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“Arab” is a short complex story by Joyce that I believe is a reflection of his own life as a boy growing up. The story focuses on escape and fantasy; about darkness, despair, and enlightenment: and its constant struggle between ideals and reality I believe Arab employs many themes; the two most apparent to me are escape and fantasy though I see signs of religion and a boy’s first love. Arab Is an attempt by the boy to escape the bleak darkness of North Richmond Street. A recurrent theme of darkness eaves Itself through the friend Mange’s sister who obliviously Is his first love.Arab Is about escaping Into the world of fantasy.

She Is the light In his fantasy, someone who will lift him out of darkness. The boy sees the bazaar at Arab as an opportunity to win her over, as a way to light the candle In her eyes. However, the boy Is more awkward then shy, and the lost for words to speak. He Is driven by desires and struggling with the lack of experience to get through the moment. He fantasize about her, how bringing her a gift from the bazaar will capture her heart.He has promised her a gift and he anguishes over his uncles late return home and his forgetfulness. Nevertheless, he is undeterred and catches an empty train to reality.

The young lady at the booth ignores him while she flirts with the men. When she finally approaches, he freezes in stare, by his awkwardness. As the woman turns and walks away, he realizes the opportunity of winning his friends sister through gift has slipped away. In the end, anguish burns in his eyes as the cold grip of reality takes hold of him as he fumbles with the coins in his pocket.

Secure attachments The quality of love a mother gives her child during

Secure attachments

The quality of love a mother gives her child during the first years in life has long term and tremendous impact on the young child. An emotionally happy, healthy, constructive, harmonious, and productive life as it may be described. All these have dependency on the quality of maternal love received during childhood.

However, many parents remain unaware of the importance of the maternal love to a child, neither do they know the impact and problems which may result during childhood and adolescence if a child does not form such early attachments.

A child develops secure attachment when the mother appropriately and sensitively meets her child’s needs. Appropriate and sensitive may mean the mother observes and understands her child needs and she responds in a manner which satisfies the child. Mothers who foster their children secure attachment meets every need as soon as soon the child starts to cry or shows distress. The behavior of the mother is always tender and affectionate.

Secure attachments may also be created when the mother cuddles or holds her child and toddler in manner which is comforting. The mother reflect the baby’s behavior and responds in a manner which the child enjoys, example when a baby smiles and the mother smiles back, the baby shows interest and pleasure in the mother’s smiles.

Effects of such attachments to adult lives are that; the persons who experienced such attachment are more independent, more curious and interested in exploring the things within their environment. They also develop the sense of agency; have positive relationships, and better social skills and school adjustments.

Self Esteem

Possession of little self esteem can lead people to become depressed, tolerate abusive relationships and situations, and fall short of their potential. On the other hand, too much love may lead to an off putting sense of inability and entitlement of learning from failures. Self esteem is one’s opinion over him or her. Low self esteem is negative or bad opinion of oneself and high self esteem is positive or good opinion of oneself.

High self esteem underpins every positive experience in one’s life and helps individual to see good in every situation. Coping with the existing diversity and fully appreciating the good times experiences as they live in the society. However, self esteem is more like a medicine. The right amount will be beneficial to oneself but too much of it is very bad indeed.

Characteristics of people with high self esteem may include; tending to be smug and superior, becoming prone to self satisfied boasting, abusive relationships, bullying, and adopting air of superiority, being blind to own thoughts, and tending to have impulse control problems. Problems in relationships, rejection, criticism and abuse can also lower self esteem.

Self esteem affects relationships either negatively or positively. Low self esteem makes a person not to relate well with others as they lack confidence within social situations. Responding coldly damages relationships with other people.

Nothing interferes with being able to have reciprocal authentic relationship like having low self esteem. It can lead one to test or sabotage relationship that has potential, or stay in a relationship where one is treated in manner that matches his or her beliefs about oneself. Relationship problems hit people hard and can leave a person either depressed, arguments can fuel self doubt, anger, frustrations, or all these can put a huge stain on an individual.

Identity statuses

According to Marcia, the first stage of identity formation is identity diffusion. Individuals in this stage do not have an idea of who they are and what they need. Such people lack strong opinions, dreams or desires for the future. Apart from that, such people are also not trying and experimenting things. They are afraid of making real commitments and adventuring the world.

The second stage is foreclosure. It refers to individuals with commitments and beliefs in future but without truly having been explored options. Third stage is moratorium where individuals continually explore experiments and options with beliefs and identities but never make a commitment or a decision.

Identity achievement is the fourth stage and here the individual has been through identity. Crisis and has finally made commitment to sense of identity to particular values and role which he or she has chosen.

Being on the identity achievement stage, a person has strong commitments to certain sets of values life goals and beliefs from the active examination and exploration from the society and analyzing life pathways.

Family interactions influence the status of identity development. Such interactions are typically one’s initial experiences and they provide the foundation of identity to form. Culture on the other hand refers to the belief, language, customs, values and norms, knowledge and skills, and anything which a person learns and which makes a way of life of any community. Through the process of socializing and interactions, culture is passed from one generation to the next generation.

Role of genes

Genes are physical and functional units of heredity. Those which are made of DNA act as instructions for protein formation. Each person has two copies of genes, one inherited from every parent and they also contribute to each person’s unique traits. Genes are involved in the control of cell growth and division. Tight control of such process ensures that the DNA of the dividing cell is properly copied and any errors of in the DNA get repaired, each daughter cell receiving full chromosome set.

Good parenting is very essential especially during adolescent stage of a child. Research has shown that adolescents do better academically when their parents get involved in their lives working closely with their teachers, thus the nature of parent child relationship is very important.

During adolescent, it is the time for child’s emotional and social development and helps the parent to know what to expect and support their children through the changes. A change is noticeable on how the child interacts with peers, friends and family. Social and emotional changes are part of child’s journey to adulthood and the society should play the role of assisting children develop social skills and grown up emotions.

Culture plays a very crucial role in influencing child development although it greatly varies from one culture to another. The culture where one grows influences everything from parental styles to developmental milestone. Parental styles also vary due to function of culture and influence the type of hardships one is likely to encounter in life.