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Approaches to Pedagogy and Curriculum in the Early Years

Approaches to Pedagogy and Curriculum in the Early Years. Introduction I own and manage a Montessori preschool in a Rural area. I run a morning and an afternoon class and can accommodate up to 22 children in each class. I employ two staff in my preschool. We use the innovative Montessori teaching method – a unique mix of hands on learning technique and have an environment rich in sensory experiences. Children are introduced to the fundamental practical life skills, sensorial skills, language skills (reading
5- Pages.

You are to select one business that does not already have a website and develop an Internet strategy for it. Most large corporations already have websites so you may have to think of something on a smaller scale, for example a local bike store by your house. Sole proprietorship businesses that provide services like car repair, house cleaning, tax preparation, and use the Internet and similar services are also good options. You will also consider and describe how the business you select can use social media to achieve its objectives. Use the Internet and the library to research and analyze markets and competitors.After selecting a business, you will need to answer the following questions:What Internet business model would be appropriate for the company to follow in creating a Web site and why?In what ways can the business benefit from a Web site? What functions should it perform for the company (i.e., marketing, sales, customer support, internal communications, etc.)?In what other ways might the company use the Internet for its own benefit?Prepare functional specifications for the company’s use of the Web and the Internet. Include links to and from other sites in your design.Prepare a list of technological specifications for implementation (i.e., what hardware and software are necessary to support your design)?  
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This assignment contains a critique on the effectiveness of marketing communication channels and efficiency of distribution channels of a company operating in China. The company chosen for this purpose is McDonald’s, the US headquartered fast food retailer with operations across the world. McDonald’s entered the Chinese market in 1990 and has since then grown extensively in large and small towns across the country. The company views China to be its most important Asian market and plans to grow its operations strongly in the country in the coming few years. [1] Whilst McDonald’s is being challenged in all its markets in the US and outside by changing perceptions towards food and by vigorous competitor activity, it has to additionally deal with numerous specific factors in China that are rather unique and not common to the company’s operations in its home market in the US and other important overseas markets in the UK and West Europe. [2] This study is structured into specific sequential sections that deal with (a) the features of McDonald’s Chinese market, (b) the company’s marketing and distribution strategy and channels in China, and (c) the effectiveness of its existing marketing and distribution channels in the country. Appropriate recommendations on improving the effectiveness of marketing and distribution channels are provided in the section on effectiveness. 2. McDonald’s Chinese Market China, with a population of just more than 1.3 billion people, constitutes an extremely important market for producers of goods and services. [3] The country, which was one of the poorest countries in the world and was practically closed to western marketers until the 1980s, opened its economy to the global market in the early 1980s. It has since then recorded astonishing economic growth and has very recently overtaken Japan to become the second largest economy in the world; in terms of annual GDP. [4] The per capita income of the country, at 6600 USD is however far lesser than that of Japan or other affluent Western economies and experts feel that it will take the country decades to achieve per capita GDP on par with today’s affluent nations. [5] Contemporary and economically accelerating China however provides a huge market to fast food retailers and restaurant chains and both Yum Foods and McDonald’s have strong operations in the country. [6] Other fast food chains like Subway have also established significant operations and are planning substantial growth increases. [7] The Chinese food market is segmented in various ways, most importantly by income, by occupation and by eating preferences. [8] With the majority of people in China being poor, income is a major constraint to their eating out with some sort of regularity at establishments like KFC, Pizza Hut or McDonald’s. [9] The important segment for McDonald’s, at present, comprises of white collar workers in Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities. [10] Whilst the Chinese, unlike Indians, are predominantly non-vegetarian in their eating habits, their traditional food habits revolve around rice, noodles, and chicken. [11] McDonald’s has traditionally served bread, in the form of buns, and avoided placing rice and noodles on its menu. Beef, not chicken, makes up its largest selling meat item. [12] Whilst McDonald’s continues to be the largest global fast food restaurant chain, it lags behind its main rival, Yum Foods, in China. [13] Yum, with its range of restaurants, including Pizza Hut and KFC, entered China in 1987 three years before McDonald’s, and has not just maintained but extended its lead over its rival. [14] The