and self-identity in Bronze Age Europe. Journal of European Archaeology 3 (1): 105-144 Gilchrist, R. 1999. Gender and Archaeology: Contesting the Past. London: Routledge. Archaeologists’ Interpretations of Sex and Gender
Harvard University Business Strategy and Supply Chain Strategy Essay.

Describe both the business strategy and supply chain strategy for your organization (MY ORGANIZATION IS THE ARMY), for a business unit of your organization, or for some other organization for which you have worked in the past and still retain contacts. Your research paper will analyze how this organization aligns its business strategy with its supply chain strategy and recommend strategy or tactics to improve strategic alignment based on scholarly resources and what you have learned in this course.You are required to use non-course materials to support your contentions and incorporate supporting documentation to support your analysis.Must be 6-7 double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a title pageMust begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.Must use at least six scholarly resources.Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Textbook: Wisner, J.D., Tan, K.-C., & Leong, G. (2012). Principles of Supply Chain Management (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning
Harvard University Business Strategy and Supply Chain Strategy Essay

Marketing Homework(analysis Starbucks social media)

Marketing Homework(analysis Starbucks social media). I’m studying for my Marketing class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

I choose Starbucks for this class!!!!!!!

By now, you should be quite aware of the ways in which your brand tries to interact with you using various social media. Use Adobe Spark (Links to an external site.) to illustrate, document and assess the current state of your brand’s social media efforts. This includes analysis of the brand’s social media voice and the dimensions that contribute to it. Be sure to also address whether and how your brand tries to craft their social media communications and content differently for customers who are in different stages of the purchase process. If your brand hasn’t begun to use social media, choose one of its competitors who do.
There are many ways to organize the content for this assignment, and I encourage you to pick a scheme that works best for your brand. The most straightforward approach is to organize by social network. In other words, show social media post examples of how your brand uses Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube, LinkedIn, etc., and discuss how these examples do/don’t illustrate best practices. I encourage you to use the best practices from the social media marketing module, although you should feel free to use others that you find in think are important as well.
As for how long the assignment should be, that is difficult to say due to the platform, Spark, you are using. Consult the rubric to be sure you meet all criteria and you should be fine.

Social Media Audit and Analysis Rubric (1)


This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComprehensiveness- Curates all of brand’s relevant social media efforts

5.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis- Demonstrates understanding of strengths and weaknesses of brand’s individual social media strategies; even the best brands can show improvement, so try to provide constructive criticism in addition to describing strengths – Discuss how and whether the brand’s social media addresses customers as they move through the purchase process – Demonstrates understanding of strengths and weaknesses of brand’s overall social media strategy – Demonstrates understanding of characteristics of an effective social media voice and its underlying dimensions

85.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeNarrative- Textually compelling – Visually compelling

5.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeQuality of Report- Has professional appearance and persuasive quality – Is free of grammatical and spelling errors – Is logically organized

5.0 pts

Total Points: 100.0

Marketing Homework(analysis Starbucks social media)

Which sets of numbers are closed under multiplication

online dissertation writing Which sets of numbers are closed under multiplication.

Which sets of numbers are closed under multiplication? Choose all answers that are correct.   A. whole numbers   B. natural numbers   C. negative integers   D. integers
Which sets of numbers are closed under multiplication

History And Background Of The Lowes Company Business Essay

It is a US based Hardware company with chains of retail home appliances and improvement retail chain stores. It was founded in North Carolina, North Wilkesboro in 1921 by Lucius S. Lowe. It was inherited by Ruth, his daughter in 1940 when he died where she sold to her brother called Jim Lowe that same year because she was unable to management (Bailey, 2009). The company focused on manufacturing building and hardware materials. Later in 1954, it expanded and introduced new products such as notions, horse tack, snuff, produce, groceries and dry goods. Currently, the Lowe chain serves more than 14 million customers weekly. It has 20 chain stores in Canada and 1710 in the United States. Together with the opening of the South Burlington store located in Vermont, Lowes has stores in all 50 states (Kapner, 2007). In 2007, Lowes expanded into Canada and it opens its first store at Hamilton within the city of Ontario. It is the second largest hardware chain in the United States of America after the Home Depot and ahead of Menards Company. Globally, it is it is ranked second again behind the Home Depot and ahead of B

Family PsychosocialAssessment

Family PsychosocialAssessment.

