Word document answering the following questions:I.Longer Essays (at least 10-20 sentences on each topic, can write as much as you wish).A. MagicProvide a comprehensive definition of magic. What do each of the elements in your definition contribute?Choose to explain either sympathetic magic or contiguous magic (only one). What is the underlying assumption about how the effects of the ritual are transmitted to the person who is the recipient of the magic?Provide an example of a magical ritual that a religious specialist may perform, identifying the actions and material elements in the ritual that are essential to its completion. You can use examples we have discussed in class or make up your own ritual.Is this ritual for healing or harming? Explain through your imagination the motivation of the person who commissions this magic.B. Sacred and ProfaneWhen Durkheim developed the notion “Sacred” and “Profane” it became a central concept in sociology. Provide an explanation of S and P from Durkheim that begins with his words in the except from Elementary Forms of Religions Life.What is the value of S and P for those who wish to study religion?What is the value of this conceptualization for thinkers who came after him, as they studied the ways that different societies created distinctions and categorization systems?C. Underlying Logics in An Ethnographic ContextIn her 1970s work with Gypsy people (also referred to as Traveler or Roma), Oakley studied demarcations in their world, many of which were conceptualized around notions of cleanliness.How do Traveler people construct boundaries that allow them to demarcate what is clean and dirty?What is the inner and the outer “self”?Explain their concept of mochadi. Provide an example of mochadi from their environment.How do they describe the differences between Gorgio and Gypsy?How does Mary Douglas’ idea about “dirt’ help you to understand this conceptual system?II. Answer in approximately (6-10 sentences, can be more)E. . Secondary Elaborations1. Explain Evans Pritchard’s concept of Secondary Elaborations of Belief.2. What does the use of a SEB allow a person to do?3. Provide an example of a situation where a person holds a belief or idea that the person (or others) find to be contrary to reality or that does not “work” out as expected, and the SEB that is offered to explain the difference between the belief/expected and what actually did occur.F. Conceptual Biases. Describe two biases that Western Intellectual traditions have had in their treatment of non-Western religions. How do you understand these biases in connection to socio-political events/processes of the 19th and 20th centuries?G. Levi_Strauss. Describe Levi-Strauss’ ideas concerning human thought systems. What does the distinction “culture” vs “nature” refer to in his work? Provide an example in a particular cultural system.H. The Human Body and Society.1. In what ways can the human body be seen as a reflection of the rule and preference systems of the group/society?2. How do rules/ideas of purity work to maintain the order created by a social system?Nothing more to be notedRequirements: 10-20 sentences per question, answer all, APA format | .doc file
Anthropology of Religion and Magic Discussion
Macroeconomics. I need help with a Economics question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.
Demand and Supply Exercises
Directions: Fill in the boxes (QD, QS, D, S, P, Q) in the next three demand and supply exercises. Based upon the event, what can we expect to occur for the market? Use a “0” (zero) if nothing will occur for that particular variable, a “+” (plus) if an increase, or a “-“ (negative) if a reduction. QD stands for Quantity Demanded, QS for Quantity Supplied, D for Demand, S for Supply, P for Price, and Q for Quantity.
PCN605 University of Florida Community Counseling Program Project
essay help online PCN605 University of Florida Community Counseling Program Project.