group now has 3500 outlets in 650Chinese cities, compared to the approximately 1150 that are now being operated by McDonald’s. [15] Subway, another important western player has approximately 500 outlets. [16] All three players have ambitious plans of increasing their operations in the country in the next two to three years. [17] 3. McDonald’s Marketing Communication and Distribution Strategy in China 3.1. Marketing Communication Strategy McDonald’s owes much of its remarkable growth and success to its extraordinarily efficient skills in advertising and in other areas of marketing communication. [18] The company is strongly associated with high quality, economical and appealing fast food and is universally popular across various countries and among different customer segments. [19] The company’s two symbols, The Golden Arches and Ronald the Clown, are internationally recognised and strengthen the McDonald’s brand. [20] McDonald’s has been under strong fire in recent years, both for the perceived lack of healthful nutrition in its food offerings and for its various management practices. [21] George Ritzer has coined the term McDonaldisation to represent a range of modern day employee and customer unfriendly management practices. [22] McDonald’s has responded strongly to changing public perceptions about food nutrition by introducing a number of low calorie and heart friendly eating options. [23] It has also continuously tweaked its marketing strategies to adapt to various environmental trends and circumstances. [24] McDonald’s makes extensive use of a range of different marketing channels to strengthen its brand, provide information about its various products, services, plans and activities, and for implementing its marketing strategies. [25] McDonald’s operates in numerous countries across the globe and is universally known for its “glocal” (think global, act global) strategies for production, menus, marketing and distribution. [26] The company’s strategies for China are accordingly customised for the specific Chinese social, cultural and economic milieu, even as they are in line with the firm’s global strategies and policies. [27] McDonald’s has adopted a specific marketing strategy for its Chinese operations. [28] These are described in greater detail in the following paragraphs. Beef has traditionally constituted the largest non-vegetarian component of the company’s offerings in its American, European and Middle East Markets. [29] McDonald’s has however tweaked its product mix in China, where chicken is far more popular than beef, and designed its menu to include a greater selection of chicken and fish based products. [30] McDonald’s faces very strong competition in China from KFC, a global fast food chain that has an overwhelmingly chicken based menu. [31] Operating from a basically disadvantageous position with KFC with regard to the products on offer, McDonalds is now vigorously pushing various beef products on its menu in order to draw away KFC customers who are willing to experiment with beef. [32] McDonald’s is perceived in western markets to be a retailer of standard, hygienic, economical and tasty products that are served in functional and clean settings. [33] Customer perceptions towards the company are significantly different in China and other developing economies. [34] McDonald’s restaurants in such regions are perceived to be western, fashionable and conducive for family outings, dates by youngsters and even romantic meetings. [35] McDonald’s operates in China mainly through small and large outlets in Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities. [36] It is of late opening drive through outlets in response to the wave of car acquisition that is sweeping through China’s white collar middle class, the most important target segment of the company. [37] The company’s marketing communication policy is essentially integrated and comprises of a range of different channels. [38] Hoardings, news papers and television form the most important channels for advertising. [39] These marketing channels are used both for strengthening the McDonalds brand and for providing information about various products, services and promotions. [40] McDonald’s uses a range of in-store promotions, the majority of which are aimed towards families and children. [41] The company makes extensive use of gifts to children to push its sales to the under 12 segment. [42] It constantly promotes events and was an important sponsor of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. [43] The company also constantly works on its public relations. [44] It has in the past donated extensively to public organisations after the occurrence of natural calamities like floods, and earthquakes. [45] The company, as is evident, makes extensive use of integrated marketing communication facilities, wherein different types of media advertising work hand in hand with in-store promotions, sponsorships and public relations to strengthen the company’s brand and provide product information. [46] McDonald’s is also making strong use of online marketing channels in response to the burgeoning growth of internet penetration and traffic in the country. [47] 3.2. Distribution Strategy McDonald’s distributes its products through a chain of restaurants in different cities and towns across the globe. [48] Its outlets have largely similar decor and seating arrangements and provide a range of eatables and beverages through counter based service. [49] Items can be ordered from fixed menus that are prominently advertised inside every retail outlet. [50] The company functions through self operated