answer everything in your own words explore the process the Charles Darwin went through when developing his theory of evolution via natural selection. To identify the challenges that he had to overcome before publishing On the Origin of Species. To explore your personal belief on whether or not it is possible for you to negotiate a belief in a creator or designer and still be open to the idea that we all share a common ancestry with other humans, human ancestors and even other species.1 Describe some of the challenges that Charles Darwin encountered during his research and decision to publish On the Origin of Species. Do you think that some individuals are still reluctant to accept his findings in modern day?2Is it possible that all living species are connected and share a common ancestry? Is it possible to negotiate a belief in a ‘designer’ and the support of Darwin’s theories? Why do you think that some people are reluctant to accept that humans have evolved over the last six million years? Define the following terms in your own words give examples and explain how its important:write the ideas in your response must be your own not plagiarized not around online. Do not take ideas verbatim from any “study” or plagiarism websites.AnthropologyArcheology:Linguistics:Biological/Physical Anthropology:Cultural Anthropology:Holism:Intersectionality:The Scientific Method:Empirical Data: Hypothesis: Independent Variables: Dependent Variables: Scientific Theory: Biocultural ApproachEthnocentrismParticipant ObservationCultural RelativismHomininsPrimatologyBipedalHuman VariationKnowledge SystemAdaptationAlleleNatural SelectionInheritanceGeneGenotypeGene PoolPhenotypeGenetic DriftGene FlowMutationEugenicsDNAChromosomeMeiosisMitosisGametesMendelian Genetics:Dominant Genes:Recessive Genes:AFTER you defined everything do a punnet square that I attached to the page( must use information from these YouTube videos and properly sight the videos otherwise I will request for a refund)
Anthropology define and do a punnet square exercise
1. The 4th step in preparing the annual sales budget is a. identify specific market opportunities and problemsb. develop a preliminary allocation of resourcesc. review and analyze the situationd. communicate goals and objectives2. The general sales manager and director of marketing engage in a. strategic planningb. daily planningc. monthly and weekly planningd. tactical planning3. Firms that sell products to the government, military and commercial markets are usually organized bya. customer-maretb. supplierc. productd. geographic area4. Even though most companies establish sales territories on a geographic basis, major emphasis should be ona. political unitsb. customers and prospectsc. travel time of the salespeopled. ease of access to the customers’ main production plants5. The 4th step in the procedure for developing sales territories isa. conduct an account analysisb. develop a salesperson workload analysisc. combine geographical control units into territoriesd. assign salespeople to territories6. The 4th step in a systematic process for recruiting salespeople is toa. attract a pool of sales recruitsb. conduct a job analysisc. select best recruitsd. prepare a job description7. Most firms turn to _____ as their first source of new sales recruitsa. competitorsb. universitiesc. non-sales personnel within the companyd. non-competing companies8. The 4th step in systematic process for selecting salespeople is a. in-depth interviewingb. initial screeningc. employment testingd. reference checking9. Initial socializing occurs during recruiting, selecting and introductory training. During the socialization process, the purpose of recruiting isa. finding potential job applicantsb. giving recruits details about the company’s philosophy and the salespersons role in the organization. c. telling recruits about the company. d. getting recruits to apply. 10. The 4th step in the development of the sales training development process is to: a. determine training objectivesb. conduct training needs assessmentc. determine responsibility, method of delivery, timing and locationd. develop the content of the training program11. The first figures studied in sales analysis area. sales volumeb. sales costsc. direct selling costsd. indirect selling costs12. The relationship between inputs (marketing efforts) and outputs (sales goals or results) is known as input-output efficiency. From the data given below, what is the efficiency ration?DATA: (1) 3000 sales calls at $100(2) 5000 telephone calls at $1(3) 15 trade magazine advertisements at $1000(4) Sell 2000 new office machines ($1000 ea.) @ $500 gross margin. a. 2.000b. 3.125c. 5.150d. 8.50013. For a particular product line, sales during the past year were about $15,000,000. Costs of goods were 10,000,000, sales expenses were 1,200,000 and fixed costs of goods sold were 2,000,000. What was the product lines contribution margin for the year? a. 13,800,000b. 3,800,000c. 5,000,000d. 3,000,00014. Which of the following performance factors are considered within the control of the salesperson? a. competitive intensityb. variation in company supportc. generating sales revenuesd. time allocation between account development and account maintenance15. The number of new accounts a salesperson generates is an example of a. behavior based measureb. profitability measurec. professional development measured. outcome based measure16. The purpose of a quota dictates the kind of quota the firm utilizes. For example, if management wants to increase market share, it would use a a. sales volume quotab. financial quotac. activity quotad. profit quota17. There are three successive stages of an effective Performance Evaluation Monitoring System (PEMS). The phase in which salespersons are allowed to ask the sales manager three key questions: “Where am I going?” “How will I get there” “How will I be measured” is called the _____ stage.a. performance planningb. performance appraisalc. performance reviewd. performance evaluation18. Which of the following is incorrect with respect to 360 degree performance appraisals?a. They fit well with traditional organizational structuresb. They fit well with greater empowerment of employeesc. They fit well with working in teamsd. They are both multi-directional and multi-dimensional.19.
