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AOJ 206…Make sure to use proper APA formatting

AOJ 206…Make sure to use proper APA formatting.

In this submission, include the headings “Summary of the article” and “How it relates.”Respond directly to these headings and provide the summary using your own words. Then, provide very specific details about how the article relates to the course, such as a citation back to the textbook or specific references to course lectures or PowerPoints.Include an APA-formatted reference list for both the article you have read and the supporting materials.In order to receive 10 points, you must send this submission exactly as outlined above. There are no half-credit options, either “all or nothing” here.Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch decries lack of access to justice for many Americans (Links to an external site.)2 men exonerated in 1994 Montana City killing sue investigators (Links to an external site.)Prosecutors Need to Take the Lead in Reforming Prisons (Links to an external site.)
AOJ 206…Make sure to use proper APA formatting

Economics homework help. AssignmentIntroduction to Process ControlWork the problems below. To receive any credit, you must show all work. You may submit your work in a word processing document or in a pdf file. Graphic files are not acceptable submissions. Your file submission document should be entitled Week1AYourGID (replace YourGID with your specific GID).A sensor has a linear resistance change of 100 to 195 ohms, as temperature changes from 20o ? 120oC. Find the I/O relationship.Using the equation for modeling a 1st order response, find the time it takes for a sensor to reach 90% of it final value given a final sensor output of 4.0V, an initial sensor output of 2.0V, and a time constant = 0.0025/s.A 1000 ohm resistor is measured 10 times and the following readings were taken in the table below.Find the mean and standard deviation of the measurements.Test #Reading110162986398149905101161011799781044999110966Assuming a normal distribution, there is a 99.7% probability that the true value of the resistance falls between what two values?The following unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge is constructed. Calculate the output voltage across points C and D and the value of resistor R4required to balance the bridge circuit.Refer to the op amp below (Fig. 2.26 in your text). If Vin = 0.5V, R1 = 10k ohm, and R2= 25k ohm, calculate:the output voltage, Vout,the current in the 10k ohm resistor.What would be the use or purpose of such a circuit? And how do your results demonstrate that?LabIntroduction to Process Control LabYou are taking a measurement of a signal from a sensor with high frequency noise. In order to not amplify that noise through your instrumentation system, you decide to use a RC filter with a cutoff frequency (critical frequency, fc) of 1kHz after the sensor and before the amplification.What kind of RC filter do you need? Design the RC filter. Be sure to use standard resistor and capacitor values and specify the tolerance. Show all work.Construct the circuit using Multisim. Use the tolerances which you specified in your design.Use the multifunction generator for the input and use both channels of the Tektronix virtual scope to display the input and output voltages.Create a table of your input and output voltage at dc, 250 Hz, 500Hz, 750Hz, 1kHz, 5kHz, 10kHz, 50kHz, 100kHz. Measure additional frequency points in order to get a nice set of data for the drop off. Be sure to capture several screenshots of the Tektronix virtual scope.Given the output voltage at dc, what is the voltage 3dB down? In other words, what is the output voltage at the 3dB point? You should calculate this.Using your simulation, change the frequency of the input voltage until the output voltage is that associated with your 3dB point. What is the frequency of the signal? That is your critical frequency. Take a screenshot of the scope. Add these measurements to your table. Also, put in your report this frequency. What is this frequency called?Create a plot of your data (you can do this easily in Excel) and copy and paste the plot into your report.Questions:Does your circuit attenuate the signal at high frequencies? What is the attenuation at 10kHz?How does your measured -3dB frequency (fc) compare to your design critical frequency? Give some reasons why it is different.Please fill out and use the following Lab Report Template when submitting your lab work.Please read and follow the guidelines given in the Solutions Template in submitting all of your lab work.Economics homework help

Privacyand confidentiality of patient

Privacyand confidentiality of patient.