In this assignment, you will summarize and reflect upon the experience of creating a community counseling program.In a paper of 1,250 words, address both the summary and the reflection according to the guidelines listed below.First, summarize the community counseling program that you have developed. The summary should include a brief description of each of the following:The community in which you work and the social issue that your counseling program is designed to address.The assessment process you developed.The community setting in which the counseling program is to take place.The planning and budgeting process. Be sure to mention any challenges that you anticipate and your plan for addressing them.The advertising tool you created and the target audience for this advertisement.Secondly, Reflect on the experience of developing a community counseling program. The reflection should address the following questions:What were your expectations as you approached this project? Did the experience of completing this project meet your expectations? Why or why not?What concerns or worries did you have prior to starting this project? Did any of these concerns or worries occur? How did you address them?What new information, knowledge, and skills did you gain in the completion of this How has the completion of this project changed your perspective of the counseling profession?What can you take away from this project to apply to your future career as a counselor?Include a minimum of five scholarly resources, in addition to the textbook, in your paper.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style GuideThis assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
PCN605 University of Florida Community Counseling Program Project
Division Of Labor in Modern Day
Emile Durkheim was a sociologist who pioneered in the study of social order. He theorized how societies maintained social order on mechanical and organic forms as well as transitions to industrialized society form a primitive one. In a primitive society, people act and think alike because of a mechanical solidarity. On the other hand, an advanced society will have its people in divisions of labor where they are allocated and rewarded accordingly. Both moral and economic regulations are necessary in order for social order to exist and can be achieved by putting in place laws. The transition, therefore from a primitive to an advanced society may cause a crisis which eventually ceases upon maturity into an advanced society. Division of labor has an important role to play in the society since it does not rely on provision of economic services only, but also creates harmony between people. Economists would only look at division of labor as a means to increase production although much more need to be derived from it in form of living in new and better conditions. This fact contrasts with Marx theory which looks down upon division of labor as individualizing people and creating inequality in labor. The core principal why division of labor is vital is that humans derive happiness in being free to possess material thing and to seek them. This makes its influence to be on a personal level and based on one’s psychological liking. Specialization in the face of division of labor creates a need in individuals to operate on a communal basis so that they may maximize the returns and hence increased happiness. As opposed to Marx theories, private property will not achieve much and he proposes a communal setting. The application of Durkheim’s theory on division of labor may be of great value to modern society. He uses scientific methods to explain the source and evolution of an ordered society. This gave rise to sociology which envisions the society as being composed of several factors which must act in tandem. Wherever there is a common ideology between people living together, they tend to have creative thinking that can be of use to them. This works well especially if they are great in numbers since they can always support each other. Division of labor has had a history of revolution to what it is today. Chapter 5: The Increasing Preponderance of Organic Solidarity and its Consequences Durkheim, in his division of labor theory proposes an organic like solidarity. The presence of laws to govern and regulate the society in that solidarity is essential. But what is ironical is that laws governing a society are sometimes repressive and apply to specific parts. The relationships in a society that would require penal measures are few compared to areas where say domestic, contractual and commercial laws may find application. The solidarity that may be sought by a common conscious society does not get the fullest expression in law. Cooperative law does not meet the threshold to enable social cohesion to take place. There is need to find relationships that exist although it has not been done previously. Organic solidarity contribution to the general harmony of a society need to be studied in detail and understood so that its application may be of benefit. An individual attachment to a society in dependent on a number of factors which includes forces and bonds which in turn may be strong or weak. This however may not be a reason why an individual may choose to remain in or leave a society. A case in study is the traditional tribal chiefs who got left by their followers in case of misunderstanding or difference in opinion. Under division of labor, events are somewhat different since people tend to rely on each other to meet their needs. A society would never risk being isolated from the rest of humanity because what they lack in provisions is obtained from the other society. An individual in such a circumstance of isolation may feel isolated and disturbed. To counter this, some tribes have systems of incorporating new members into the society by naturalization or adoption. A good example is Romans who provided refuge for those conquered during the war and hence the primitive society grew. The adopted individual was supposed to absorb the practices and beliefs of this new society. Solidarity ensures the person sticks if and only if