Peter Deutsch is a sales manager for an industrial products firm. He is
responsible for 20 salespeople – most of whom have been with the company ten
years or more. A particular concern for Mr. Deutsch is how to help his
salespeople to self-actualize. In terms of Maslow’s Need Theory, which of the
following approaches would be most appropriate to bring about sales force
A. Provide a balances package of fringe benefits for the salespeople.
B. Call regular sales meetings, make frequent telephone calls to individual
salespeople, visit salespeople in the field, and distribute a newsletter.
C. Provide promotional opportunities and public recognition for superior
D. Provide creative work
experience, freedom, advanced education courses, and self-development workshops
as well as greater job control for the salespeople.
When salespeople achieve or surpass a specified sales quota, they are often
given a monetary bonus and/or special recognition to reward them for their
performance as well as to motivate them to continue. This is/These are known
B. intrinsic rewards.
D. an incentive program.
__________ sales meetings are considered the backbone of the communication
system and usually give salespeople the greatest support.
The maturity/maintenance stage is characterized by the affected employee’s:
A. disengagement from work.
B. searching for a
C. seeking stabilization in occupation.
D. greater commitment to the firm.
The fourth step in developing the compensation plan for a sales force is to:
A. develop the compensation mix.
B. establish specific
C. prepare job descriptions.
D. determine general levels of compensation.
Which of the following trends in sales compensation focuses on customer
satisfaction and relationship building?
A. Signing bonuses
C. Tying sales compensation to productivity
D. Blending sales-oriented
goals with organizational goals
Sales Management and Practices
The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts Essay
Introduction Structural violence is a fundamental concept in the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. The contents of structural violence include disputes, where comprehension between two parties does not come to a point of consensus because of differences in their social setting. The failure of distinct entities in an ecosystem to comprehend each other acts as an instrument of causing conflicts in the international scope. The international conflicts arise from societal setting, affecting people around the world. The comprehension of the influence of structural conflict has a rationale of enhancing the analysis, as well the comprehension of the scope of the international conflict. The understanding is also vital in the creation of a path for strategic implementation of ample methodologies that would prevent or eradicate the conflicts. A vast theoretical literature has also been presented in regards to the importance of structural violence in comprehension enhancement, with some authors arguing that conflicts have been a major drawback to economic, social, and political triumph over the years, owing to the state of misunderstanding distinct takes of different individuals and groups (Burchill, et al, 2005, p. 291). The recent decades have seen researchers, academicians, scholars, as well as psychologists develop enthusiasm in the area of the effects of violence on the international relations. The discussion in this paper seeks to establish the usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts. The comprehension of this is enabled by comprehensively analyzing the concept of structural violence as well as the international conflict. The theoretical approach towards the same is critically discussed, in addition to the provision of rationale and impacts of the study at hand. Analyzing the concept of structural violence The form of violence whose basis is on the social structure or social institution that harms some populace and prevents them from fulfilling their essential needs encompasses structural violence. Structural violence is product of the organization of political, social, and economic settings and systems in ways that have both negative and positive effects on the immediate community. The rationale of the impacts is portrayed when some segments of the population in existence are oppressed, intimidated, and dominated, while other segments are privileged in one way or the other. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conflicts that have their fundamentals on the societal structures deprive part of the population their peace, food, security, healthcare etc, while others still enjoy the abundance of the same in similar setting. For instance, movement of large numbers of rich people into a community may lead to the increment of housing costs, affecting people that lived originally in a similar place under low costs. In addition, structural violence is mostly recognized at the level of a society due to life quality shortfalls that occur in certain societal groups. The accomplishment of structural violence mostly occurs via the existence of political repression in a society. This entails the presence of many groups in power concentrating the societal resources for their personal gain in expense of people who are not in power. The most pronounced examples of structural violence are inclusive of racism, elitism, classism, sexism, adultism, ageism, and nationalism in addition to heterosexism and ethnocentrism (Lipsky, 2010, p. 31). Structural violence is characterized by poor societal settings that allow room for existence of more than one class and clusters of individuals depending on the societal niche that they hold. An imbalanced state as well as international realm is established when structural violence takes preeminence. This is in regards to unequal resources distribution among the existing populations. Discrimination also finds its way in such a society where some people appear more important than others do, in terms of wealth and health. The systems of structural violence are dominated by numerous justices in all realms, and unjust arguments prevail in place of justice requirement. Oppression of high quality is experienced whenever structural violence is evident, for instance, the deprivation of widows and orphans of the inheritances by corrupt governments. Increased death rates are also associated with those that live at rung positions in any society setting as opposed to low death rates for the higher in a contemporary society with poor settings. Most countries in the have had such structural violent systems, posing great troubles for those living in them. The rationale of these poor structural systems is experienced when considering the rate of international conflict today that has drastically increased. We will write a custom Essay on The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The understanding of these conflicts is also important in performance of the analysis of the levels of the international conflicts that thrive today. Various pronounced effects are experienced in presence of structural violence, which is inclusive of pain infliction on the victims when war and terror etc incidents occur due to structural distinctions. It is always in the accompaniment of the deprivation of essential needs that are fundamental to the life of an organism in the ecosystem. The freedom of human is taken away