and franchised stores. [51] The company adopted the franchise model in 1955 in order to increase its growth and avoid the capital costs that are associated with the setting up of each self-operated store. [52] The majority of its stores in mature markets are operated by franchisees, who work under the supervision and control of the company. [53] McDonald’s opened its first restaurant in China in Shenzhen in 1990. [54] The company had 1137 restaurants in China at the end of 2009 and is targeting to have more than 1300 outlets by the end of 2010. [55] The company’s plans for 2011 and 2012 are more ambitious. [56] Targeting about 350 new outlets in each of these years, McDonald’s expects to cross 2000 retail outlets in China by December 2013. [57] The overwhelming majority of McDonald’s outlets in China are self operated. [58] Whilst this is not in consonance with the organisational emphasis on expansion through franchisees, the company possibly felt that operating through self-operated outlets was more appropriate for the achievement of the company’s strategic and marketing objectives in an emerging market like China. [59] There has however been a distinct shift in focus in this regard in 2009, and the company has since then encouraged invitations from prospective franchisees for taking up new outlets. [60] Many of the additional outlets in the balance months of 2010 and the immediately forthcoming years of 2011 and 2012 are expected to be operated by franchisees. [61] 4. Effectiveness of Marketing and Distribution Channels 4.1. Marketing Channels Marketing communication represents all the communication functions that are used by organisations for furtherance of their various marketing objectives. [62] The process is described as the set of various actions and methods that are adopted by organisations to develop and present suitable communication stimuli to specifically defined target audiences with the purpose of achieving specific marketing outcomes. [63] Marketing communication takes place through a mix of different marketing channels like advertising, promotions, sponsorships, public relations, direct marketing and personal selling. [64] Recent years have seen the co-opting of the online space into various marketing activities and online communication now forms an important marketing channel. [65] McDonalds as evident from the discussion in the previous section makes extensive use of advertising, promotions, sponsorships, public relations and online communication to communicate to its target audience about various products, services, brand and corporate issues that are both of present and future relevance in its marketing effort. Integrated marketing communication calls for the combined use of different marketing channels, so that they reinforce each other, eliminate inherent communication and message contradictions between the contents of different channels and achieve significant synergies. [66] Advertising is very obviously the most important and widely used component of the marketing communication mix. [67] McDonalds makes extensive use of hoardings, news paper advertising, cinema hall advertising and television to communicate about its brand, products and services to its targeted customer segments. [68] McDonalds is one of the largest advertisers in the world today; whilst all of McDonald’s advertisements reinforce the company’s basic offerings of economical, clean, hygienic, tasty and tempting food that is served in comfortable, well lit and attractive surroundings, the firm shapes its advertising message in accordance with local marketing priorities, cultural environments, and customer perceptions and needs. [69] McDonald’s advertising in China is now focused on strengthening the company’s brand and encouraging people to eat more beef products. “McDonald’s is making use of its comprehensive marketing advantage in the Chinese market, developing a long-term “Beef” education campaign. Relying on its “do you have enough beef?” slogan, McDonald’s is using many marketing channels to “challenge” young Chinese people. You can register within stores as a “beef person”, join the “beef club” online, share in the “beef experiences” of stars, and of course engage nutritionists from the China beef promotion. All of this just goes to show, the nutritional value of beef will be ingrained in the minds of Chinese consumers”. [70] Although the company is currently focusing on encouraging customers to eat more of beef products, McDonalds continues to engage in wide-ranging promotional and brand advertising. [71] Promotional advertising informs customers of special offers on new products, even as brand advertising aims to promote brand personality and build customer relationships. [72] A recent study reveals that McDonald’s brand advertising in China can be categorised into four segments, namely social status, traditional customs and values, children’s happiness and romance. [73] McDonalds targets white collar workers in China and promotes its restaurants as integral to middle class lifestyles. [74] The advertising encourages consumers to visit McDonalds and thereby adopt a modern, respectable, relaxing, and enjoyable lifestyle. [75] The restaurant is also projected as an ideal meeting place for couples and the company’s advertising encourages romantic associations between young people. [76] With China being a traditional and conventional society, the McDonald’s advertising often focuses upon traditional Chinese festivals and celebrations. [77] A significant proportion of its advertising deals with the dreams and predilections of children. Such advertising relates the happiness