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French explorer that explored the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River, and he Gulf of Mexico 4. Fort Niceness¶y’ g. After Washington and his men fired and killed some French troops and their leader outside of Fort Duquesne, Washington set up hastily constructed breastworks called Fort Necessity h.

After a ten hour siege, he was forced to surrender his entire command in July 1754, but was permitted to march his men away with the full honors of war 5. The French and Indian War/ 7 Years War I. The fourth Anglo-French struggle j.It was fought in America and in Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and in the ocean k. In Europe, the principle adversaries were Britain ND Prussia against France, Spain, Austria and Russia l. France wasted so many troops in Europe that it was unable to send sufficient support to the colonies 6. General Edward Bradford m.

Sixty year old officer that was experienced in European warfare n. He was sent to Virginia with a strong detachment of British troops o. After foraging scanty supplies from the colonists, he set out in 1755 with 2 thousand men to capture Fort Duquesne p.Most of his force consisted of ill-disciplined colonial militiamen q. Burdock’s expedition moved slowly because they had to drag heavy artillery r. A few miles from the fort, Bradford encountered a much smaller force of French and Indians, but they ran into the thickets and poured a murderous fire into the ranks of the redcoats s. Washington came to Burdock’s aide t.

Bradford was mortally wounded and the British force was routed after terrible losses 7. General James Wolfe and the Battle of Quebec u. 32 years Old and had been an officer since age 14 v.He sent a detachment up a poorly guarded part of the rocky eminence protecting Quebec w. They scaled the cliff and by morning, the 2 armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham on the outskirts of Quebec He fell fatally wounded after the battle, but the French were defeated and the city surrendered 8. The Peace of Paris of 1763 y. French power was thrown completely off the continent of North America z.

The French were allowed to retain several small but valuable sugar islands in the West Indies, and two islets in the Gulf of SST.Lawrence for fishing stations {. France ceded to Spain, all trans-Mississippi Louisiana plus New Orleans l. Spain gave Florida to Britain for Cuba where Havana had fallen into British arms 9. Chief Pontiac War y. Pontiac led several tribes including a handful of French traders in a lenient campaign to drive the British out of Ohio country Pontiac war besieged Detroit in the spring of 1 763 at the hands of a rival chieftain and overran all but 3 of the British posts west of the Appalachians, killing 2000 soldiers and settlers CLC.The British retaliated by waging a primitive biological warfare where one British commanded ordered blankets infected with small pox to be distributed among the Indians .

This crushed the uprising and brought an uneasy truce to the frontier Pontiac died in 1769 at the hands off rival chieftain 10. The Proclamation of 1 763 . It flatly prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, ending further adjustments . This document was not intended to oppress the colonists at all, but to work out the Indian problem fairly and prevent another bloody eruption like Pontiac uprising Chapter 7 1.The Navigation Acts: a. Passed by Parliament in 1650 to target rival Dutch shippers trying to elbow their way into the American carrying trade b. All commerce flowing to and from the colonies could only be transferred in British vessels Required that European goods destined for America first had to be landed in Britain where tariff duties could be collected and British middlemen could take a slice of the profits d.

American merchants must ship “enumerated” goods, notably tobacco, exclusively to Britain even though the prices might be better elsewhere 2.Salutary Neglect: e. Navigation Laws that were imposed held no intolerable burden mainly because they were loosely enforced (Salutary Neglect) 3. George Greenville: f. Prime Minister that first aroused the resentment of the colonists in 1763 by ordering the British Navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws g. He secured from Parliament the Sugar Act of 1 764 h. Quartering Act of 1 765: required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops I.

Stamp Act of 1 765 j. Greenville regarded these measures as reasonable and just k.He was simple asking the Americans to pay a fair share of the costs for their own defense I. Colonists believed that Greenville was striking at their local liberties 4. Sugar Act of 1 764: m. First law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown n. It increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies o.

After bitter protests, the duties were lowered substantially and the agitation died down 5. Stamp Act of 1 765: p. Greenville was trying to raise the tax revenues to support the new litany force q.The Stamp Act mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax r. Stamps were required on bills of sale for about fifty trade items as well as on certain types of commercial and legal documents, including playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, diplomas, bills of lading, and marriage licenses 6. Taxation without Representation: s. The phrase colonists chanted after the stamp act was enacted 7.