For this discussion, you will define privacy and confidentiality. Next, you will discuss the case study on page 77 titled “Making the Best Choice” and address the follow up questions in the case studyYour initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) references, in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic. The goal is to make your post interesting and engaging so others will want to read/respond to it. Synthesize and summarize from your resources in order to avoid the use of direct quotes, which can often be dry and boring. No direct quotes are allowed in the discussion board posts.References:Initial Post: Minimum of two (2) total references: one (1) from required course materials and one (1) from peer-reviewed references.
Privacyand confidentiality of patient

Sucker Rod Pumping System Engineering Essay

help me with my homework Artificial lift allows wells to be produced that are non-flowing. Generally this is achieved by a mechanical device inside the well, such as pump; decreasing the weight of the liquid/gas mixture via high pressure gas; or improving the lift efficiency of the well. In the production string (tubing) that is usually set without a production packer, a pump placed below the dynamic fluid levelling the well lifts the crude up to the surface. This energy input allows the fluid to continue on its way and relieves the pay zone of all or part of the back pressure downstream from the pump. Sucker Rod Pumping is the most common method of artificial lift (85%), with gas lift second (10%), and then electrical submersible and hydraulic pumping about equal (2%) in usage. Sucker rod pump uses a vertical positive-displacement pump consisting of a cylinder and a hollow plunger with a valve i.e. it works by creating a reciprocating motion in a sucker rod string that connects to the downhole pump assembly. It is run into the tubing screwed onto the end of a rod string. The system is actuated from the surface by a motor that drive a walking beam or a hydraulic elevator. Introduction Sucker Rod Pumps, also called Donkey pumps or beam pumps, are the most common artificial-lift system used in land-based operations. Motor drives a reciprocating beam, connected to a polished rod passing into the tubing via a stuffing box. The sucker rod continues down to the oil level and is connected to a plunger with a valve. On each upward stroke, the plunger lifts a volume of oil up and through the wellhead discharge. On the downward stroke it sinks (it should sink, not be pushed) with oil flowing though the valve. The motor speed and torque is controlled for efficiency and minimal wear with a Pump off Controller (PoC). Use is limited to shallow reservoirs down to a few hundred meters, and flows up to about 40 litres (10 gal) per stroke . Technical Details: Artificial lift allows wells to be produced that are non-flowing. Generally this is achieved by a mechanical device inside the well, such as pump; decreasing the weight of the liquid/gas mixture via high pressure gas; or improving the lift efficiency of the well. Artificial lift consists of two main processes: Mechanical lifting by pumps. Lessening the fluid density by mixing with gas injected in the part of the production string ,or gas lift In the production string (tubing) that is usually set without a production packer, a pump placed below the dynamic fluid levelling the well lifts the crude up to the surface. This energy input allows the fluid to continue on its way and relieves the pay zone of all or part of the back pressure downstream from the pump. The two most common pumping methods in the world are: Sucker rod pumping Centrifugal pumping Sucker Rod Pumping: It is the most common method of artificial lift (85%); with gas lift second (10%), and then electrical submersible and hydraulic pumping about equal (2%) in usage. Sucker rod pump uses a vertical positive-displacement pump consisting of a cylinder and a hollow plunger with a valve i.e. it works by creating a reciprocating motion in a sucker rod string that connects to the downhole pump assembly. .It is run into the tubing screwed onto the end of a rod string. The system is actuated from the surface by a motor that drive a walking beam or a hydraulic elevator. Components Every part of the pump is important for its correct operation. The most commonly used parts are described below: Barrel: The barrel is a large cylinder which can be from 10 to 36 feet long and a diameter from 1.25 to 3.75 inches (95 mm). After using several materials for its construction, the API (American Petroleum Institute) standardized the use of 2 materials or compositions for this part which are carbon steel and brass, both with an inside coating of chrome. The advantage of brass against carbon steel, weather is a more soft material, is its 100% resistance to corrosion. Piston: This is a nickel-metal sprayed steel cylinder that goes inside the barrel. Its main purpose is to create a sucking effect that lift the fluids beneath it and then, with the help of the valves, take those fluids above it and, progressively, out of the well. It achieves this with a reciprocal up and own movement. Valves: The valve has two components – the seat and the ball – which create a complete seal when closed. After trying several materials, the most commonly used seats are made of carbon nitride and the ball is often made of silicon nitride. In the past, balls of iron, ceramic and titanium were used. This last type of balls, made of titanium, is still being used but only where crude oil is extremely dense and/or the quantity of fluids is too much. The most common configuration of a rod pump requires two valves, called the travelling valve and fixed or static valve. Piston Rod: It’s a rod that connects the piston with the outside of the pump. Its main purpose is to transfer the engine produced by the “Nodding Donkey” above in an up/down reciprocal movement. Fitting: The rest of the parts of the pump is called fitting and is, basically, small pieces designed to keep everything hold together in the right place. Most of these parts are designed to let the fluids pass uninterrupted. Filter: The job of the filter, as guessed, is to stop big parts of rock, rubber or any other garbage that might be loose in the well from going into the pump. There are several