there is harmony and relationships are maintained. There are various rules forbidding acts contrary to the sentiments of the collectivity which are either positive or negative and may involve such fields as religion, nationality, domesticity, work, traditions and sexual relations. Others have to do with personal conduct and possessions. Each of these sentiments has respective rule which may change over time according to the society and its level of advancement. In is notable that some of the rules have origin in the Ten Commandments or even in ancient civilizations like Greek and Romans. Morals were very important and an accusation of failure to comply was punishable. For example sentiments dealing with sexual relations are punishable according to the Pentateuch and various verses in the Bible support this. In addition, the Romans and Greeks too would define those acts they deemed immoral and either fine or punish the offender. Many other civilizations like Egyptians and West African tribes had ways to punish crimes committed and in different ways. Each crime on the other hand has different punitive measures it attracted. In religion, a number of taboos, sacrifices and rites were observed to please the deities. An individual failure to follow the norm could be deemed an outcast or even killed. Sexual immorality too had set down rules defining for example the kind of normal relationships and abnormal ones. The rules and regulations that existed sometimes ago were not always perfect and or applicable to each emerging situation. Slaves for example, despite being human, were excluded from justice whether they were against the society laws on not. In many societies, children are treated differently from adults and this can contribute their rights being denied. Modern society has nevertheless grown and so has the regulation that need to be in place. But what is evident is that no new rules have been introduced; only the intensity of their application has increased. The area of jurisdiction has also moved from the general society to be more individual oriented. Religion has been the most complex factor contributing to differences in social life. Each religion has its own deity and ways of life which need not necessarily conform to other people in order for them to exist. Further, religion has seen people make choices on where to live, who to associate with, eating habits, dressing and many other aspect of life. In primitive societies, such issues brought about many conflicts albeit in modern society, they have declined due to emergence of other aspects and disciplines of life. Economics, politics and other sciences have led people to differentiate between religion and social life; these two used to be synonymous. Any problem can thus be dealt with according to the field it belongs. Traditions have too been a hindrance because of the many and diverse teachings from the ancestors. Proverbs which encouraged or discouraged people in their endeavors still have power over people’s life. They in fact created a course on which an individual had to pass through out their life. Comparing one society to another is important so as to learn the best ideals for the modern ones. Division of labor in the face of all progressions in societies has been forefront in defining if those societies survive or perish. It is the division of labor that has acted as a glue to stick individuals together and whole societies in general. Modern technology and studies will help in learning the best forms of societies to maintain. Chapter 2: The Forced Division of Labor Existence of rules does not necessarily mean harmony. It is the same rules that make it possible to have evil in society. For example in a class was, division of labor created conflicts since those in the lower class may not be content with their share and contribution. This fact contrasts in other organisms which regardless of their position still maintain their class and work towards achieving goals assigned to them without desire to occupy other elements position or role. The scenario is different when it comes to human society because of ambitions and desires. No one can argue that they were destined for a particular type of job or live. When such discomforts arise it is then inevitable to change course and seek fulfillment elsewhere. Division of labor as already discussed is meant to produce solidarity and since this can not be achieved in cases of imitation common to humans, change and adjustments are necessary. A good case was recorded between plebeians and patricians where division of labor existed. Sooner, the plebeians began to imitate the upper class and sought the same roles they had because they had reached a point to see everyone in equal times. Conflicts arose resulting to a conclusion that solidarity can only be imperfect for it to exist. An individual nature must be in harmony with all social functions failure to which division of labor can not occur. This is achieved by realizing different abilities each an individual has and the skills they possess. But still there are some people who set higher goals beyond their abilities and therefore happiness is to them comes only after fulfilling their dreams. To such people, they should be made to understand that proportionality to ones means is important. Spontaneity becomes an element of use in every social setting where solidarity is implied. Individuals must also be able reject forced labor and no obstacles should hinder their pursuit to fit in any position. Caste system has seen people with abilities prevented from accessing jobs even though they have ability to perform. In modern times a trend similar can be found in some careers where it becomes very difficult to be absorbed or as if one is not right to be found there. Inequalities of this kind however have been in decline as people embrace fairness in employment for instance in public sector. Organic solidarity is compromised by external inequalities and this is by far felt by higher societies. Interesting enough is the fact that although individuals may feel dissatisfied because of inequalities; they will not