for there is no room for addressing their grievances in case of the structural problems. Moreover, the creation of non-identity society with racial, material, and all-round differences results from the cultivation for the structural violence (Mansfield and Pollins, 2003, p. 97). An analysis of International conflicts The recent years have seen concerted efforts directed towards international peace relations in a bid to counter the rampant international conflicts. A conflict is regarded as a level of difficulty where parties cannot understand one another, resulting into an avoidable chaotic situation. The accomplishment of a conflict is done via stage performances whose possible outcomes are undesirable, and may not be beneficial to any party. The international conflict describes those critical incidents in which no human entity is exempted from the effect of a particular happening, and every human race is a liable object of experience. The most flabbergasting conflicts in the worldly realms are inclusive of wars, terrorism, and political clashes among others. The causes of the international conflicts range from human to situational causative factors that become so overwhelming to an extent of causing tremendous outcomes. The outcomes never choose a particular path to follow; rather, they affect a large number in the international realms including fresh waters, oil, other resources and so on (Westing and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and United Nations Environment Programme., 1986, p. 10, 28 and 58). Johan Galtung’s literature classifies conflicts into three categories, which are inclusive of direct conflicts that entail direct pain and suffering infliction on individuals or groups. The second type is indirectly imposed on a group of individuals due to poor structures in the societal set up. International conflicts are mostly caused by structural violence as a result of the instabilities and disorganizations that are caused by their rampancy. Not sure if you can write a paper on The usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The effects of the international conflicts are inclusive of economic inflations due to poor methodologies of spending a country’s resources. The political crises are also experienced everywhere in the international scope due to power wrangles that thrives in the hearts of many. The poor and the oppressed have a tendency to rise up against the unjust regimes and these reactions are transformed into conflicts. Cultural conflicts are also internationally evident due to people’s take of others in regards to their background (Bercovitch, 1996, p. 6). Indeed, cultural conflicts have been known as causative factors to the structural and direct conflicts in many cases since the disregard for one another is a causal factor for promotion of jealousy, as well as the oppressive nature evident in most societies. More over, most social structures in the world have acted as causal factors for international conflicts due to poor organizations and structural arrangements. Political and economic structures are also known to be major causes of conflicts in an international scope. The international conflicts have often led to the prevalence of negative peace; indeed, alleviation of peace on the parties involved in disputes at a particular time is a rationale for international disagreements. The magnitude of international suffering is measured via the impacts in experience to the parties internationally. For instance, massive deaths and concrete conflicts that are not liable for recovery are the extreme magnitudes for international conflicts. In addition, there are incidences of countries fighting against each other due to economic, structural, and cultural failures. In addition, leadership and governance structures are also considered as main causal factors of international conflicts. Major international conflicts have long been portrayed via terrorism attacks, massacres, wars, deprivation of rights, and other methodologies that are deemed crucial in the fulfillment of such laws (Likosky, 2002, p. 393). Usefulness of the concept of structural violence in analyzing and understanding international conflicts Structural violence is an excellently significant tool when it comes to the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. The concept of structural violence explains the fundamentals on which international conflict emerges, as distinct groups interact with others in social setup. The fact that structural violence entails deprivation of people’s rights and freedoms, as others enjoy privileges and honors makes this form of violence be considered vital in international violation explanations provision. Theoretical explanations of international conflicts rebuke the violation of social theory via the utilization of structural violence in available human settings. The current world is largely affected by international conflicts that emerge repeatedly, with research findings proving that most of the happenings in the international realms are products of structural violence. This majorly entails social, cultural, political, and economical and the overall human set up within an inclusive ecological system (Ohlson and Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 1988, p. 7). The concept of structural violence is normally viewed as a hypothetical instrument that provides supposition that is considered tentative, with the intention of gaining comprehension of facts that are legally acceptable. Therefore, it creates a rationale for the understanding and analyzing international laws, as well as being considered a fiction. This implies that structural violence entails making mistakes with a conscious mind in its take that armed conflicts are used in the deprivation of other people’s rights and privileges. Therefore, it gives an ample understanding of the operational international law, as well as a prediction of what just laws would mean in the society. The understanding is also boosted in the fact that individuals or groups affected or infected by structural violence face it indirectly. They therefore advocate for close monitory and supervision in the promotion of the effectiveness of international law (Jacoby, 2008, p. 26). Structural violence is a long-term cause of system’s instability. Instability means that no system can be subject to human trust, since it does not amply cater for the available humanity desired satisfaction. The instability-affected areas are inclusive of political social and economical stands. Normally, the state of instability in any realm leads to the creation of emotions on those affected or infected by the causal factors. The deprivation of privileges from some people, as others enjoy, creates a rationale for the instability complement to act as a stage-setter for international conflicts. Moreover, instability is an ultimate cause of physical, emotional, and psychological wars among people as well as states. The structural instability analysis also proves it as a ground for human suffering, rendering a lot of dissatisfaction among individuals involved (Jacoby, 2008). Additionally, structural violence paves way for undesirable human aspects, which finally lead to conflicts. The aspect of militarily arises from international conflicts due to poor structural settings. For instance, countries from European and American