types of filters, being a common iron cylinder with enough holes in it to permit the entrance of the amount of fluid the pump needs the most commonly used. Explanation Of How It Works/ Is Used: Figure A: Components of Sucker Rod Pump ` A motor and gearbox supply power to turn the power shaft. There is a counterweight at the end of the crank. A pitman arm is attached to the crank and it moves upward when the crank moves counterclockwise. The Samson arms support the walking beam. The walking beam pivots and lowers or raises the plunger. The rod attaches the plunger to the horsehead. The horsehead (not rigidly attached) allows the joint (where rod is attached) to move in a vertical path instead of following an arc. Every time the plunger rises, oil is pumped out through a spout. The pump consits of a four bar linkage is comprised of the crank, the pitman arm, the walking beam, and the ground. Figure B: Operational Detail of Sucker Rod Pump Here the plunger is shown at its lowest position. The pitman arm and the crank are in-line. The maximum pumping angle, denoted as theta in the calculations, is shown. L is the stroke length. After one stroke, the plunger moves upward by one stroke length and the walking beam pivots. The crank also rotates counter clockwise. At the end of the upstroke the pitman arm, the crank, and the walking beam are in-line. For name and location of parts, see Figure A: A motor supplies power to a gear box. A gearbox reduces the angular velocity and increases the torque relative to this input. As shown in Figure B, (the crank turns counter clockwise) and lifts the counterweight. Since the crank is connected to the walking beam via the pitman arm, the beam pivots and submerges the plunger. Figure B also shows the horsehead at its lowest position. This marks the end of the down stroke. Note that the crank and the pitman arm are in-line at this position. The upstroke raises the horsehead and the plunger, along with the fluid being pumped. The upstroke begins at the point shown in Figure B. At the end of the upstroke, all joints are in-line. This geometric constraint determines the length of the pitman arm. Figures C (a) and C (b) show the plunger and ball valves in more detail. These valves are opened by fluid flow alone. During the plunger’s upstroke the plunger valve or riding valve is closed. The column of liquid corresponding to the stroke will be lifted up to the surface while, relieved of the weight of the fluid, the pressure of the pay zone can then open the bottom valve or standing valve, thereby allowing the pump barrel to fill up with effluent. During the down stroke the valve of the hollow plunger opens and the standing valve closes, thereby preventing the fluid from returning into the pay zone and allowing the plunger to return freely to its initial point at the base of pump barrel. The pump is single acting and its theoretical output is equal to the volume generated by the plunger’s stroke and cross-section multiplied by the pumping rate, i.e. in a homogenous system: Q=S*N*A Where, Q=Flow rate. S=Stroke. N=Number of strokes per time unit. A=Area of the plunger. In practice following parameters are also involved: An efficiency factor A coefficient depending on the units that are use Figure C(a) TABLE OF VARIABLES THAT AFFECT SUCKER ROD STRING AND PUMPING UNIT LOADING Polished rod load Pumping speed Pump setting or depth Physical characteristics of the rod string Dynamic characteristics of the rod string Plunger diameter of the pump Specific gravity Pump intake pressure Polished rod acceleration pattern Mechanical friction Fluid friction Pump submergence Compressibility or gas interference Pumping unit inertia Pumping unit geometry Counterbalance Torque characteristics of prime mover Flow line pressure Innovativeness and Usefulness: Any liquid-producing reservoir will have a ‘reservoir pressure’: some level of energy or potential that will force fluid (liquid and/or gas) to areas of lower energy or potential. You can think of this much like the water pressure in your municipal water system. As soon as the pressure inside a production well is decreased below the reservoir pressure, the reservoir will act to fill the well back up, just like opening a valve on your water system. Depending on the depth of the reservoir (deeper results in higher pressure requirement) and density of the fluid (heavier mixture results in higher requirement), the reservoir may or may not have enough potential to push the fluid to the surface. Most oil production reservoirs have sufficient potential to produce oil and gas – which are light – naturally in the early phases of production. Eventually, as water – which is heavier than oil and much heavier than gas – encroaches into production and reservoir pressure decreases as the reservoir depletes, all wells will stop flowing naturally. At some point, most well operators will implement an artificial lift plan to continue and/or to increase production. In relative to US data sucker rod pumping is the most common method (85%); with gas lift second (10%), and then the electrical submersible and the hydraulic pumping about equal (2%) in usage. Plunger lift and several variations of all these processes are in limited use. The prominence of sucker rod pumping is due, in part, to the large number of shallow, low productivity wells in the Midwestern and western United States. Mainly sucker rod pumps are used for onshore areas. Sucker rod pumps are used primarily to draw oil from underground reservoirs. The mechanisms it employs however are found in a wide variety of machines. The four bar linkage can be found on door dampers, on automobile engines, and on devices such as the lazy tong. The Sterling engines also use a linkage similar to the one used by the pump. Current Status of Development: Every project requires an in depth study of the topic. Being in the starting phase of our project, currently we are going through as many books, journals and online material as we can. Collecting as much data as we can, we plan to go through an extensive study of sucker-rod pumps and artificial gas drive techniques, principles etc. Having a comprehensive knowledge of sucker-rod pumps is our first objective, after which we will think of ways in which we can apply practically. Current sources being referred:

chmll130 lab 11

chmll130 lab 11.

I’m working on a chemistry question and need guidance to help me study.

B. Insert the following picture from Part I with your name and MEID showing in the photo (6 pts):Photo A: Insert a photo of the intact balloons from Part I. C. Part I Follow-Up Questions (Show all calculations with units on each number and the final answer rounded to the correct significant figures for full credit.)Calculate balloon volume for each balloon at maximum inflation from the circumference data. (You will have to assume that the balloon was a perfect sphere.) To calculate balloon volume, first find the radius (in cm) of the balloon by using the formula C = 2πr. Then, use the radius’ value in the formula V = (4/3)πr3 to calculate volume (in cm3). Show all your work, place units on all numbers (even those within the calculations), and express your answers with appropriate sig figs. (12 pts)Calculate the experimental value for the number of moles of CO2 in each balloon at maximum inflation using the formula PV = nRT. Use the volume you calculated in Question 1 at maximum inflation and recall that the gas constant R is 8.206 x 10-2 L atm/mol K. To find the temperature, look at your home thermostat. To find the pressure, use the internet to access the National Weather Service internet website. It will give you the pressure at your location on the day you perform the experiment. [Note: It is essential that your pressure as measured by the barometer be converted from the unit of inHg (inches of mercury) to atm, temperature from oF to K, and volume from cm3 to L before using the ideal gas law and the ideal gas constant.] (12 pts)Calculate the theoretical value for the number of moles of CO2 that should have been produced in each balloonassuming that 1.45 g of NaHCO3 is present in an antacid tablet. Use stoichiometry (a mole ratio conversion must be present) to find your answers (there should be three: one answer for each balloon). (6 pts) The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is:H3C6H5O7(aq) + 3 NaHCO3(aq)  3 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) + Na3C6H5O7(aq)What is the percent error between the experimental value of moles of CO2 (from Question 2) and the theoretical value of moles of CO2 (from Question 3) for each balloon? (3 pts) How do your experimental and theoretical values compare (discuss percent error from Question 4)? Explain any discrepancies and list TWO sources of error (“human error” and “calculator error” are unacceptable responses; your sources of error should be based on potential flaws in the experimental procedure or design). (6 pts)Graph balloon volume versus the number of tablets used in a line graph. Since the independent variable in this experiment was the number of tablets used, that variable should be plotted on the horizontal axis. The dependent variable was the volume of the balloon; that variable should be plotted on the vertical axis. Be sure to use MS Excel or Graphical Analysis to create your graph and then copy/paste it here. Be sure to include a title for the graph, as well as labels with appropriate units on each axis. (6 pts)Describe the relationship between the number of tablets in the balloon and the volume of the balloon as shown in your graph. (4 pts)Part II – Exploring the Relationship Between Temperature and Volume of a GasA. Part II Data Table (4 pts)Complete Data Table 2. (Report all values with the correct number of significant figures.)Trial #1Trial #2Trial #3AverageCircumference of Balloon at Room Temperature (cm)Circumference of Balloon at 60oC to 70oC (cm)B. Insert the following picture from Part II with your name and MEID showing in the photo (6 pts):Photo B: Upon completion of Part II in which you reuse a balloon from Part I, insert a photo of the three balloons from Part I cut open to show their contents. C. Part II Follow-Up Questions (Show all calculations with units on each number and the final answer rounded to the correct significant figures for full credit.)Calculate the balloon volume of balloon #1 at both room temperature and at the high temperature using average circumference data. (You will have to assume that the balloon was a perfect sphere.) To calculate balloon volume, first find the radius (in cm) of the balloon by using the formula C = 2πr. Then, use the radius’ value in the formula V = (4/3) πr3 to calculate volume (in cm3). Show all your work, place units on all numbers (even those within the calculations), and express your answers with appropriate sig figs. (8 pts)What happened to the volume of balloon #1 as its temperature increased? Use numerical data from Question 8 to support your response. (4 pts)Explain the results from Part II. Your explanation must discuss the behavior of gas particles. (6 pts)Which gas law does Part II of the lab demonstrate? How do you know? What is the equation associated with this law? (3 pts)Using the law from your answer to Question 11, explain what would happen to a balloon if it were placed in a freezer for 15 minutes. Support your answer with data from the lab and/or content from the lab’s Background Information. (4 pts)
chmll130 lab 11