be against the social order which is the root cause. They continue to support it considering that they derive beliefs and practices from the same society. The social order has also morals and religious systems that are deemed sacred. Inequalities are bound to be natural in such circumstances that an individual will suffer alone without raising eyebrows. In contrast, every cause affecting organic solidarity weakens the social bond. If any condition is touched then the whole set up suffers greatly and it translates to individuals disengaging from the social order. Equality is vital in external conditions so as to secure an individual to his or her function. All higher societies may require a consensus and shield themselves from any disturbance. The main difference between primitive and higher societies is the presence of voluminous laws that govern them. Contractual solidarity comes into play for the society to continue to live in harmony. Everything in any society has a social value that represents the usefulness of it towards meeting people’s needs. This value can not be measured mathematically but can only be felt. If it fluctuates, which can be caused by abnormal activities, the effort received must equal the effort given to create equilibrium. But generally humans would rather receive more than what they gave out thus a constraint need be in place to counter this effect. A sufficient condition for an equivalence to take place is that parties under a contract be placed under equal external conditions. When equality is achieved, complains become less and every individual therefore feels content. Contracts therefore will lead to consensus after having been through the necessary relations like ceremonies, intentions and formulae. Just as in the ancient civilizations, Romans, the rule and application of law was important in determining if a contract is null and void. Modern societies tend to shy away from real application of law and refuse to accept certain aspects of contracts. Example is when one party is placed at the mercy of the other and therefore becomes oppressed because they are weak. The public conscience will demand equal treatment and also value for whatever transaction there was. Economists have contributed by pointing out the spontaneity of social life should be devoid of constraint which only makes it deviate from natural causes. Morality and freedom are two values that ought to be checked so that they remain within the set limits. Regulation eventually brings about liberty. Some areas where inequality is observed are, for instance, physical strength and domestic life where each man can be higher or lower in comparison to another. This means then that liberty is not present. All external forces must be subordinate to social forces for social life to develop. It requires a man to sober up and become a social being in order that he can live with nature in harmony. Modern societies, unlike previous ones, need to work hard to mend social relationships. Moving away from the past where segmented social life was common to organized and developed societies. The earlier people depended on faith to survive and modern ones require justice. It is important to pursue these conditions as long as social revolution remains and no factors change. Relationship between the two chapters: The two chapters deal with organic solidarity and its merits and demerits in social life. As has been discussed in both chapters, division of labor is a very important feature in every social life. It ensures that people are left a choice to make the best out of their lives by embarking or playing on roles that would be beneficial to them. Both chapters encourage presence of division of labor with one insisting on presence of regulation and the other dealing with inequalities and external forces. Solidarity ensures unity so that whatever a person may wish to acquire can be achieved by depending on another say for assistance. The individual person is also considered the most important in the society since he is the smallest unit that defines what that society will look like. Therefore, the individual despite being regulated in his endeavor for sustainability also need to have certain freedoms. Regulation can happen by putting in place laws that will govern the daily undertakings of man to an extent where nobody is liable to cause conflicts. These laws must therefore be just and fair to every member of a society. Freedom in a society is also encouraged so that each individual acts in accordance with their abilities. This then means that systems which do not promote freedom of choice like the caste system need to be abolished to pave way to freer societies. Freedom can too be extended to material possessions whereby each person can possess as much as he may require in achieving happiness. Religion despite it playing a center stage in moral development should not be a hindrance to social progress. Elimination of forced labor is essential so as to ensure a person makes his choices out of free will and they are not coerced to follow a direction against their wish. Employment especially in public places should be done by considering one’s abilities and skills and not the social background they come from. Equality is another factor that has been emphasized in both chapters; be it in accordance to an individual in relation to another or to factors affecting social life. In regard to an individual, equality comes about when transacting goods and services with other people. It ensures that a service received is commensurate to the one rendered and that no party gets to oppress the other. Isolation of an individual by the rest of the society is also considered to ensure that they become as much part of a society as possible. In conclusion, both chapters stress the need for division of labor in modern societies if they have to last. Such therefore can be attained in an environment where there is harmony, solidarity, equality, liberty, and just regulation. Durkheim, being the father of sociology, has made immense contribution and his theories if put to work can work for the benefit of mankind.