of children to eating out at McDonalds. [78] With China having become a one child society, much greater emphasis is being placed in society on the happiness of children than was done in the past. [79] The company’s attention to making children happy is aimed at enticing parents to visit the company’s outlets and thereby pamper their children. [80] Advertising focus on children is reinforced by the company’s in-store promotions, which are heavily skewed towards children. [81] All McDonald’s stores carry different types of new, attractive, and innovative toys, which are gifted on purchase of specific products or product combinations. [82] It is a little known fact that McDonald’s is the world’s largest producer of toys, which are manufactured in various factories across the world for giving away as gifts to children who visit the company’s outlets and buy its products. [83] Apart from media advertising and in-store promotions, the company makes good use of the online space. [84] McDonald’s Chinese website talks to Chinese customers in the local language and provides extensive details about its products and activities. [85] The company’s invitation to local Chinese businessmen and entrepreneurs for taking up franchisee operations is prominently displayed on the company’s website, along with required details. [86] McDonalds engages in extensive sponsorship of sport events and was an important sponsor of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. [87] With there being 56 official sponsors for the 2008 Olympics, McDonalds launched a unique campaign 8 months before the games through its “Cheer for China” platform, which enabled ordinary Chinese people to participate in the country’s Olympic dream. [88] McDonalds created viral videos, interactive online panels, interactive video cheering stations and blog partnerships with Olympic athletes and other celebrities. [89] The company’s “Cheer for China” website was ranked by Google to be one of the most popular Olympics websites and recorded more than 25 million visitors. [90] McDonald’s also contributes regularly to relief work in the event of occurrence of floods, earthquakes and other natural calamities. [91] Organisational contributions for such causes are usually publicised well and contribute to the company’s brand and its reputation as a responsible corporate citizen with empathy for the Chinese people. [92] McDonald’s, it is evident, uses marketing communication extensively to convey its different marketing messages. The organisation is one of the world’s largest advertisers. Consistently working towards improving its competitive advantage in an intensely competitive international market, McDonald’s is using its marketing communication strategically and with a great deal of thought and planning to achieve corporate and marketing objectives. In China its marketing communication works towards (a) strengthening its brand through a range of clearly thought out advertising and sponsorship campaigns designed to achieve specific marketing objectives, (b) encouraging people to eat more beef and fish based items, (c) drawing away people from its competitors, (d) attracting families and children through attractive gifts and promotions, (e) attracting prospective franchisees to participate in the company’s growth, and (f) building public image as a responsible corporate citizen. It is however difficult to understand why McDonald’s does not look at women as a specific important segment for targeting of communication messages. Women surely play an important role in choice of eating out destinations because of their steadily increasing earning power and their pivotal roles in families as primary carers of children. Greater emphasis in marketing communication towards appealing to issues important to women could possibly help reinforce brand values in traditional Asian societies. 4.2. Distribution Channels McDonald’s lags far behind its main rival Yum Foods in number and spread of outlets. [93] Yum, the owner of brands like KFC, Pizza Hut and Taco Bell, currently has more than 3500 outlets spread across hundreds of small and large Chinese cities, three times more than the approximately 1150 outlets operated by McDonald’s. [94] Whilst Yum started its operations in China only three years before the Ronald McDonald entered the country, it has clearly outgunned McDonald’s in its distribution network and infrastructure and has built up a lead that at present appears to be unassailable. [95] Market observers attribute McDonald’s comparatively slower growth in China mainly to its policy of using only self-operated outlets in the Chinese market. [96] Whilst such a strategy does make sense in the initial years of entry in a new market in an emerging economy, it is difficult to understand the reasons behind a company like McDonald’s, (with its substantial expertise, knowhow, and resources), persisting with such a policy for full two decades. [97] It appears to be likely that the company’s preoccupations in its home markets during the past few years resulted in the deferment or slowing of its growth plans in China. [98] The company now appears to be in a rush and wishes to double the growth it achieved in the past 20 years in just 3 years and expand from 1100 outlets at the close of 2009 to more than 2000 outlets in 2013. [99] The company, going by its official announcements, intends to achieve these distribution targets by appointing hundreds of franchisees in the coming two years. [100

The Proliferation of Computer Technology in The Modern Era Discussion

The Proliferation of Computer Technology in The Modern Era Discussion.