Assessing Public Expenditure Management in Cambodia

Cambodia Public Expenditure Management 2015 At the heart of economists is predominant on how to use the resources. When it comes to public resources, management of these resources is the concern of ministries of finance or economy, central banks, and the other international governmental organisations like the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, International Monetary Fund, and so on (Mundial, 1998). Thereby, an approach like public expenditure management is pioneered for “public sector budgeting that is oriented toward achieving socially desired outcomes” (ADB, 2001, p.1). Those desired outcomes are aggregate fiscal discipline, allocative efficiency, and operational efficiency (ADB, 2001). In the case of Cambodia public financial system, Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) started a public financial management reform agenda in 2004 to build on budget credibility, financial accountability, linkage of budget to policy, and accountability for results, respectively. However, it leaves to a question on its quality of public expenditure management. Therefore, this paper will first assess the 2015 Cambodia’s public expenditure management system and further discuss on what ways the system should be reformed. The analysis of the proceeding arguments is using a 2015 report of the evaluation on the public financial management system of Cambodia by General Secretariat of Steering Committee of the Public Financial Management Reform to gauge with Schick’s three elements of public expenditure managements namely aggregate fiscal discipline, allocative efficiency, and operational efficiency in order to assess the quality of existing system followed by suggestions for the reforms. Aggregate Fiscal Discipline Aggregate fiscal discipline is simply understood as the idea of “keeping government spending within sustainable limits” (ADB, 2001, p.1). Schick (1998) explains it requires the total spending and other budgets to be independent and enforced by the government throughout the year. It shall be disciplined rather than accommodating the raising demand from each spending agency. Looking at Cambodia case, it has been found that the aggregate fiscal discipline is deemed a good performer. It demonstrates an A rating on aggregate expenditure out-turn against the original approved budget scoresheet which signifies a less significant variation between approved budget and actual spending. “The deviations in absolute terms were 2.4%, 3.1% and 6.1% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively i.e. below 5% in two of the three years”, cited from the PEFA (2016). However, this has been criticised by Allen (2009) over the budget credibility proclaimed by the Royal Government of Cambodia during its stage 1 reform. He believes budget credibility does not apply in such the context. This is caused by the exceeded percentage of actual spending budget to planned budget based on the statistical term. Nonetheless, albeit it exceeds the budget plan, it is at acceptable rate. Schick (1998) also discusses about the soft aggregate targets or flexible targets when government is required to respond to adapt to changes in economic conditions. European Monetary Union and American Gramm-Rudman-Hollings law in 1985 are in the practice of a flexible approach which budget limit is decided each year but it is open to “agreed constraints” (p.54). Thereby, we can say Cambodia is meet to the Schick’s core idea on aggregate fiscal discipline that spending shall stick to the plan within an acceptable variation. PFMRP (2015) also outlines a number of factors that attribute to this success. First, it is the budget preparation process that is orderly and timely prepared. All spending ministries understand the ownership of their budget and final approved budget before the fiscal year starting. Second, budget execution reports are produced monthly for the monitoring progress. Third, all spending ministries are using suggested financial tools like cash flow planning to help them to meet their budget commitment. Last but not least, an oversight from government plays a role. Public enterprises and local administrators are ensured they have not requested an unexpected demand for the government resources. Nevertheless, one caveat need to be noted regarding the medium-term expenditure framework. Under Schick’s rule on aggregate fiscal discipline, he further extends to another important composition referring to the medium-term outlook. “The limits are set for the medium-term (3-5 years) and budget decisions are made within a medium-term expenditure framework”, cited in Schick (1998, pg. 13). However, in respect to Cambodia’s medium-term expenditure framework, it is still at her early stage of development. There is still a weakness between the linkage from one budget cycle to another cycle (PFMRP, 2015). Thus, among two compositions in order to comply with Schick’s idea on aggregate fiscal discipline, Cambodia has achieved one but not in a sustainable platform. Allocative Efficiency In interpretation on allocative efficiency, Schick (1998) elaborates it to the distribution of resources for public programs in order to meet the government’s strategic objectives. In ADB (2001), it compares the concept to the calculation of “last dollar spent on each program yields the same net benefit to society”; alternatively, it means “spending the money