Assignment 5: Family PsychosocialAssessmentThe purpose of this assignment is for students to complete a family-focused psychosocial assessment. This will involve you watching a movie from pop culture that highlights family dynamics. The movie to watch is listed below:- Madea’s Big Happy Family1. Please be sure to indicate the movie selected, including year of release, at the beginning of your assignment. 2. Write the assessment as if you were a social worker writing about a family that you had just interviewed. In your assessment, apply systems theory and the GIM Model to generate a better understanding of the family. Your assessment should include the following components: a) Agency context: Identify the agency where the family is receiving services. Briefly describe the agencies mandate and mission. (1 paragraph)b) Names of family members and a description of their relationships to each other. (1 paragraph) c) Presenting Problem: Identify a presenting problem from the movie you watched. (e.g., a child who is being bullied at school for being “a sissy,” a parent who loses his/her job and can no longer support the family, a teenager who abuses cannabis, or a family that is experiencing discrimination from neighbors). Keep in mind that your movie may involve several family subsystems. Please focus on one or two specific presenting problems. Describe the presenting problem as if it were a real problem: What motivated the family to come for services? How does each family member view the presenting problem, concern, or issue? What is the history of the problem (how did it emerge, how has it changed over time, how serious is it now, and what has the family tried to do to manage this problem in the past)? (1 page)d) Family Structure and Dynamics: Apply family systems concepts, for instance, linking the concepts of boundaries, subsystems, triangles, norms, life cycle challenges, acculturation, rules, and roles to your family of origin. (2 pages).e) Family Stressors and Needs: Identify the family’s biopsychosocial-spiritual needs and stressors, as they perceive them (e.g., medical concerns, emotional issues, anxiety, conflict within the family, sense of meaning or purpose, lack of resources). If there are differences in their perceptions, indicate how different family members have different views of their needs. (1 page for content, 1 page genogram, one page ecomap=3 pages in total)f) Family Strengths: Identify the family’s strengths, including individual and family characteristics and resources that it can use to address the presenting problem and underlying needs. Make sure that nurturing support systems are included in the ecomap. (1 to 2 paragraphs)g) Diversity: Identify at least one diversity group to which this family belongs (e.g., culture, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status). Describe how the family’s diversity background may relate to the family’s needs, concerns, or strengths. Make use of at least one scholarly article related to the family’s diversity. (1 page-additional culturagram if appropriate)h) Overall assessment: Provide your overall assessment of the family’s situation, from a systems perspective. Avoid blaming or judgmental language and highlight the reciprocal effects that different parts of the family system have on one another. (1 page)i) Intervention plan: Develop an intervention plan that would help the family deal with the hypothetical presenting problem and related concerns. The plan should include at least one primary goal for work and three specific objectives. The plan should also identify what specific interventions will be used and who will be responsible for which tasks (for instance, if the family needed advocacy, who would act as advocate and what approach would that person use for advocacy; or if the family needed parenting skills training, who would act as trainer and what model of training would be used?). Provide references for the models of intervention that will guide your interventions and theorists. Make sure your goals, objectives, models of intervention, and action plan build on one another in a logical manner. Your intervention plan should include family systems approaches (e.g., strengthening specific relationships, helping the family adapt to life cycle adjustments, fostering a better fit between the family and its social environment, or referring the family for specific types of family therapy). Although your intervention plan may include individual counseling or therapy, individual work should not be the only form of intervention. (2 pages)j) Evaluation plan: Describe how you plan to evaluate progress towards the goals and objectives identified above: how you will gather information; what measures you will use; and how you will ensure that your measures for evaluation are feasible, valid, and reliable. (half a page).k) Reference page. For this assignment, you may apply information from our class readings, but you will also need to make use of other scholarly research and readings. This paper must include 2-4 references. You may find useful journal articles by using the library’s online SocIndex or PsycARTICLES databases and searching for topics specifically related to your family’s dynamics – e.g., its ethnic background, structure, presenting issues, risks, or resilience. Family theory and family therapy textbooks may also be useful. Further, you may consult with immediate or extended family members to gather information for the genogram, ecomap, demographic information, important events/turning points, and emotional perspectives of others in the families. The paper will be 12-15 pages in length maximum (no papers will be accepted if they are longer than 15 pages. Points will be deducted if they are less than 12 pages) including any references, using APA format; no abstract needed). The assignment is to be submitted via Canvas. A hard copy is to be brought to class and submitted as well. With hard copy, please submit proof that this paper was reviewed by you and the writing center. Grading for this paper will be based upon: Clarity and conciseness of your understanding of family systems and the GIM (in your own words); Synthesis and integration of information from various readings and class materials; Accuracy of definition and application of concepts; Comprehensiveness of the psychosocial assessment; Creativity and originality in the critique; Following APA format and rules of grammar [for APA Formatting Help, see link at]. One additional point will be awarded with proof that you have had your paper proofed at the learning center.
Family PsychosocialAssessment