continents have to concentrate on weapon building strategies in a bid to counter any international attack, reason being that the structural setup of every country is a source of structural violence due to poor settings. The understanding of the world wars that took place in the 19th century is enhanced by the presence of people superseded by hunger for power prosperity, in regards to territorial control and proprietorship. The wars created a structural environment that enabled some countries to be in possession of powerful arms and ammunitions, thus looking down upon others. The perception that other countries are weak entities by the American continent, and eventually causing war is a rationale towards understanding international conflicts. The recent rampant terrorist attacks that prevail in the international scope are also as a result of the presence of countries that are more favored in military wealth than others. Moreover, the desire to exercise military power, while ignoring human dignity is a long-term rationale for international conflicts (Lawler, 1995, p. 67). The existence of extreme poverty cases in human life is an indication of the preeminence of structural violence. In most cases, some countries have a common trend that has rampantly taken preeminence. Every country is marked by an interaction of extremely rich persons, who adversely interact with extremely poor persons, though living in a similar environmental context. Those people associated with the leadership of any country in the international realms are always found in possession of wealth, while those far from power are in most cases poor. A recent environmental scanning study concluded that poverty has become a major problem in the world. Similarly, refugees that move to countries for the sake of their safety are said to suffer due to the fact that host countries do not easily recognize their presence. Those people afflicted with chronic diseases are said to live in chronic poverty due to lack of support from the neighbors as well as the government. Thus, international conflicts are known to occur rampantly, as campaigns for such poverty controversies arise for the sake of protection of the common person (Waart, et al., 2001, p. 325). Structural conflicts are known to have offered an ample ground for exploitation and oppression, as well as intimidation in every realm of the society. The understanding of these fundamentals is best explained via structural violence existence. The international conflicts have rampantly arisen due to the prevalence of the expletory and oppression nature in human realms. Many countries have been recently faced by rampant pre and post-election violence and conflicts, owing to the existence of unfaithful regimes. The service to the general society by governments has been today converted to the attendance to personal needs since social structures are already paralyzed. This is a causative factor for exploitation and intimidation to most people in a societal setup. The oppression and intimidation factors are known in history as the main causes of societal aggression and ultimately leading to international conflicts (Kent, 1993). Structural violence is also useful as an instrument for indication of difficulties associated with change acquisition. For instance, recent years have experienced dramatic shifts in all reams, and every international entity needs adopting new ideas. However, the employment setup is already violated by poor governance and monitoring of the international structures, leading to aggression. Land disputes have also been sources of international conflicts, where poor ruling structures are in control and denying room for dialog to maintain peace. The effects are peace alleviation and overriding international conflicts. Moreover, poor ruling methodologies that do not provide room for the weak and the oppressed in the society are factors that lead to the structural violence occurrence. However, structural violence resulting form unequal resources distribution provides a better comprehension of international conflicts. The fact that wealthy and prosperous regimes are always entitled to privileges causes international aggression, leading to international conflicts (Kent, 1993). Theoretical approach to international conflicts on the basis of structural violence The recent decades have seen large numbers of theorists arise in their bid to provide explanations of the international conflicts on the ground of structural violence. The main theory that leads to the realization of denial of human satisfaction to some individuals or groups is the human needs theory by John Burton in 1915. The frameworks of the theory advocate for meeting of human needs as an instrument of peaceful human interactions and relations. The conflict theory is also important in explanation provision of international conflicts. This relates to the incompatibility of distinct parties in their presentation as the main causal factor for conflicts. The structural violation in any society leads to a negative interaction nature between the two theories, leading to conflicts between parties. The structural violence is viewed in disregard for some people in the society, leading to the violation of the requirements of the human needs theory, and paving way for the preeminence of the conflict theory. The correction of situations thus requires the intervention of conflict resolution theoretical approach (Juma, et al., 2002, p. 134). Kurt Lewis model of management plays a vital role in addressing the need for ample societal management strategies as a step towards combating the structural violence extremes. The social theory that was early developed is very crucial in addressing the importance of a good societal interaction. It requires that all social entities in a setting recognize the importance of each other as an ample weapon for fighting societal conflicts. The social theory propositions entail the need for societal construction on the basis of the available entities’ requirements to create a satiable nature. The most recent research has also come up with international relations theory that advocates for compatibles in accordance to the international laws. Compatibles are considered as vital in fighting the spirit of intimidation, oppression, as well as discriminatory societal rules. The international law is useful as a tool for stabilization of structural and physical systems via the application of the best possible ideologies. Therefore, international conflicts solution has long been developed via the requirements of international law. The normative theory is very useful in assisting the execution of international law. It requires that appropriate norms be followed in the understanding and prevention of international conflicts caused by structural violence (McEvoy and Newburn, 2003, pp. 6, 7). The rationale and impacts of Understanding international conflicts and Violence The comprehension of international conflicts and violence creates a ground for the enactment of peaceful attributes. The understanding is especially essential to those in the peace and conflict studies, since a ground for positive peace is easy to establish. It is always considered worthy where prevention takes the first position instead of cure. Whenever this understanding is available, government regimes and policy-makers gain a better