on the right things” (p. 2). This requires a strong governmental capacity to make use of the available resources for setting their priorities, shift from old to new priorities, and direct from less to effective programs. Schick further suggests that government needs to be both strategic and evaluative. The former is about defining what the government wants to accomplish out of from the expenditure while the latter is a reflection of the outcome (Schick, 1998). Cambodia has a significant limitation on this allocative efficiency element. Royal Government of Cambodia fails to establish a comprehensive medium-term expenditure framework and links both together despites the strengths of “orderly and participatory approach to the annual budget formulation including a timely and well organized legislative review as well as reliable and timely information provided on the transfers to communes and sangkats, which prepare their own budgets independently” (PFMRP, 2015, p. 3). When we match the outcomes to Schick’s principle, it implies Cambodian government is lacking of its strategic capacity. Not only the strategic capacity is missing, but it is also limiting on the evaluative capacity. Three evidences illustrate the evaluative incapacity in according to PFMRP’s (2015) report. First, there is a lack of unified chart account for the classification of budget. Second, it is found no detailed report is produced for the implemented programs. Third, there is also no collection and processing information presenting that service delivery units were really received. The problem of prioritisation and strategic planning have been discussed by ADB (2001). These difficulties arise on the fact that government does not know the preference of the citizens. More technically, economists call it the problem of preference revelation. In addition, Schick (1998) also explains about the issue of budget allocation in poor countries that their spending is relatively more covering to operating costs and military expenses than to the other social sectors like health or education. 42.24% of Cambodia approved national budget for 2015 is to be set to primarily spend on administrative cost, defence and unclassified spending 11.18%, 15.55%, and 15.51% respectively (source, own calculation). This reflects almost half of budgets is to spend on government running costs and less prioritized areas. In term of evaluative capacity problem in Cambodia, one likely reason can be derived from the lack of political commitment and money (Schick, 1998). Operational Efficiency Operational efficiency is to be economical for the operations carried by the government to control its running costs (Schick, 1998). PFMRP (2015) report described it as “financial resources are used to create value for money in the provision of public services and that waste is avoided” (p. 4). In Cambodia, it also has a problem with the element of operational efficiency. PFMRP (2015) finds several significant flaws. First, procurement systems do not work monitoring control and there is a problem of transparency of information. More importantly, it also does not have an independent procurement complaints review body. As evidenced, it gets a score of D on “transparency, competition and complaints mechanisms in procurement” category (PEFA, 2016). Second, governments delay in paying to its suppliers and services. PEFA (2016) states that “overall the stock of arrears is greater than 10% of total expenditure. The estimate is likely to further increase if data was available on invoices for which payment orders have not yet been issued.” Finally, there is no audit performance and internal control system that have been fully conducted. PEFA (2016) shows several deficiencies in this such as comprehensive payroll audit in the last three years has not been found, there is a great number of non-compliance with rules, no control guidelines are produced for capital expenditure and asset management, effectiveness of internal audit score is C, and finally external scrutiny and audit are unable to rated given documentary evidence is not able to be provided. This operational efficiency problem is concurring with rent-seeking behaviour as discussed by Allen (2009) in his report on the challenge of reforming budgetary institutions in developing countries. Based on his claim, corruption can be one of the considerable factoring hindering operational efficiency in Cambodia on the grounds that Cambodia scored 21 score out of 100 based on Corruption Perception Index (CPI), in according to Transparency. Suggested Reforms It is the fact that developed countries such as France, the U.K. and the U.S has taken more than 200 years to development “sound budgetary institutions”, cited in Allen (2009, p. 1). Toward a country like Cambodia which is also a developing country, it is no doubt that it requires her significant works to reform her public financial system. Royal Government of Cambodia acknowledged its weaknesses and initiated a reforming program since 2004. The launch of 10-year Public Financial Management Reform Programme (PFMRP) is a reform mechanism that is “built on four sequenced and prioritized platforms: a more credible budget, effective financial accountability, a fully affordable and prioritized RGC policy agenda, and RGC managers fully accountable for program performance” and the progress is ongoing (Saravuth

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