Implementation of Recommendations Report
Objectives and purpose of the report The objective of this reflective report is to establish the relationship between various labor issues as component of decision science in management. The paper reflects on how motivation and participatory decision making processes impact on performance of an organization. Summary of important recommendation According to Bruce (1999), the best way to motivate employees is by giving them responsibilities for achieving something and the authority to do it in their own way. Through this approach, employees will be empowered and they will feel trusted and valued by the management personnel and the company as a whole. Naturally, human beings would wish for motivation through mutual consent and internalized empowerment and appreciation (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 27). Empowerment unleashes plenty of energy and motivation (Bruce, 60). Reflectively, the motivational and energy aspects of appreciation functions simultaneously at micro and macro levels to facilitate optimal functionality or productivity. Empowering employees ensures a stable and sustainable a win-win situation as employees will be motivated to work without much supervision from the management or their supervisors. When properly incorporated within and without different departmental segmentations as an active component of the company goals and vision, the complete manger between the management and other staff will contribute to value addition, good performance and healthy working environment (Bruce, 62). In the end, the employees will form happy intra and inter personal working relationships and appreciate the need for quality service delivery along the production process channel. From the previous study conducted, the most important recommendations are summarized as stated below: To empower the employees to participate more in the decision making process To create more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Illustration of the existing process The process of motivating employees currently being used by the Bank can be represented using a data flow diagram as shown below. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1.2 Data Flow Diagram for the process of employee motivation The diagram above illustrates the existing process of employee motivation. The motivational activities are predetermined by the management. The activities entail use of suggestion boxes, points rewards programs, get motivated programs, use of employee evaluation forms, sporting activities and get together parties. The end result is a team of motivated employees. Problems and ways of changing them From the previous study, there were still some problems with the motivational activities used by management. For instance, certain programs were viewed as a source of discouragement to employees while others were most preferred. For example, employee evaluation forms were seen as a doorway to retrenchment incase the employee was found liable. From the sample picked, 75% rejected use of this method as a way of motivation. Further, the management was unable to motivate and retain employees with medicine qualifications. However, this was based on the assumption that maybe the employees with medicine qualifications were not well motivated to work in the banking environment and it was a wrong career choice for them therefore they had no choice but to quit. Process of changing the problems From the analysis above, there are two major problems that are inherent with the existing system. First, some motivational activities are not accepted by the staff members and the Bank was unable to motivate some employees especially those with medicine qualifications. In order to change the problems, the Bank has involved the staff members in decision making process. The employees are part of the evaluation program. The human resource department engages the employees in setting their own targets and they also agree on the interval for evaluation. Further, the design of the evaluation form is changed to reflect what best suit the management and the employees. With this improvement, the employees are aware of what is expected of them during the evaluation period. We will write a custom Report on Implementation of Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, they are more prepared for the evaluations and therefore there is likely to be minimal resistance as compared to the earlier situation. The Bank may also be in a position to attract and retain the employees with medical qualifications by engaging the decision making. The employees may be given the freedom to choose duties that would keep them motivated. Diagram illustrating new process after the recommendations From the above diagram we note that the employees are involved in the decision making process. Therefore, the motivational activities are as agreed by both the management and the employees. The end result is a motivated workforce and delighted managers. Benefit expected from each recommendation The table below summarizes the benefits expected from each recommendation Recommendation Benefit 1 Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Motivated employees who have authority and responsibilities. More positive with decisions made and therefore much acceptance and commitment in the implementation process. 2 Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Physically fit employees. Upon empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, culture of independence in reasoning and consultative approach when handling work related duties will be internalized. In fact, the employees will appreciate the need for free consultation rather than doing the same as a condition imposed on them by their superiors. In the process of carrying out consultative functionalism, the mind will be tuned to appreciate the need for flexibility in decision making science which is compatible with the goals and vision of the organization. In addition, the entire workforce operating under this approach is likely to positively embrace change element that may be introduced in the organization. Irrespective of the consequences of the change element, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated. Moreover, creation of more involving motivational activities outside the work schedule would facilitate team building and the spirit of self discipline. For instance, recreational activities such as an organizations sports day involve planning direct participation by all stakeholders of an organization. Not sure if you can write a paper on Implementation of Recommendations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During such activities, employees are either divided in groups or assigned a part to perform. To make this more interesting, the management could involve themselves in this as equals. Repeat of such fun days