understanding of the common structural violence problems that their immediate society is facing. It is therefore easier to address the problems in better ways that can counter international conflicts. The laying of foundation for peace rebuilding is facilitated by the analytical understanding of influences of structural violence on international conflicts. The realization that international conflicts are rampant in the society makes many to rise up in advocating for peace in the society. The campaigns conducted play a pivotal role in societal restoration. The interference of the undesirable human acts that sometimes take preeminence in the society is easy, with the understanding of the paths they take. It is also easy to set frameworks that are necessary in addressing diverse magnitudes of international conflicts, as well as violence that may hinder the overall international development (Keenan and McDonagh, 1996). Combating international and local conflicts is possible when there is clear information of the impacts of the structural violence on the society. The effect of the psychological and physical systems of the people that have been deprived of their positive peace by the structural violence is eased when there is understanding. The government systems find it easier to lay grounds for advocating for a hopeful future whenever they analyze possible causes of international conflicts. The balancing of races, and background differences is duly addressed in understanding that races distinctions are major causes of structural violence that cause international conflicts. The comprehension of violence relationship with the international conflict acts as an ample tool for stabilization of the economy, politics, as well as the social structures. This is done via the employment of ample strategies that would enhance the compatibility of all systems. Cultural differences can be easily solved with the understanding of the problem that arises from the structural violence. Moreover, the rampancy of issues like sexism, health facility accessibility difficulties, and other impacts of structural violence can be easily addressed in the comprehension of their causal factors. The moderation of the international law above all is enabled through the comprehension of international conflicts on the basis of structural violence (Keenan and McDonagh, 1996). Conclusion Structural violence is a fundamental concept in the analysis and understanding of international conflicts. Structural conflicts arise from the creation of room that benefits and privileges a certain group in the society, while the rest suffer inadequacy for their desires. International conflicts occur due to incompatibility of different parties in regards to a matter of concern, and at a particular time. The usefulness of the structural violence in the understanding of the international conflicts lies in its comprehensive nature in addressing negative issues that affect the society indirectly. However, the understanding of this usefulness is crucial in the construction of a stable society in all realms of human interaction. Nevertheless, more empirical and theoretical studies should be conducted to enhance the importance of structural violence in understanding the international conflicts scope. List of References Bercovitch, J., 1996. Resolving international conflicts: the theory and practice of mediation. NY: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Burchill, R., et al. 2005. International conflict and security law: essays in memory of Hilaire McCoubrey. NY: Cambridge University Press. Jacoby, T., 2008. Understanding conflict and violence: theoretical and interdisciplinary approaches. London: Taylor
University of Wisconsin Madison The Decline of the Roman Empire Essay
online homework help University of Wisconsin Madison The Decline of the Roman Empire Essay.
Begin with a strong thesis statement followed by relevant evidence from the readings and lectures. Cite Cole as (Cole pg.#); cite the articles by the first significant two words in the title of the document for example (“Speciating Sea” 454 or “Egypt – Beginning” 557) ); and cite the presentations/lectures as Colling + lecture/slide #, e.g. (Colling 5/42). Question: What were the key issues in the decline of Rome as a civilization? Did it begin with the transition from Republic to Empire, or did it happen later in the 5th century? Are there any parallels with the current U.S.? This Discussion requires your personal opinion, but an opinion that is backed up by evidence. You may use the Internet to get information about the U.S., but you must rely on the assigned readings and lecture when talking about Rome.You must respond to one other student’s posting. You can agree or disagree with the student, but you must provide evidence to support your argument.Respond to this student: In my opinion, I think that throughout the decline of the Roman Empire was multifaceted because there were some few key factors that was destruction from the old empire. I believe that these factors were uncorrelated because of their common deterioration. Also, I believe that there were some uncanny similarities between the modern day American empire because they would consider the crown jewel of the civilization for that era. Some of the factors would stand out in the fall Roman Empire. “An aristocratic general named Lucius Cornelius Sulla had fought with distinction in the so-called Social War of 91-88 B.C.E.: a conflict between Rome and its Italian allies. Sulla seemed the likely person to lead Roman’s army to war in Anatolia, but Marius forced the Senate to deny his claim.” (Cole pg.#163). This means that the empire couldn’t no longer represent a united because of the Germanic territories. In my opinion, I do believe that there are parallels with the current U.S because of the American military that can been seen through the fashion of the marines. Roman Empire were aggressive expansion due to the unforeseen financial instabilities. “The fact that the empire had few defensible borders was another problem. Hadrian had attempted to establish one after 122 C.E. by building a wall between Roman settlements in southern Britannia and the badlands of northern tribes, but this act was more symbolic than effective.” (Cole pg.#189). This means that Hadrian want to build a wall between the Roman and Britannia because they believed that this was going to be more symbolic than effective. Being able to call yourself roman citizen was no longer allowed as a symbol because it was a target for tax collectors that was given to the masses. Also, in my opinion, I do believe that the Roman Empire and the United States couldn’t be better because of the portrayed of each other. “During the fourth century, Rome itself ceased to be the capital of the empire, sharing its prestige with the new city of Constantinople, named by the Christian emperor who found it.” (Cole pg.#184). As we can see there are many parallels in the history of the Roman Empire because in the 5th century we as humans should ask ourselves is there a change where we could repeat history. Also, in my opinion, I believe that we as humans should create a peace between the religions and culture. The grade will be based on the your understanding of the assigned readings and lectures as well as your ability to support your arguments with evidence from those sources.