In the modern era, there are few professions that do not to some extent rely on data. Stockbrokers rely on market data to advise clients on financial matters. Meteorologists rely on weather data to forecast weather conditions, while realtors rely on data to advise on the purchase and sale of property. In these and other cases, data not only helps solve problems, but adds to the practitioner’s and the discipline’s body of knowledge.Of course, the nursing profession also relies heavily on data. The field of nursing informatics aims to make sure nurses have access to the appropriate date to solve healthcare problems, make decisions in the interest of patients, and add to knowledge.In this Discussion, you will consider a scenario that would benefit from access to data and how such access could facilitate both problem-solving and knowledge formation.To Prepare:Reflect on the concepts of informatics and knowledge work as presented in the Resources.Consider a hypothetical scenario based on your own healthcare practice or organization that would require or benefit from the access/collection and application of data. Your scenario may involve a patient, staff, or management problem or gap.By Day 3 of Week 1Post a description of the focus of your scenario. Describe the data that could be used and how the data might be collected and accessed. What knowledge might be derived from that data? How would a nurse leader use clinical reasoning and judgment in the formation of knowledge from this experience?By Day 6 of Week 1Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days, asking questions to help clarify the scenario and application of data, or offering additional/alternative ideas for the application of nursing informatics principles.*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues.
The Proliferation of Computer Technology in The Modern Era Discussion

Statistics homework help

i need help writing an essay Statistics homework help. After reviewing your peer?s movement assessment, compare and contrast your examples. How were the assessments similar?ÿ How were they different? Ensure each peer response contains a minimum of 100 words.The articular system gets its name from the joints in our body or the articulation that occurs. There are many types of joints within the human body and each plays a specific and unique role in allowing us to move with proper functionality. Some joints have an incredible amount of movement in a near frictionless environment. Some joints are completely locked in place against bone, never to be moved again. All of these joints however have a huge influence on our quality of life and the movement of our bodies.The nervous system can be broken up into two major sections. The brain and the spinal cord is the central nervous system (CNS) and everything outside of the brain and spinal cord is the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The nervous system?s ?input? devices comprise the sensory system. The sensory system absorbs and measures information from all around you and inside of you and then relays that information to the central nervous system for analyzing. The ?output? side of the nervous system is the motor system. The motor system carries out the orders from the central nervous system and tells muscles and glands how to respond. (Colbert, B.)Let?s say I am cooking some ramen noodles by boiling them in water on the stove. I then lose concentration and my hand leans over the flame. My nervous system receptors or ?input? devices sense that something is wrong and send a signal to the central nervous system. The CNS then uses the ?output? or motor system to tell the muscles and bones in my arm to get my hand out of there! My articular system along with my skeletal system allows my hand to be moved away from the flame in the quickest and safest way possible. This action implements all four systems discussedStatistics homework help

The project needs someone who is well versed in Python or Firebase to ensure it gets done. The proposal

The project needs someone who is well versed in Python or Firebase to ensure it gets done. The proposal is about building an online app call grocery helper app. I need somebody with coding experience. This project will require a weekly update. i will need this to present to the professor of how the project is progressing, if there is any obstacles or codes used. i will upload the proposal, syllabus and guideline for the final paper

Evaluation of Restorative Justice Programs

It is simple to suppose that prisoners are not human beings. In some way once an individual is found guilty of a crime and incarcerated, they become, in the sense of the law, almost more like an object than a person. Many prisoners suffer the loss of not only their independence, but their right to vote, their ability to settle with victims of their crimes, their right to personal safety, their right to parent, their right to be assumed innocent until proven guilty and indeed their right to dignity. A requirement for punishment and retribution is the compelling philosophy behind our penal system. But is incarceration always necessary for those who have committed a crime and, moreover, what of those defendants who will not repeat the crime? Furthermore, the adult prison population in England and Wales has grown from 36,000 in 1991 to 62,000 in 2003. Indeed, this is one of the central problems facing contemporary penal policy and another reason why we should seek alternatives to incarceration. This essay considers the need for restorative justice as a substitute for incarceration in many cases. Restorative justice is one of the most commonly considered advancements in the region of crime and justice. Its proponents argue that retributive justice, society’s conventional answer to crime, neither meets the needs of crime victims nor prevents re-offending. Instead, it supposes a disconnected, adversarial procedure and ‘sees crime as a violation of the state, defined by law breaking and the establishing of guilt. It determines blame and administers punishment in a contest between the offender and the state.’