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Anxiety and Supportive Relationships ccusa autobiographical essay help Rational statement help

Types of transitions are • Emotional – personal experiences such as parent’s separating, bereavement, begining or leaveing a place of care. Physical – change in environments. Intellectual – maturation, moving from one educational establishment to another. Physiological – pubertyor medical conditions 2. Common Transitions 0-19 years, possible affects and benefit positive relationship may have: • Babies weaning – young children may not like the texture or taste of other foods and may lose weight if weaning attempts to replace a milk diet too early.

Children may begin to have disturbed sleep patterns, be more irritable whilst awake and less motivated to try new foods. Supportive relationships help to overcome the anxiety during these times with use of a soothing, calm voice, reassurance through eye contact, physical contact to comfort, play ideas that help distract tension and diffuse worry, or maybe anger at facing another unwanted episode of food tasting.

Motivate trying new foods by showing how you taste them first and what imapct that has – facial expression yum, where this is hesitant try a tongue tip & touch approach to a new food, have knowledge of baby led weaning and the benefits this has for self motivated experimentation with foods, tastes, flavours, textures that are set solely at the child’s own pace: Weaning and supporting children during this transition – leaflet from the Department of Health Loss of a comforter – the transition between having a soother, dummy or pacifier and not having one can be quite traumatic. Supportive relationships will understand that what a child has come to rely on for reassurance and comfort to assist sleep and achieve calm maywell be gone. * Premature babies and using a pacifier on a special care baby unit * Weaning babies from a dummy tips.

Soothers and dental problems * Dummy guidance from the FSID foundation sudden infant death reseach regarding overheating and rem sleep * Pacifiers and oral thrush Should I give my child a dummy – from speech and language therapy services of Halton and St Helens PCT * Effect of a dummy/pacifier on breastfeeding research by Cochrane – and summary response from Rosie Dodds policy advisor to the NCT • Move from crawling to walking – this transition sees children reach new perspectives on thier lives, viewing the world around them from an independantly upright position. They can obtain items with greater ease, move with increasing speed.

Supportive relationships will ensure children explore their environment safely with interest and enjoyment. Accidents and child development publication – supporting transitions • Move from cot to bed – a child may feel insecure with new sleeping arrangements, may have disturbed sleep patterns, wake more or less frequently, be happier or more withdrawn / tired / aggressive / upset at leaving parents during the day. They may react negatively when they realise bed is the next part of their day and behaviour may regress.

Supportive relationships help to overcome these fraught, stressful times, reassuring children in ways that show it’s ok to be concerned at changes – what is resillience and have knowledge of ideas that it’s claimed help children establish healthy sleeping routines. Children and sleep from the BBC and new bed storybooks and going to bed • Move from nappies to using the toilet – is a potential confidence and self esteem demoraliser. The reassurance that nappies offer can be enormous for both child and parent.

Some children move effortlessly through this transition with seemingly minimal support, for others it is more difficult recognising the signs of needing the toilet, for them it can make accidents and the events that could occur in repsonse to an accident something to be dreaded and feared. The independance that comes with using a toilet/potty alone is one of the firsts for the responsibilities involved with managing own care routines. Supportive relationships understand when an accident happens, and shows that it’s okay. That they can be cleaned up, everyone moves on and ressurance is given for trying again the next time.

Bladder and bowel control, potty training , toileting for children with autism. • Starting nursery – Attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth Where children are unaccustomed to leaving parents or are feeling unwell, separation can be a very upsetting and confidence shattering experience. Repeats of this negativity may cause withdrawal, regression – toilet using children may begin to wet the bed, be aggressive where usually amenable and may begin experience anxiety issues – not wanting to go out, becoming fearful of separation/clingy, not want to take part in activities that would usually engage some interest.

Supportive relationships help children through this potentially difficult time by reassuring the child that it’s ok to be upset at leaving their parent/carer, you know how much they love them, that you also have fun activities planned and would they like to join you. Policies and procedures for a setting will guide if parents stay or how you contact parents for collection due to illness. Benefits of supporting this transition are for the child’s independance, their ability to deal with times of separation, resillience, and begin understanding how they have control of and can lead their own learning, socially, emotionally and intellectually. Joining primary school • Joining a new nursery or reception class – new faces, unknown personalities, lack of knowledge about who provides support will impacts on a child’s confidence, ability to interact, be comfortable and relax.

Nervousness or anxiety may iomapct in ways that have them need the toilet more frequently – anxiety and urination, request something to drink more frequently – anxiety and dry mouth, experience a feeling of nausea, nervousness or regress to being aggressive and confrontational. Moving from one class to another new year starts involve the uncertainty of not knowing a new teacher, a new room, resources and way of working. During errand running concerns may involve worry at disturbing others in the room, this maybe heightened if children are older, teacher is unknown, fear that knocking will direct unwanted attention to themselves may prevent a child wanting to go/perform this type of task or be unwilling to enter the room – they may become quiet, withdraw and refuse to particpate when asked for volunteers.