University of Wisconsin Madison The Decline of the Roman Empire Essay
Growing up in China Historical Analysis Term Paper
The purpose of this paper will be to analyze the world historical process of growing up in China by examining Yan Phou Lee’s biographic adaptation of “When I was a boy in China”. The author talks about their life from birth to growing up as a boy in China. The thesis statement for the essay will therefore be to examine the process and pattern of growing up as a male child in China from birth, to infancy and then to adulthood (marriage). The essay will look at how male and female children in China are treated and raised by their parents, relatives and the society as well as important periods of celebration in their lives. The primary source which is Yan Phou Lee’s biography offers an insightful look into the life of male children in China and it also presents various aspects of Chinese culture such as the Chinese calendar and Chinese months which is corroborated by other secondary sources used in the study. Lee’s biography supports the arguments made by the secondary sources with regards to how the Chinese count their months as well as the religious systems that exist in China which include Buddhism, Taoism and Confuciusm. Lee’s work however presents some controversial issues which might be viewed by many gender activists to be biased against women. He portrays the Chinese culture as one that is punitive to women by not offering them the same gratuities that are given to the male children. The evaluation of the historical process therefore offers the readers a look into the life of a male child growing up in China as well as the differences that exist in the society. In the first chapter of Lee’s biography, he talks about his birth and the cultural practices of the Chinese people when a child is born. Lee indicates that the Chinese calendar is different from that of the English calendar, an indication of the difference that exists between the Chinese and English cultures. According to Lee (7), the Chinese year is different from the English year because the months of the year are determined by the revolution of the moon around the earth. This is corroborated by Parise (215) who notes that time in China during the period of 1800 was usually determined by the number of accessions that the country had in terms of Emperors. Time was also determined by the number of cycles which were usually sixty years each and the cycle in which Lee was born was 1861 during the reign of Emperor Tung-che. Parise (215) also highlights the difference that exists between a Chinese calendar and English calendar where the months are referred as Regular Moon, Second Moon, Third Moon, Fourth Moon and so on instead of January, February, March and April. Every third year was termed as a leap year and it had an extra month so that it could make the lunar year to be equal to a solar year. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Chinese culture places a lot of importance on the birth of male children as demonstrated by how the various members of Lee’s family celebrated when he was born. He alludes to the fact that the Chinese culture views men to be more important than women because Chinese men are more desirable since they are able to maintain the family’s honor once they decide to get married. This is not possible for a girl as they lose the family’s honor when they are married off to another family. Male children according to Lee were therefore seen to be more important especially amongst the elderly relatives of the family. When it came to the naming of children, parents picked names from the Chinese dictionary which encompassed the meaning of luck or fortune. Choosing names was an important activity for many Chinese parents as they believed that names had the power of warding off evil spirits (Lee 8). Fortune tellers were usually called upon by the parents of the child to predict their future as soon as they were born. Rich parents who had male newborns invested large sums of money to consult deities who had the power to ward off any malignant influences from the child’s future. The money was mostly used to buy gifts for the God of Longevity in return for the child’s protection and also provide guidance in periods or situations of difficulty or chaos. The rich parents also consulted blind fortune tellers who were paid to intercede for the child with a particular Chinese god or idol. Because of the large amounts of money rich parents were willing to spend for the future of their children, fortune-tellers, astrologers, priests and the lessees of temples made a lot of money when they participated in these mysterious activities. Poor families were also not left behind as parents from poor backgrounds sacrificed their wealth so that the male child could have a positive future (Lee 10). Lee (10) described his day of christening to also be a day of celebration as many relatives and friends attended the ceremony with gifts and valuable trinkets that would be useful in his future life. This was a different case for the girls as their day of christening was usually marked by fewer gifts and less excitement than is usually exhibited in the case of boys. The presence of roast pig which is the national festive dish in China indicated that male children were more valued than the female children. According to Lee (11) no occasion was complete without the presence of roast pig which meant that all weddings, religious festivals, birthdays and ancestral celebrations incorporated roast pigs in the menu. After infancy, the male children were groomed to be obedient followers of their parents, grandparents and ancestors as it was required by Chinese culture. Children were not supposed to talk back to their parents even when defending themselves from being wrongfully accused. They were required to take the punishment without any objection as a sign of respect and compliance to Chinese cultures. We will write a custom Term Paper on Growing up in China Historical Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Lee (17) everyone in China is subject to somebody else which means that all children were subject to their parents and their parents were in turn subject to their own grandparents which demonstrated that subjectivity in Chinese culture was a continuous cycle. The