[1] As an substitute, they suggest, should be restorative justice, in which families and communities of offenders persuade them to take responsibilities for the consequence of their conduct, express repentance and restore the destruction that they have caused: Restorative justice encourages all of us involved in the criminal justice system to see justice in a new light. In many cases it helps victims of crime have a say in what happens to an offender. It can also be part of the rehabilitation process for offenders themselves. Restorative justice is about helping every victim get over the crime they’ve suffered. When a victim chooses to meet the offender it often helps them feel safer and more satisfied that justice has been done. So as we reform the criminal justice system to put victims and communities first, restorative justice should have a key place at the heart of our reforms.[2] The fundamental rudiments of restorative justice symbolize a procedure based, among other things, on values of participation, respect, honesty, accountability and empowerment.[3] As established by the Home Office, restorative justice is not a ‘unified concept.’[4] Restorative processes concern victims, offenders, their families and the community, to cooperatively recognize and address harms, needs and requirements, so as to heal and put things as right as possible. This was recognized in Johnathan Carter’s case, where the restorative justice process resulted in an agreement that went some way to remedying the harm caused to the victims, whilst also understanding the harm that the offender had brought upon himself. Johnathan Carter’s case is a classic example of a crime that was committed but will never be repeated. It is submitted, in agreement with the principle established in this case, that restorative justice is a valuable alternative to incarceration, where the crime will never be repeated. The driver, Johnathan, of a car had been drinking that afternoon but had felt fit to drive. About fifteen minutes into the drive, the driver failed to drive the vehicle around a severe bend and he lost control. As a result, the car hurtled into a bank and Aaron Calvert, one of the passengers, was thrown out of the car and died at the incident. Soon after the disaster, the Johnathan was tested for alcohol consumption. The test revealed a blood alcohol reading in excess of the legal limit. He stated that he was guilty to a charge of driving with surplus blood alcohol causing death. Throughout sentencing, the Judge had to reflect on the appropriate sentence for a man who had killed ‘his lifelong best friend.’[5] The law at the time of the sentencing imparted that the maximum sentence was five years imprisonment.[6] On the other hand, preceding sentencing, Johnathan had agreed to take part in a restorative justice conference. During the conference an understanding was reached recommending definite results to the sentencing Judge. However, the Judge’s ruling was constrained by legal standards and legislation which did not then require him to take into account restorative justice effects. During the time of the case, a sentence of incarceration almost always resulted in a charge of alcohol-related driving causing death.[7] All the same, directing his comments to Johnathan, the sentencing judge conveyed the following, sensitive declaration: To hear the effect of the death of their eldest child on his parents would draw tears from stone. Even more moving, was their heartfelt and tearful plea, made in Court, that you, who have been like a brother to their son, and in some ways like a son to them, not be imprisoned. For them, that would be a second tragedy on top of the first, and would achieve nothing.[8] Subsequent to an appraisal of all the concerns, the Judge determined that a fair result was 18 months imprisonment. He suspended that sentence for the duration on the grounds that Johnathan was quite young, he had a previous ‘almost spotless’ record, he needed rehabilitation, had ‘diminished culpability,’ had been accommodating with the Police, was repentant and there was loving family and community support. The results of the restorative justice conference were taken into contemplation. Employing the conference agreement, the Court suspended Johnathan’s license for three years, ordered him to contribute $4,000 towards the headstone, perform two hundred hours of community service and to address specific assemblies at five secondary schools in his neighbourhood relating to the dangers of drinking and driving. Jonathan Carter’s case represent a feasible process of dealing with crime in our communities and an improved way to consider the victim’s interests. It also demonstrates how restorative justice procedures are not fundamentally an alternative for, but can also act in combination with the current retributive methodology. The conference acknowledged the needs of the family, some of which were at odds with sentencing practice at that time, and balanced these with the needs of the community. Restorative justice is therefore process rather than outcome driven. Increasing empirical evidence demonstrates substantial settlements of restorative justice, with benefits prevailing over harms. From a crucial account, known as the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE), carried out in Canberra, Australia over five years, from 1995 to 2000, offenders who recognized accountability for one of two categories of crime- personal property crime executed by juvenile offenders and middle-range violent crimes committed by offenders aged up to twenty-nine years, were allocated at random either to go to court or to act at a restorative justice conference.