Virtual Representation: t. Greenville claimed that the American colonies were represented in Parliament u.He declared that the power of Parliament was supreme and undivided and that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americans in Boston or Charleston who had never voted for a member of the Parliament v. Americans scoffed at the idea of virtual representation 8. Stamp Act Congress 1765: w. It brought together in NYC, 27 distinguished delegates from nine colonies x. After debating, the members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeches the king and Parliament to repeal the repugnant legislation y.

The Congress, which was ignored in England, made little splash at the time in America z.It was one more step to colonial unity 9. Non-lamentation Agreements: A promising stride towards union I . People started using home made goods and stopped purchasing British imports This gave colonial men and women a chance to participate in colonial protests 10. Sons of Liberty: Took law into their own hands D. Cried “Liberty, Property, and No Stamps” . They enforced importation agreements against violators with tar and feathering .

Patriotic mobs ransacked the houses of unpopular officials, confiscated their money, and hanged effigies of stamp agents on liberty poles 11. Declaratory Act 1766: .Reaffirmed Parliament’s right to “bind” the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” It defined the constitutional principle it would not yield: absolute and unqualified sovereignty over its North American colonies Charles Townsend: . Seized control of the British ministry as the new Prime Minister Champagne Charley . Persuaded Parliament to pass the Townsend Acts . Often drunk 12. .

Understood the difference between external and internal taxes 13. Townsend Acts 17671 Light import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea . Made this tax an indirect customs duty payable at American ports .To the Americans, this difference did not matter . Parliament suspended the legislature of NY because of failure to comply tit the quartering act . The Townsend Acts were to be earmarked to pay the salaries of the royal governors and judges in America Importation acts were quickly revived against Townsend acts Boston Massacre 1 770: . A crowd of 60 townspeople set upon a squad of ten redcoats hit the red coats with clubs .

The troops opened fire and killed or wounded eleven citizens first to die was Crisps Attacks . Only 2 red coats Were found guilty Of man slaughter 15.King George Ill: . 32 years old 14. . They . The .

Strenuously attempting to assert the power of the British monarchy Townsend Acts had failed to produce revenue He was a good man but a bad ruler . He surrounded himself with cooperative “yes men” and a corrupt Prime Minister – Lord North 16. Lord North: . Under Lord North, Parliament repealed the Townsend revenue duties except the tax on tea The tax that colonists found most offensive was retained to keep alive the principle of parliamentary taxation . Corrupt 17. Committees Of Correspondence 1772: .Samuel Adams organized the local committees of correspondence He formed the first one in Boston in 1772 which provoked 80 other towns in their colonies to set up similar organizations .

Their chief function was to parade the spirit of resistance by interchanging letters and this keep alive opposition to British policy . Virginia created the House of Burgesses in 1773 by creating such as body such as a standing committee of the House of Burgesses . Within a short time, every colony had established a central committee through which it could exchange ideas and information with other 18.British East India Company: . In 1773, it was overburdened with 17 million pounds of unsold tea and was facing bankruptcy . If it collapsed, then the London government would lose heavily in tax revenue, so they decided to assist the company by warding it a complete monopoly Of American tea business . The company offered to sell tea much cheaper even with the tax, but Americans refused to buy it 19.

Boston Tea Party 1 773: . A band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the docked tea ships on December 16, 1773 . They smashed open 342 crates of tea and dumped the contents into the harbor .After this, Hutchinson traveled to Britain and never returned 20. Coercive/lamentable Acts 1 774: . In 1774, it passed a series of acts designed to chastise Boston in particular, Massachusetts in general . Called “the massacre of American Liberty’ Boston Port Act was the most drastic.

It closed the harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured . Many of the chartered rights of colonial Massachusetts were swept away . Restrictions were placed on town meetings . Enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty could now be sent to Britain for trial .Quebec Act 1774: guaranteed the French their Catholic religion and permitted them to retain their customs and traditions and extended the boundaries of Quebec southward down to the Ohio River 21 . First Continental Congress: . 1774 the first congress was to meet in Philadelphia to consider ways Of dressing colonial grievances .

12/13 colonies with only Georgia missing sent 55 distinguished men . They deliberated for 7 weeks from Seep 5-act 26 . It was not a legislative, but a consultative body – a convention rather than .After prolong argument, the congress drew up several a congress dignified papers including the Declaration of Rights . The most significant action of the Congress was the creation of the Association 22. Declaration of Rights: . Made by the continental congress 23.

The Association: . It called a complete boycott on British goods: importation, non- exportation, and non-consumption The delegates were not yet calling for independence, they wanted to repeal the offensive legislation and return to the happy days before parliamentary taxation 24.

Why program

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