magistrate during that time was seen to be the father of everyone he ruled over while the Emperor was subject to his citizens who in return had to show their subjectivity to their Emperor (Lee 18). Young Chinese boys usually engaged in various games and past times such as kite-flying where they designed kites that were six to seven feet long from wing to wing. The kites were of various colors and designs and the children flew them so as to catch and retain the wind. There was even a date set aside for kite flying which was the ninth day of the ninth month which usually fell in October according to the Chinese calendar. This day referred to as Kite Day saw the male children going up the hills in China to have a communion with the heavenly zephyrs after which they get to fly their kites made of rice-paper. The fun part during the whole event was when the male children made the kites fight in the sky which resulted in the display of dragon designed kites of different colors engaging in combat (Lee 38). Apart from kite flying, other past time games that the children engaged in included kicking the shuttlecock which was a favorite past time game for many teenage boys and gentlemen. The shuttlecock was made up of a bunch of feathers stuck together by small round pieces of leather and then tied together with a piece of string. Players would serve the shuttlecock to each other while at the same time making sure not to drop it hence the name kicking the shuttlecock. Other games and past times Chinese boys engaged in included penny-tossing and cricket fighting which were mostly done by the older boys and men (Lee 38). Once the male child reached a school going age, they were either taken to schools that were run by private gentlemen since the government of China provided education to advanced students only. But because the qualification for gaining office employment was education, the government encouraged many parents to take their children to school. This ordinance saw many schools being established in various corners of China where classes were held in people’s private homes or in the halls of Chinese temples. These temples were usually chosen because of the tablets that were used for deceased ancestors which could serve the purpose of writing desks and tables. Only boys attended these schools because the girls went to schools that were operated by their families. But the type of education was similar for both girls and boys except that girls were usually schooled until they were twelve years old while the boys went to school until they were sixteen or seventeen years old. After this age they viewed by their parents, grandparents and village elders to be ready for marriage (Lee 55). Not sure if you can write a paper on Growing up in China Historical Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When it came to marriage, the male children on acquiring a wife were meant to continue living with their parents. This was not so for the girls as societal cultures and beliefs expected them to live with their husband’s parents. Such an arrangement however usually had its downside because most of the domestic squabbles and infidelity that occurred within the home were usually caused by this. This custom is however still being practiced as every generation is educated by their ancestors on the domestic arrangements for the male children once they get married. The success of such arrangements has all been placed on the son and husband of the family where they are required to be strict disciplinarians when it comes to managing the affairs of the home. Chinese culture also depended on the male figure during such arrangements as men were able to prevent domestic brawls which commonly occurred between the mother-in-law and the new bride (Lee 32). The predominant religion in China is different from the rest of the world which can mostly be attributed to their different calendar. The Chinese calendar is not divided into weeks or months but it is divided into moons which as mentioned earlier are calculated according to cycles. The Chinese do not believe in Christianity and they therefore do not celebrate Christian holidays such as Easter or Christmas. Their religion was divided into three systems the first of Confucianism which was the religion taught by the great philosopher Confucius. This religion prescribed to the notion that mankind had to perform certain duties such as being obedient to parents, honoring and serving members of the society and living harmoniously with one’s relatives or spouse. Confucianism never taught its subjects about the existence of God because Confucius himself did not believe in the existence of a higher authority. He instead taught his followers to pursue goodness and everything that was good in the world by viewing. The gods worshipped under Confucianism included the five great mountains, heaven and earth and the spirits that existed in the wind (Lee 64). The second religious system in China was referred to as Taoism which focused on philosophical teachings and Buddhist doctrines. This religion however degenerated into a sect where the sect leaders prayed on people’s superstitious fears so that they could earn some money. Taoist priests who were the leaders of Taoism were usually called upon by families to intercede for individuals that were possessed by an evil spirit. The role of the Taoist priest in such a situation was to offer up vows to the gods so that the person could be able to recover. Because of the poor religious standing, Taoist followers worshipped everything imaginable because they believed that every object or living organism had a spiritual counterpart in the next world. The gods that were worshipped under the Taoist religion included gods of war, literature, medicine and worldly possessions (Lee 66). Buddhism, which is currently the most predominant religion in China, came about during the time of Christ when an embassy sent by the Emperor of the Han dynasty to investigate Jesus’ teachings came across Buddha in India while they were on their way to India. The ambassadors assumed that he was the great sage they were looking for and decided to stay on so that they could listen to his teachings. Once the great Buddha died, they decided to return to China with his books which contained all the religious teachings