[9] The conference concerned a meeting assembled by a trained facilitator between offenders and their family and friends acting as supporters, collected with the victims and their supporters. At the conference, members deliberated what had happened when the offence took place, who the offence had influenced and in what regard, and what could be done to reinstate the harm caused. In the sequence of the conference, often a highly representing encounter, victims explained candidly to their offenders the total consequences of the offence. Offenders had the possibility to take accountability for their actions and understand the result in means not available in the courtroom. The conference concluded with an outcome agreement intended to repair the harm caused by the offence.[10] The appraisal of RISE test was incorporated into understanding of the conferences and court measures, interviews with the victims after their cases were organized, and reassessing of official information. The assessment provides evidence of the benefits, and harms, that victims and offenders experienced from restorative against conventional justice. Restorative justice conferences are under test in the United Kingdom.[11] In none of these procedures have offenders lost rights or had legal procedures abused because of their voluntary contribution in restorative justice procedures. While there is mounting discussion of sentencing offenders to meet with victims as a requirement of a community sentence, as a substitute for imprisonment, it is not obvious that this solitary procedure would abuse the rights of an offender permitted to choose imprisonment rather than a meeting with a victim. While offenders reported in the above study that restorative justice conferences are stressful, stress as a solitary reason is not an infringement of human rights and prosecution and incarceration are also stressful. The stress or disgrace of restorative justice may be a required part in the reforming process that eventually benefits the offender.[12] Offenders derive an increased sense of respect from restorative justice processes. When they are diverted to restorative justice preferably than being imprisoned, they can evade a criminal record and its related disabilities. In order for this alternative to incarceration to work however, it is fundamental to restorative justice that everyone at present, including the victim and offender, is there voluntarily. If this is not case then alternatives and incarceration is more favourable. In supposition however, it is determined and consistent punishment of crime that discourages offenders from committing crime. In common economics, the fundamental mechanism of this theory is a reasonable choice in support of cost-benefit ratios of compliance with the law, relative to cost-benefit ratios of breaking the law. Until very recently, restorative justice has been regarded chiefly as an innovation to be used with young offenders to dissuade them from pursuing a criminal career. However, research has revealed that in opposition of this conventional wisdom, restorative justice is more useful in deterring violent crime than property crime, for example.[13] It seems that the higher level of emotional engagement in these conditions is relative to reducing re-offending. It is submitted that imprisonment should be ruled out for minor offences and instead replaced with restorative justice. Furthermore, there is the controversial issue of when offences cannot and will not be repeated. An example was the case illustrated above, where restorative justice was combined with methods of incarceration. In the grey area of euthanasia and mercy killing, this system could be used, depending on the individual circumstances of the case in question. Owing to prison overcrowding and the notion of unfairness connected with incarceration for one off offences, restorative justice appears to be in a superior position to improve that problem. Furthermore, in consequence of the substantial evidence of injustice and contempt in reference to victims by criminal justice, restorative justice appears to be in an effective alternative. Arguments may be made against an assertion in theory, but the evidence from practice provides little assistance to the theoretical objections. The more rapidly criminal justice opens its doors to restorative justice, the sooner we can begin to restore a positive and just system of criminal justice. Bibliography As per footnotes and Ashworth reference provided by customer Footnotes [1] Helen Bowen and Jim Consedine, Restorative Justice- Contemporary Themes and Practice (Ploughshares Publications, Lyttleton, (1999) 18 [2] Baroness Scotland QC, Home Office Minister for the Criminal Justice System and Law Reform, Restorative Justice Annual Conference in London, March 16 2005 [3] Restorative Justice in New Zealand: Best Practice (May 2004, Ministry of Justice, Wellington) 24 [4] United Kingdom Home Office, An International Review of Restorative Justice, Crime Reduction Series, Paper 10 (London 2001) [5] Police v Carter (unreported, District Court, New Zealand 2001 April) [6] Section 30AB Transport Act 1962 [7] R v Brodie [1999] 2 NZLR 513 [8] Section 21(A) Criminal Justice Act 1985 repealed [9] Ibid [10] http://www.aic.gov.au/rjustice/rise/index.hgtml [11] http://www.crim.upenn.edu/jrc/faq.html (2001) [12] Nathan Harris, Shaming and Shame: Regulating Drink Driving, 73 Alfred Blumstein and David Farrington eds 2001 [13] Ibid

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