minimizes pressure and inferiority complex that might be hiding in the workforce due to the bureaucratic hierarchy ladder. In the end, the concept of physical, mental, and social heath would be activated and the company is likely to benefit from the same especially on the facets of value addition as a result of good health and fitness. Action Plan Across the globe, organizations irrespective of their sizes or nature of activity they perform have direct need for top performance and optimal service delivery within sustainable and friendly limits. Supported by strong decision making science, the project of motivational functioning depends upon effective management strategies presented in a quantifiable action plan (Bloom, 30). In order to actualize the above recommendations, that is, empowering employees to participate in decision making and organizing recreational activities, proper research should be developed to streamline goal setting as a factor of friendly working environment and motivation (Bloom, 32). Thus, an implementation action plan specifically focuses on goals identification which is effective on performance orientation and motivational improvement. The table below represents the components of an action plan for the implementation of motivational insight recommendations. Components of an action plan includes: feedback channel, goal setting (specific and difficult), exception criterion, and evaluation of success or failure. Motivational Recommendation Goal setting Feedback Channel Exception Criteria Evaluation Criteria Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Setting relatively hard assignments that are attainable and allowing employees to brainstorm and consult on the same. Workforce training. Establishing a confidential suggestion box for complaints and complements. Improving on communication network system and intranet. Creating interactive sessions for the workforce Defining the privacy parameter and expected code of conduct. Establishing the organization culture and ethics. Limiting the scope of activities to contain only relevant training Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes Review of performance periodically after every stage of implementation. Carrying out random but inclusive sampling using questionnaires Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Fixing motivational programs in annual calendar. Designing awards to be given in every event Encouraging medical tests and physical stamina. Performance comparison between teams. Defining the scope and making these activities part of performance responsibility. Defining limits for responsive training Testing team spirit and insight. In empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, the organization should source for expertise training on consultative decision making process. This expert will impart skills directly to the management and entire workforce. In the process of implementing this recommendation, training manager should be assigned the duty of organizing the workforce into groups and following up the success or failure of the training (Bowman, 23). During the training process, simple activities such as solving puzzles and brainstorming in different topics are encouraged. In addition, every member of the workforce is expected to participate actively by assigning roles which are balloted. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making. After a fortnight, the management should then design in house programs as a continuation of the first stage. In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level (Landsdale, 22). Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue. In implementing the recommendation on motivation through participatory activities, the organization should factor in those activities which involve the entire workforce. For instance, in the above example, the sporting event should be drawn in the annual timetable and everyone is to be encouraged to participate wholesomely. As the sporting event commences, management and the workforce may operate as small teams competing for prizes as designed by the organizing committee. The organizing committee has power to decide on the prize to offer in consultation with the training manager. In the process of practicing this, team building and motivation spirit is revived and the entire personnel are likely to feel appreciated (Bowman, 21). Reflectively, a motivated workforce performs optimally within little or no supervision as work related activities are internalized and personalized. When the need to achieve is incorporated in the performance index, the organization is destined for sustainable productivity. Action Plan Tabular representation Motivational Recommendation Required Resources Leadership responsibility Steps taken Barriers Performance Indicators Time taken Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Outsourced expert. Training materials. Group leaders –implementing. Training manager-evaluation. Periodic training. Interactive forums Educational levels. Authority and responsibility Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes 3 months Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Sporting facilities. Entire workforce participation. Team leaders Team captains. Overall captain. Initiating sports day in the calendar. Resource allocation for awards Convincing the workforce to embrace the event. Divergent interest on sporting activities Testing team spirit and insight. continuous Summary In summery, these recommendations would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process. As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for every outstanding performance. In addition, these recommendations facilitate detrimental creativity and positive attitude in organizational environment. In an organization setting, the need to motivate workers is essential to management team who aim at optimizing output within sustainable human resource functioning. Generally, when these recommendations are actualized in the management system, companies are capable of predicting or forecasting the future and pillars of operation at optimal level. Employee motivation is necessary in managing labor retention. Works Cited Bloom, Paula. Circle of Influence: Implementing Shared Decision Making and Participative Management. Lake Forest, IL: New Horizons, 2004. Print. Bowman, Singh. “Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the firm.” Strategic Management Journal 1.4 (2003): 5–14. Web. Bruce, Ann. “Helping employees to accept responsibility for motivation.” Motivating employees 1.2 (1999): 59-72. Web. Landsdale, Bruce. Cultivating Inspired Leaders: Making Participatory Management Work. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 2000. Print. Saunders, Mark., Lewis, P, and Thornhill, R. Research Methods for Business Students. New York: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.