Positive relationships can support children across the school by adults making themselves known to children. Personalities, attitude and approach will reassure the children on the type of support they could expect. A permanent, new class environment offers the opportunity to experience different layouts, places where resources are kept and resource items themselves. Positive relationships can reassure children that access is the same as they’re already used to.

A tour of the new room and its facilities will help familiarise everyone with what’s available and enble children to settle in and restablish routines. Starting a before or after school club • Losing milk/first or primary teeth and gaining adult/permanent teeth can be as painful a the eruption of the first milk teeth in babies: flushed cheeks, sore or aching gums & upset stomach which can all affect behaviour and mood. The realisation of growing up, gaining teeth that will be present for the rest of their lives can also cause excitement and concern.

Supportive relationships know a tooth fairy where culturally appropriate, to help with the transition of tooth loss, the gap in a child’s mouth and the awkwardness that has for chewing foods .. o the full growth of a new tooth, be able to provide relief from pain & discomfort and empower the child with information and ways to care for their teeth – dental hygiene. How not to forcibly pull out a loose tooth with fingers, string or other device as the tooth’s root will resorb to the point that it is safe to fall out naturally – part of physiological development. Forced eviction could result in snapping the tooth, pain and infection.

epidemiology report

epidemiology report.

Guidelines for the Peer Reviews

You must submit a 400 word critique for each of 2 assigned peer draft-reports.

• You report should be a Word document (  .doc or .docx file extension)

• All typed work should be in Arial 11 or Times New Roman font size 12.

• Please state the number of words used at the end of the assignment.

• Assignments more than 10% in excess of the word limit may be penalised

• If you provide any additional references they should be appropriately referenced using the Harvard Referencing System.

• Provide sufficient information to the writer for them to understand what you are referring to in your comments.  For example:

p6, l14 – the word should be ‘would’ not ‘wood’ (means page 6, line 14)



Guidelines for the Written Report (65% of final mark)

You must submit a 1500 word report of your assigned scale (excluding Title and references).  The report must be word processed and adhere to the following guidelines:

• You report should be a Word document (  .doc or .docx file extension)

• All typed work should be in Arial 11 or Times New Roman font size 12.  

• Please state the number of words used at the end of the assignment.  

• Assignments more than 10% in excess of the word limit may be penalised

• All work used within the assignment should be appropriately referenced using the Harvard Referencing System.

• The critique will be run through Turn-it-in so don’t copy text straight out of the paper without quotation marks.  The paper should not contain a lot of quotation marks as I’m looking to see that you understood what was written, not just find text in the paper!

• Your paper should contain the following sections:

o Background – a brief review of the scale – your Part A assignment is a good place to start.

o Methods – similar to the papers we review in class – how was the survey developed, what variables did you add (and why) and how was the survey administered.  Finish with a paragraph about the statistical analysis

o Results – there is usually 1 demographic table that describes the participants and their responses to the scale.  Do NOT present each the results for each question separately unless it is relevant for the scale.  You should have some subanalysis of the results by relevant demographic characteristics.  For example, males v. females.

o Discussion – Compare your findings with published literature.  Do NOT use publications that are about validating your scale.  Use research that used your scale to answer a research question.

o References

o Attach a separate letter (not in the word count) that indicates how you responded to the peer reviews.

• You will hand in 

o your draft (not in the word count)

o the two peer reviews

o your response to the peer reviews (not in the word count)

o your final completed report (1500 words)





The critique should cover the following content (the underlined words are suggested section headings)

– a introduction to the topic of your paper that makes it clear you have read around the subject, looked at previous relevant papers, etc.  Cite as appropriate.  If your study refers to another paper that outlines the research in more detail you need to get this paper.

– a statement of what the declared aims and objectives of the research were in your own words.

In the study methodology section:

– briefly describe the study design, and make a statement about how appropriate the study design is for the research question.  Make use of an evidence hierarchy to locate the study design.

– where did the study population come from?  Make a statement about how generalisable the study population is.

– what is the outcome variable and what are the explanatory variables?  Briefly describe how each variable was used as originally collected or converted for use in analysis.

– summarise the results.  For example, in the module you have learned to write a statement that summarises the findings from a table of regression results.

– State the conclusion of the paper and whether or not the results, as reported, are in agreement with this conclusion.

– discuss your paper in the context of other papers in your group and other literature that you have found.  This is different from the discussion in the paper.

– what are the major strengths and limitations? You may have some the authors didn’t mention. Include sources of bias and in which direction they would have affected the findings (i.e., they would make it more or less likely to have found the association they were looking for?).

– does the abstract (and the media box, if relevant) correctly represent the findings of the study?  If not what are the specific issues which are not represented correctly or not mentioned.

– what would be the ideal study to investigate the research question?  What are the limitations to conducting this ideal study.





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