of the religion. Buddhism began to pick up as a religion in China where Buddhist priests and nuns lived separate from the rest of the society in monasteries and convents. On joining the monastery, the Buddhist priests were required to shave their heads completely and don a costume that would allow them to be easily identifiable (Ling and Liu 1). Under the Buddhist religion, Chinese people believed that wealth and happiness were easily acquired from the priests so they offered them money which would be used to buy oil and incense for Buddha. The god in return would meet the wishes and desires of the people who prescribed to the religion. These three religious systems formed the background of religion in the country where the Chinese society was willing to worship everything and anything rather than nothing. Apart from these religious systems, the Chinese society worshipped gods and goddesses where each idol had a special holiday in the Chinese calendar. For example the Goddess of Mercy had a dozen days in the Chinese calendar that were dedicated to her where the sacred days would see followers converging to celebrate her (Ling and Liu 1). The religious systems of Taoism and Buddhism were however despised by the educated classes of Chinese society but they always consulted the Taoist and Buddhist priests in cases of sickness or death. This demonstrated that the religious instinct of most Chinese people was strong where they could worship anything in the event they were in need of a higher intervention. The presence of temples instead of churches in most Chinese neighborhoods signified the embodiment of the highest level of architectural skill in the country. The idols who resided in these temples represented the superiority of idolatry in the country when compared to idol worshipping in India and Egypt. These three systems of religion in China however failed when it came to the religious training of young children. Religious knowledge was usually passed on to young girls and boys through their parents where they were told to worship particular idols with objection or questioning (Lee 71). Works Cited Lee, Yan Phou. When I was a boy in China. Boston: Lothrop Publishing Company, 2007 Ling, H., and Liu, J. Buddhism in China. China: China Intercontinental Press, 2005. Parise, Frank. The book of calendars. New York: Gorgias Press, 2002
A 3000-Year-Old Artifact Discovered Report
Since the major catastrophe of 2009, little has been known of previous civilizations, and archeologists have been lost in guesses at what the previous civilizations could have looked like. However, last Friday the veil was lifted by a group of children who discovered a completely intact lodgment that once obviously belonged to the pre-2009 population. Now we have finally obtained at least some clues to what life used to be like before. To start with, it appears that people used to live separately, in small detached abodes divided into even smaller fragments that performed certain functions. One of the cells contains a horizontal piece of furniture that could have been used for sleeping. Since it is covered with a down-filled piece of cloth, the guess that it used to be a bedroom seems to be right. The special intimacy of the room is emphasized by several half-burnt candles in shape of heart around the sleeping place. Even then, people would have barely used those for making light since they already had electrical lights all over their place. Another specialized cell contains a set of three ceramic tanks, all of different shapes. Their construction suggests that they could have been used for water treatment; this assumption is bolstered by a number of bottles that contain washing agents. Yet another cell, all filled with containers and cutting devices of all kinds, was obviously utilized for food processing: remnants of food-like substances have been discovered in the multiple drawers and cabinets. Finally, the purpose of the biggest cell was the hardest to define, since it contains too many variegated objects: a big screen in the wall, a device for sitting, an abstract image in oil on canvas, an upright cupboard with white and black keys and two pedals — this list gives something to think about. There have been suggestions that the latter device could have been used as an ancient computer, but no evidence of its connection to the big screen has been discovered yet. As for the inhabitants of the lodgment, there appear to be at least two of them: a male and a female. This conclusion was possible on the basis of the cloth items found inside the big storage in the sleeping area. The shape of the clothing reminds of male and female anatomy, and the amount of clothing for both sexes suggests that females were the dominant sex, since female clothes are countless. One of the most revealing clues as to the ancient civilization was a collection of printed images that probably represent the inhabitants of the lodgment. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same male and female appear in almost every image, which suggests they formed a stable couple. They were still young, and obviously fertile, as the female kept a pack of contraception pills in the sleeping area. The fact that the couple had a common dwelling evidences that neither of them was each other’s slave; perhaps, slavery did not exist in that society at all, since there are no images of slaves anywhere on the printed images. The same images suggest that the couple had a diversified social life, since the locations depicted vary from dark crowded caves enlightened by occasional colored flashes to natural landscapes including plentiful water and sand. The couple in the images are accompanied either by creatures of their age or older, which leaves unsolved the issue of whether they had younger generations at all. Further investigation is carried on by the archeologists who still have more questions than answers about the remote civilizations. A huge amount of strange devices that were obviously used by the people of the past are a mystery for the modern generations. In addition, nothing of the past religious practices can be concluded yet, since the ancient books are written in unknown language. The results of in-depth research shall be reported in the coming issues.
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